PSYCH381 chapter 14 Essay

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_____ provide reinforcements for individuals to curtail their use of substances, for example, employment, housing, or vouchers for purchases at local stores.
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contingency management proograms
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The disease model of alcoholism predicts that because of biological, psychological, and spiritual deficits,:
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some people will lose all control over their drinking once they have one drink.
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Which of the following substances has relatively low risk for tolerance?
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cannabis
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_____ may occur during inhalant use due to acute irregularities in heartbeat or loss of oxygen.
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sudden sniffeling death
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The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is also known as:
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ecstasy/MDMA
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Why do date-rape victims fail to recognize that they have been drugged with rohypnol?
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it is odorless, colorless, and tasteless
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Which of the following is one of the four categories of harmful consequences that suggest substance abuse?
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The individual fails to fulfill important obligations at work, home, or school as a result of substance use.
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Psychologist Alan Marlatt and colleagues have argued that a more credible approach to college drinking than abstinence programs is to recognize drinking as normative behavior and focus education on the immediate risks of drinking to excess and the payoffs of moderation. This is an example of a:
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harm reduction model
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Drugs such as disulfiram that make the ingestion of alcohol unpleasant or toxic are given to people who are alcohol dependent. This is an example of:
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aversive classical conditioning
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Abuse of and dependence on alcohol:
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declines with age
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The diagnosis of _____ is given in the DSM-5 when a person’s recurrent use of a substance results in significant harmful consequences.
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substance abuse
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Some drugs, like cocaine and amphetamines produce a strong sense of reward or a “high” by increasing the availability of the neurotransmitter _____.
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gamma-aminobutyric acid
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Binge drinking is defined as consuming:
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5+ drinking within a couple hours
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Deaths related to alcohol are as much as five times more common among _____ than in the general U.S. population.
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native americans
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Which of the following is a central nervous system depressant approved for the treatment of the sleep disorder narcolepsy?
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GHB
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Which of the following has proven useful in treating alcohol dependents and abusers, possibly because it blocks the effects of endorphins during drinking?
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Naltrexone
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Which of the following is the initial symptom of opioid intoxication?
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Euphoria
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The third stage of alcohol withdrawal is characterized by:
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1)weakness, sweating, may start to vomit 2) convulsive seizures, 3) delirium tremens
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Interventions based on the _____ of alcohol abuse and dependency help clients identify situations in which they are most likely to drink and lose control over their drinking, as well as their expectations that alcohol will help them cope in those situations
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cognitive model
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All of the following are withdrawal symptoms associated with opioids, EXCEPT:
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DT
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Which of the following observations is true?
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Correct Societal acceptance of heavy drinking by women has increased in recent generations, as has the rate of alcohol use among young women.
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Which of the following primarily contributes to the fact that the relapse rate for people undergoing any kind of treatment for alcohol abuse and dependency is high?
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abstinence violation effect
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Which of the following characterizes the first stage of alcohol withdrawal?
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Tremulousness, weakness, and profuse perspiration
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Identify the physiological effect of nicotine.
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fight or flight type response
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Which of the following is a conclusion of alcohol abuse offered by social learning theories?
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Correct Maladaptive patterns of alcohol use may be passed down through a family through modeling.

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