psych therapy chapter

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All of the following are goals of the major therapies EXCEPT
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Effecting a lasting cure
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Which type of mental health professional completes graduate training in psychological research and assessment?
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Clinical psychologist
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All of the following are techniques of psychoanalysis EXCEPT
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Systematic desensitization
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The emotional reaction of the patient toward a psychoanalyst is called
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Transference
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All of the following are behavior therapies EXCEPT
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Dream analysis
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In social-learning therapy Bandura proposed _________ as a treatment.
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Participant modeling
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A major focus of cognitive therapies is to
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Change false beliefs
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Carl Rogers was part of the human potential movement. His brand of therapy was known as ________ therapy.
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Client centered
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The charismatic founder of Gestalt therapy was
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Fritz Perls
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All of the following are biomedical therapies EXCEPT
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Hypnosis
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All of the following are drug therapies for mental illness EXCEPT
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Antihistamines
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When we measure the effectiveness of therapy compared to a baseline we examine the
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Spontaneous-remission effect
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Clifford Beers founded the
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Mental hygiene movement
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The unwillingness to discuss certain ideas or desires in psychoanalytic therapy is known as
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Resistance
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Melanie Klein parted from Freud’s belief in the importance of the
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Oedipal complex
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Object relations theory began as a behavioral treatment.
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FALSE
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In counterconditioning a new response is conditioned to replace a maladaptive response.
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TRUE
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Joseph Wolpe introduced the technique known as systematic desensitization.
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TRUE
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Contingency management uses counterconditioning to pair events with strong noxious stimuli.
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FALSE
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Modeling is a technique in social-learning therapy.
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TRUE
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“In psychoanalysis, therapy focuses on behavior, observable feelings and actions.”
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FALSE
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One of the best-known cognitive therapists for the treatment of depression is Carl Rogers.
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FALSE
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“The “”empty chair technique”” is one of the features of client-centered therapy.”
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FALSE
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pastoral counselor
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“A member of a religious order who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders, often combining spirituality with practical problem solving “
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client
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The term used by clinicians who think of psychological disorders as problems in living and not as mental illnesses to describe those being treated
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psychotherapy
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“Any of a group of therapies used to treat psychological disorders, that focus on changing faulty behaviors, thoughts, perceptions, and emotions that may be associated with specific disorders “
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counseling psychologist
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“Psychologist who specializes in providing guidance in areas such as vocational selection, school problems, drug abuse, and marital conflict “
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patient
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The term used by those who take a biomedical approach to the treatment of psychological problems to describe the person being treated
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biomedical therapies
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“Treatments for psychological disorders that alter brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions such as drug therapy, surgery, or electroconvulsive therapy “
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clinical social worker
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A mental health professional whose specialized training prepares him or her to consider the social context of people’s problems
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psychoanalyst
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An individual who has earned either a Ph.D. or an M.D. degree and has completed postgraduate training in the Freudian approach to understanding and treating mental disorders
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psychiatrist
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An individual who has obtained an M.D. degree and also has completed postdoctoral specialty training in mental and emotional disorders; a psychiatrist may prescribe medications for the treatment of psychological disorders
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clinical psychologist
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An individual who has earned a doctorate in psychology and whose training is in the assessment and treatment of psychological problems
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free association
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“The therapeutic method in which a patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations, and mental images as they occur “
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object relations theory
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Psychoanalytic theory that originated with Melanie Klein’s view that the building blocks of how people experience the world emerge from their relations to loved and hated objects (significant people in their lives)
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psychoanalysis
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“The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Freud; an intensive and prolonged technique for exploring unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety-ridden individuals “
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transference
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The process by which a person in psychoanalysis attaches to a therapist feelings formerly held toward some significant person who figured in a past emotional conflict
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catharsis
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The process of expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotions
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dream analysis
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The psychoanalytic interpretation of dreams used to gain insight into a person’s unconscious motives or conflicts
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countertransference
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Circumstances in which a psychoanalyst develops personal feelings about a client because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist’s life
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resistance
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“The inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences”
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insight therapy
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A technique by which the therapist guides a patient toward discovering insights between present symptoms and past origins
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Which of the following is NOT one of the primary tasks or goals of the therapeutic process?
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“cost-effectiveness. There are four goals of therapy, which first includes making a diagnosis about what is wrong. Second, one must identify the probable cause of the disorder and the functions being served by the symptoms, that is, the etiology of the problem. Third, one must make a prognosis of the course the problem will take with and without any treatment. Finally, one must administer the treatment.”
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Which of the following therapists is legally allowed to prescribe medication for the treatment of mental illness?
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psychiatrist. A psychiatrist must have completed medical school training for an M.D. degree and have also undergone some postdoctoral specialty training in mental and emotional disorders. Psychiatrists focus more on the biomedical aspects of mental health treatment
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Patient is to client as
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“biomedical approach is to psychological approach. The term patient is used by professionals who take a biomedical approach to the treatment of psychological problems, while the term client is used by professionals who think of psychological disorders as problems in living and not as mental illness.”
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Traditional psychoanalysis is an attempt to reconstruct long-standing _____ and then work through painful feelings to an effective resolution.
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“repressed memories. In an attempt to uncover these repressed memories, psychoanalysts may spend many years, with several sessions occurring each week. Additionally, it also requires introspective patients who are verbally fluent, highly motivated to remain in therapy, and willing and able to undergo considerable expense.”
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“If a patient develops a strong bound to the therapist such that he or she begins to love or admire the therapists, then this is called”
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“positive transference. Often, the therapist is identified with a person who has been at the center of an emotional conflict in the past. This emotional reaction is called transference. Transference is called positive transference when the feelings attached to the therapist are those of love and admiration.”
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Behavior therapy is said to work best with _____ and the theories of conditioning and learning are grounded in a(n) _____ tradition.
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“specific problems; empirical. In general, behavior therapy works best with specific rather than general types of personal problems: it is better for phobia than for unfocused anxiety. The therapies that have emerged from the theories of conditioning and learning are grounded in a pragmatic, empirical research tradition.”
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“If one was extremely fearful of flying and went through a slow process of getting closer and closer to the desired goal of flying by undergoing relaxation techniques while watching planes take off, than walking through a plane, and finally actually flying in a plane, then this would be an example of”
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systematic desensitization. Psychologically confronting the feared stimulus while being relaxed and doing so in a gradual sequence is the defining feature to systematic desensitization.
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Rationale emotive therapists can be said to teach clients how to recognize
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“the should, oughts, and musts that are controlling their actions. Rationale emotive therapy is a comprehensive system of personality change based on the transformation of irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions, such as severe anxiety. Therapists attempt to break through a client1s closed-mindedness by showing that an emotional reaction that follows some event is really the effect of unrecognized beliefs about the even.”
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Carl Rogers would likely use which of the following traditions of psychotherapy?
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client-centered therapy. Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy and it has had a significant impact on the way many different kinds of therapists define their relationship to their clients. The primary goal of client-centered therapy is to promote the healthy psychological growth of the individual.
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What type of therapist would most likely use the empty-chair technique?
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“Gestalt therapist. In Gestalt therapy workshops, therapists encourage participants to regain contact with their ┬│authentic inner voices.┬▓ To carry out the empty chair technique, the therapist puts an empty chair near the client. The client is asked to imagine that a feeling, a person, an object or a situation is occupying the chair. The client than ┬│talks┬▓ to the chair┬╣s occupant.”
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Which of the following statements is true concerning the use of electroconvulsive therapy?
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“It is safe and extremely successful in alleviating serious depression. Electroconvulsive therapy is the use of electric shock applied to the brain to treat psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia, mania, and, most often, depression. Electroconvulsive therapy has proven extremely successful at alleviating the symptoms of serious depression.”
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What is thought to be the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs?
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“decreasing the amount of dopamine in the brain. Antipsychotic drugs alter the schizophrenic symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal, and occasional agitation. Antipsychotic drugs work by reducing the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain.”
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“If you were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, then which of the following would be the best drug to take?”
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“Xanax. Generalized anxiety disorders are best treated with a benzodiazepine, such as Xanax, which increases the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA. Lithium is used for the treatment of bipolar disorder, clozapine for schizophrenia, and elavil for depression.”
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“According to recent research, what has the best prognosis in the treatment of depression?”
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“psychotherapy and drug therapy. One study found that combination therapy was most successful in the treatment of depression. Of 519 participants who completed a course of treatment, 55% of the participants who received only drug therapy met the study’s criterion for symptom relief as did 52% of the participants who received psychotherapy only. However, for those participants who received both drug therapy and psychotherapy, 85% showed the same level of improvement. These studies on treatments for depression demonstrate that both biological and psychological treatments make important contributions to improved mental health.”
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What is the difference between primary prevention and secondary prevention?
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“Primary prevention seeks to prevent a condition before it begins, while secondary prevention attempts to limit the duration of the disorder once it begins. Primary prevention might focus on teaching someone better coping skills so the disease doesn┬╣t manifest itself, while secondary prevention might focuses on getting someone to an effective treatment shortly after symptoms appear. Tertiary prevention focuses on preventing relapse.”

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