Persons differ from one another and each personality is alone. Be it physically. emotionally. intellectually or psychologically. each individual portrays distinguishable features that are sole. Many psychodynamic theoreticians have theorized the beginnings and parts that cultivate personality. Highlights of this paper will include contents of Freuds psychoanalytic theory to include the Idaho. self-importance. superego. child experience. and the childish phase. and Sullivans interpersonal theory to include the importance of interpersonal relationships defined early in age through demands and anxiousness that contribute to the person and interpersonal relationships.
PSYCHODYNAMICS AND INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY
Psychodynamic theories. harmonizing to psychodynamic theory ( 2005 ) . travel a long manner back throughout history. Psychodynamic theories of personality represent behaviour and personality development. Dr. Sigmund Freud. recognized as propagating psychodynamic theories through his theory of depth psychology. depicts how the combination of the presence of unconscious and witting head. Idaho. self-importance. ace self-importance. and childhood experience create single personality ( _Psychodynamic Theory_ . 2005 ) .
Freud describes that the unconscious head is divided. These divisions include the Idaho. which represents the amoral unconscious demand to carry through pleasance through any agencies ( good or evil ) ; the self-importance. which recognizes world and delivers demands of the Idaho based on societal norms ; and the superego. which recognizes morality ( good and evil ) and delivers emotion such as guilt ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . Cardinal factors that control the Idaho. self-importance. and superego are childhood experiences with thrusts of sex and aggression.
Oftentimes anxiousness arises because sexual and aggressive Acts of the Apostless are punished during childhood. The ego keeps emotions of anxiousness repressed in the Idaho. which contributes to single behaviour. emotions. and attitudes throughout a life-time ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . The Idaho. self-importance. and superego drama important functions in Freuds phases of development that all contribute to single personality.
Sripakdeevong ( 2008 ) states that Freud’s psychosexual development during an individual’s childhood would find personality as he grows up. This development begins during babyhood ; known as the Infantile period. The Childish period includes the unwritten. anal. phallic stages. The unwritten stage is characterized by the Idaho. in which the Idaho aims to fulfill enjoyable demands. It includes the sexual impulses of sucking because suction is an infant’s first experience with pleasance. During the unwritten phase an baby does non mind considerations and effects of any demand as in the anal phase ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) .
Second is the anal stage in which the self-importance is present on the person. World of milieus. congratulations. and effects are considered. Freud explains that one of a child’s first experiences with penalty and wages begins during lavatory preparation ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Freud lavatory preparation ignites a child’s experience with aggression and the reaction of the parents influence personality and behaviour. Freud determined when a kid within this stage presents the gift of his fecal matters to his parents and is praised he will expose features of generousness. If the gift is rejected a kid will keep back the gift ; act uponing features of methodicalness and obstinacy ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) .
Last. the phallic phase introduces the superego and the declaration of designation derived from Oedipus Complex. During the phallic phase kids discover pleasance among their genitalias and onanism becomes a suppressed emotion because of penalty. During this phase an individual’s personality is affected. He is able to acknowledge if a behaviour is right or incorrect ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) .
The Oedipus Complex appears during the phallic phase. which relates to a child’s privation and compulsion for the opposite sexed parent and the demand for riddance of the same sexed parent. The Oedipus Complex besides highlights the concern of the phallus. A male child develops an anxiousness of fright of emasculation when the absence of the phallus on misss is identified. The female experiences enviousness of desiring to turn a phallus with the realisation of the male’s organ. By the terminal of the phallic phase the superego begins to develop and the Oedipus Complex subsides. From this. personality would get down to emulsify into an person that fits the norms and criterions of the society.
PSYCHODYNAMICS AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Whereas Freud focused on interior personal properties such as the Idaho. self-importance. superego. and childhood experience to back up the beginning of single personality. theoretician Harry Sullivan believed the development of personality exceeds the interior ego. Harmonizing to Feist & A ; Feist ( 2009 ) Sullivan proclaimed “A personality can ne’er be isolated from the composite of interpersonal dealingss in which the individual lives and has his being” ( p. 213 ) . Sullivan recognized the significance that set uping familiarity with other people has on healthy human development ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . Like Freud. Sullivan besides explains personality development in phases and emphasizes anxiousness and demands. The following examines how anxiousness and demands are prevailing in Sullivan’s interpersonal theory.
Tension is a signifier of energy that can advance the possibility of actions or are actions themselves ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . Tension is transferred to fulfill a demand or stamp down anxiousness. Feist & A ; Feist ( 2009 ) describe demands as “a biological instability between a individual and the physiochemical environment” ( p. 217 ) . Sullivan speaks of tenderness as the most basic interpersonal demand. The demand for tenderness generates in babyhood and the response to the demand by the primary health professional contributes to the personality development of the baby ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . The illustration of the demand for tenderness described by Sullivan clearly demonstrates the demand of interpersonal relationships and how reactions to the demands from the environment create personality.
Anxiety is the other type of tenseness described by Sullivan. Sullivan deems empathy to be the bearer of anxiousness from female parent to infant ( Feist & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . Because health professionals can non observe an infant’s anxiousness they themselves become dying when seeking to find the babes need. Sullivan believed that the more dying a female parent is. the more dying the infant becomes. Anxiety to Sullivan is responsible for barricading the development of interpersonal relationships because he believed anxiousness contributes to detain acquisition. impairs memory. and narrows perceptual experience ( Feist. & A ; Feist. 2009 ) . Feist & A ; Feist ( 2009 ) depict how Sullivan besides believed anxiousness “prevents people from larning from their errors. supports people prosecuting a infantile want for security. and by and large guarantee that people will non larn from their experiences” ( p. 218 ) . This psychodynamic theory emphasizes the importance that the two drive forces of tension-needs and anxiety-has on the ability of a individual to develop and keep healthy interpersonal relationships. Other theoreticians besides coincide with the influence of interpersonal relationships.
Harmonizing to Domebeck and Moran ( 2006 ) . a psychodynamic theory known as the object dealingss theory. depict how an single represents his present and past relationships to other people. In this theory when a individual has had a bad relationship in the yesteryear. there is a inclination that it would re-occur. However. if an person had a healthy old relationship. there is a greater inclination that he would hold another healthy relationship in the hereafter. The fulfilment of demands in babyhood and the degree of anxiousness presented and infant have an influence on the ability to obtain healthy swearing relationships in the hereafter.
Sigmund Freud holds a superior place in the psychodynamic theories of personality. Freuds psychoanalytic theory explains how the unconscious head. Idaho. self-importance. superego. and childhood experience develop personality in the early phases of life. Equally early as babyhood Freud believed sexual impulses and the demand to carry through pleasance motivate behaviour. Sexual impulses and the demand to carry through pleasance reside within the Idaho. Because the Idaho does non acknowledge world the self-importance is responsible for control the behaviours sent to recover pleasance make fulling demands. The self-importance develops personality because it recognizes societal norms and controls behavior to them. The superego realizes morality and delivers emotions such as guilt if necessary. Whereas Freud relates personality to the interior ego Sullivan believed the interpersonal relationships developed throughout a child’s life and throughout a life-time constitutes personality. Sullivan believes personality would be nonexistent if were non for interpersonal relationships. Sullivan does non disregard the thoughts of Freud but believed elements outside of the ego besides contribute to personality. Could personality exist without the outer ego universe and interpersonal relationships?
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