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Psychology 2 Chapter 5

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​While changing her tire, Marguerite bumped the hubcap and all of the lug nuts fell into a storm sewer. After fretting for several minutes, she suddenly realized she could remove one lug nut from each of the other three tires to temporarily mount the spare until she could get to a service station. This is an example of
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insight learning
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​Graduate student Charisse Goldberg conducted operant conditioning trials with a laboratory rat. Goldberg trained the animal to press a lever to earn a food pellet. The rat successfully learned to press the lever. In the language of operant conditioning, what is the animal’s learned response called?
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an operant response
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The systematic application of learning principles to help people overcome phobias is called ______ therapy
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behavior
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​____ is to the law of effect as ____ is to operant conditioning.
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Thorndike; Skinner
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Presentation of a rewarding stimulus serves as ______, while removal of an aversive stimulus serves as ______.
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​positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
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​Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?
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​John Watson
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Based on a patient’s prior experience with medicine, which mode of learning is likely responsible for the efficacy of the placebo effect?
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classical conditioning
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​Modern psychologists refer to the first part of the Law of Effect as _____ and the second part as _____.
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​reinforcement; punishment
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​Following _____, a conditioned response may reappear. This process is known as ______.
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extinction; spontaneous recovery
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As a gate creaks open, Oscar the puppy notices a cat heading into his yard. The cat hisses and scratches Oscar on the nose, causing Oscar to yelp in pain. Which outcome to this scenario portrays stimulus discrimination?
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​Now when Oscar sees the cat who scratched his nose he runs away, but he feels comfortable with the cat with whom he shares a home.
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​In Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus was one that caused
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​an unlearned response or reflex.
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​Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in _______ learning that is _______ to extinguish.
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​slower; harder
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Cassandra, who has been clean and sober for many years after struggling with alcoholism, no longer has a physical addiction to alcohol. However, whenever she sees her old “drinking buddies,” she begins to have cravings for alcohol. Cassandra’s experience is an example of
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classical conditioning
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Billy’s mom tells him that she will pay him to pull weeds from her flower garden. Because she is busy, she sometimes gives Billy a dime when he pulls five weeds, sometimes when he pulls ten weeds, and other times when he pulls twenty or more weeds. What reinforcement schedule is Billy’s mom using?
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variable-ratio
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Most psychologists define learning as
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a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
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​Greg, who mainly smoked cigarettes when out with friends, recently quit smoking. However, each time he visits a bar or restaurant with his friends, he has the strong urge to light up a cigarette. This is an example of ____.
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spontaneous recovery.
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​Alejandra, a resident of lower Manhattan, suffers from PTSD after witnessing the attack on the twin towers of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. A certain acrid burning smell can trigger intense feelings of jitteriness and distress for her. This is an example of ____.
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classical conditioning
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​Karl wishes to reinforce positive behavior in his fourth-grade students. After identifying the desired behaviors, what would be Karl’s next step?
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Select reinforcers
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​Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamsters. Alyce is demonstrating
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stimulus generalization.
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​Of the following parents giving praise to their child, which is using the most effective strategy?
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Barney tells his son, “I’m so proud of how well you prepared for your biology test.”
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A pigeon pecks on a sign and is given food. The food is a ____.
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primary reinforcer
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The tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to an original conditioned stimulus is called ____.
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​generalization
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​In Garcia’s research on taste aversions, what was the neutral stimulus?
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taste of the water.
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​Compared to ratio schedules, interval schedules
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​result in slower response rates.
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A response to an unconditioned stimulus requiring no previous experience is referred to as a(n) ____.
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unconditioned response