Psych States of Consciousness – Flashcards

question
At its beginning, psychology focused on the study of:
answer
consciousness
question
As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following? sleep, hypnosis, focused attention, all of the above
answer
all of the above
question
Consciousness is defined in the text as:
answer
our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
question
Concluding his presentation on levels of information processing, Miguel states that:
answer
conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.
question
Which of the following is not an example of a biological rhythm?
answer
the five sleep stages
question
Circadian rhythms are the:
answer
regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule.
question
When our ________ is disrupted, we experience jet lag.
answer
circadian rhythm
question
The cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the:
answer
suprachiasmatic nucleus.
question
The sleep-waking cycles of young people who stay up too late typically are ________ hours in duration.
answer
25
question
A person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely:
answer
awake and relaxed.
question
Sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
answer
Stage 2
question
During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?
answer
REM sleep
question
Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?
answer
genital arousal
question
Although her eyes are closed, Adele's brain is generating bursts of electrical activity. It is likely that Adele is:
answer
in REM sleep.
question
REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because:
answer
the body's muscles remain relaxed while the brain and eyes are active.
question
A PET scan of a sleeping person's brain reveals increased activity in the visual and auditory areas. This most likely indicates that the sleeper:
answer
is in REM sleep.
question
The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes
answer
90
question
The effects of chronic sleep deprivation include: suppression of the immune system, altered metabolic and hormonal functioning, impaired creativity or all of the above?
answer
all of the above
question
Concluding her presentation on contemporary theories of why sleep is necessary, Marilynn makes all of the following points except: A)Sleep may have evolved because it kept our ancestors safe during potentially dangerous periods. B)Sleep gives the brain time to heal, as it restores and repairs damaged neurons. C)Sleep encourages growth through a hormone secreted during Stage 4. D)Slow-wave sleep provides a "psychic safety valve" for stressful waking experiences.
answer
D
question
One effect of sleeping pills is to:
answer
decrease REM sleep.
question
A person who falls asleep in the midst of a heated argument probably suffers from:
answer
narcolepsy.
question
According to Freud, dreams are:
answer
a symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes.
question
Jill dreams that she trips and falls as she walks up the steps to the stage to receive her college diploma. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear of moving on to the next stage of her life—a career. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ________ content of Jill's dream.
answer
latent
question
People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ________ theory of dreaming.
answer
information-processing
question
Which of the following is not a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?
answer
Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation.
question
According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming represents:
answer
the brain's efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity.
question
Barry has participated in a sleep study for the last four nights. He was awakened each time he entered REM sleep. Now that the experiment is over, which of the following can be expected to occur?
answer
There will be an increase in Barry's REM sleep.
question
Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true? Adults spend more time than infants in REM sleep, REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound, People deprived of REM sleep adapt easily, Sleeping medications tend to increase REM sleep.
answer
REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound.
question
The modern discovery of hypnosis is generally attributed to:
answer
Mesmer.
question
Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible? Bill, a reality-oriented stockbroker, Janice, an actress with a rich imagination, Megan, a sixth-grader who has trouble focusing her attention on a task, Darren, who has never been able to really "get involved" in movies or novels
answer
Janice
question
Hypnotic responsiveness is:
answer
greater when people are led to expect it.
question
An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?
answer
Most hypnotically retrieved memories are either false or contaminated.
question
Research studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis as a form of therapy have demonstrated that: for problems of self-control, such as smoking, hypnosis is equally effective with subjects who can be deeply hypnotized and those who cannot, posthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders, as a form of therapy, hypnosis is no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis, all of the above are true.
answer
all of the above
question
As a form of therapy for relieving problems such as warts, hypnosis is:
answer
no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis.
question
Those who consider hypnosis a social phenomenon contend that:
answer
hypnotized subjects become unresponsive when they are no longer motivated to act as instructed.
question
Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that "hypnotized" individuals are:
answer
merely acting out a role.
question
According to Hilgard, hypnosis is:
answer
a dissociation between different levels of consciousness.
question
Which of the following statements concerning hypnosis is true? People will do anything under hypnosis, Hypnosis is the same as sleeping, Hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior, Hypnosis improves memory recall.
answer
hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior
question
Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through:
answer
alteration of neural activity in the brain.
question
A person who requires increasing amounts of a drug in order to feel its effect is said to have developed:
answer
tolerance.
question
Dan has recently begun using an addictive, euphoria-producing drug. Which of the following will probably occur if he repeatedly uses this drug?As tolerance to the drug develops, Dan will experience increasingly pleasurable "highs.", The dosage needed to produce the desired effect will increase, After each use, he will become more and more elated, Dependence will become less of a problem.
answer
dosage will need to increase
question
All of the following are common misconceptions about addiction, except the statement that: to overcome an addiction a person almost always needs professional therapy, psychoactive and medicinal drugs very quickly lead to addiction, biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction, many other repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors fit the drug-addiction-as-disease-needing-treatment model.
answer
biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction
question
Which of the following is classified as a depressant? methamphetamine, LSD, marijuana, alcohol
answer
alcohol
question
Which of the following is not a stimulant? amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine, alcohol
answer
alcohol
question
Roberto is moderately intoxicated by alcohol. Which of the following changes in his behavior is likely to occur? If angered, he is more likely to become aggressive than when he is sober, He will be less self-conscious about his behavior, If sexually aroused, he will be less inhibited about engaging in sexual activity, All of the above are likely.
answer
all of the above are likely
question
Alcohol has the most profound effect on: the transfer of experiences to long-term memory, immediate memory, previously established long-term memories, all of the above.
answer
transfer of experiences to to long-term memory
question
How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on: the dosage and form in which the drug is taken, the user's expectations and personality, the situation in which the drug is taken, all of the above.
answer
all of the above
question
Cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by:
answer
blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells.
question
I am a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy by triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin. What am I?
answer
MDMA
question
THC is the major active ingredient in:
answer
marijuana
question
Which of the following statements concerning marijuana is true? A)The by-products of marijuana are cleared from the body more slowly than are the by-products of alcohol., B)Regular users may need a higher dose of the drug to achieve a high than occasional users would need to get the same effect., C)Marijuana is not as addictive as nicotine or cocaine., D)Even small doses of marijuana hasten the loss of brain cells.
answer
A
question
Which of the following was not cited in the text as evidence that heredity influences alcohol use? Children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of time, Boys who are impulsive and fearless at age 6 are more likely to drink as teenagers, Laboratory mice have been selectively bred to prefer alcohol to water, Adopted children are more susceptible if one or both of their biological parents has a history of alcoholism.
answer
children with abuse issues have a lower tolerance
question
Which of the following statements concerning alcoholism is not true? Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if they had an adoptive parent with alcoholism, Having an identical twin with alcoholism puts a person at increased risk for alcohol problems, Geneticists have identified genes that are more common among people predisposed to alcoholism, Researchers have bred rats that prefer alcohol to water.
answer
adoptive individuals with adopted parents that drink
question
The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by: white males, white females, black males, Latinos?
answer
black males
question
Which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenagers begin using drugs? family strength, religiosity, school adjustment, peer influence
answer
peer influence
question
Which of the following statements concerning the roots of drug use is true? Heavy users of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine often are always on a high, If an adolescent's friends use drugs, odds are that he or she will, too, Teenagers who are academically average students seldom use drugs, It is nearly impossible to predict whether or not a particular adolescent will experiment with drugs.
answer
impossible to tell
question
Which of the following was not suggested by the text as an important aspect of drug prevention and treatment programs? education about the long-term costs of a drug's temporary pleasures, efforts to boost people's self-esteem and purpose in life, attempts to modify peer associations, "scare tactics" that frighten prepubescent children into avoiding drug experimentation
answer
scare tactics
question
Which of the following statements concerning near-death experiences is true? Fewer than 1 percent of patients who come close to dying report having them, They typically consist of fantastic, mystical imagery, They are more commonly experienced by females than by males, They are more commonly experienced by males than by females.
answer
typically consis of fantastic mystical imagery
question
Which theorists believe that the mind and the body are separate entities?
answer
the dualists
question
Levar believes that once the body has died, the mind also ceases to exist. Evidently, Levar is a(n):
answer
monist.
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question
At its beginning, psychology focused on the study of:
answer
consciousness
question
As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following? sleep, hypnosis, focused attention, all of the above
answer
all of the above
question
Consciousness is defined in the text as:
answer
our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
question
Concluding his presentation on levels of information processing, Miguel states that:
answer
conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.
question
Which of the following is not an example of a biological rhythm?
answer
the five sleep stages
question
Circadian rhythms are the:
answer
regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule.
question
When our ________ is disrupted, we experience jet lag.
answer
circadian rhythm
question
The cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the:
answer
suprachiasmatic nucleus.
question
The sleep-waking cycles of young people who stay up too late typically are ________ hours in duration.
answer
25
question
A person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely:
answer
awake and relaxed.
question
Sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
answer
Stage 2
question
During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?
answer
REM sleep
question
Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?
answer
genital arousal
question
Although her eyes are closed, Adele's brain is generating bursts of electrical activity. It is likely that Adele is:
answer
in REM sleep.
question
REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because:
answer
the body's muscles remain relaxed while the brain and eyes are active.
question
A PET scan of a sleeping person's brain reveals increased activity in the visual and auditory areas. This most likely indicates that the sleeper:
answer
is in REM sleep.
question
The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes
answer
90
question
The effects of chronic sleep deprivation include: suppression of the immune system, altered metabolic and hormonal functioning, impaired creativity or all of the above?
answer
all of the above
question
Concluding her presentation on contemporary theories of why sleep is necessary, Marilynn makes all of the following points except: A)Sleep may have evolved because it kept our ancestors safe during potentially dangerous periods. B)Sleep gives the brain time to heal, as it restores and repairs damaged neurons. C)Sleep encourages growth through a hormone secreted during Stage 4. D)Slow-wave sleep provides a "psychic safety valve" for stressful waking experiences.
answer
D
question
One effect of sleeping pills is to:
answer
decrease REM sleep.
question
A person who falls asleep in the midst of a heated argument probably suffers from:
answer
narcolepsy.
question
According to Freud, dreams are:
answer
a symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes.
question
Jill dreams that she trips and falls as she walks up the steps to the stage to receive her college diploma. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear of moving on to the next stage of her life—a career. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ________ content of Jill's dream.
answer
latent
question
People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ________ theory of dreaming.
answer
information-processing
question
Which of the following is not a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?
answer
Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation.
question
According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming represents:
answer
the brain's efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity.
question
Barry has participated in a sleep study for the last four nights. He was awakened each time he entered REM sleep. Now that the experiment is over, which of the following can be expected to occur?
answer
There will be an increase in Barry's REM sleep.
question
Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true? Adults spend more time than infants in REM sleep, REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound, People deprived of REM sleep adapt easily, Sleeping medications tend to increase REM sleep.
answer
REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound.
question
The modern discovery of hypnosis is generally attributed to:
answer
Mesmer.
question
Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible? Bill, a reality-oriented stockbroker, Janice, an actress with a rich imagination, Megan, a sixth-grader who has trouble focusing her attention on a task, Darren, who has never been able to really "get involved" in movies or novels
answer
Janice
question
Hypnotic responsiveness is:
answer
greater when people are led to expect it.
question
An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?
answer
Most hypnotically retrieved memories are either false or contaminated.
question
Research studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis as a form of therapy have demonstrated that: for problems of self-control, such as smoking, hypnosis is equally effective with subjects who can be deeply hypnotized and those who cannot, posthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders, as a form of therapy, hypnosis is no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis, all of the above are true.
answer
all of the above
question
As a form of therapy for relieving problems such as warts, hypnosis is:
answer
no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis.
question
Those who consider hypnosis a social phenomenon contend that:
answer
hypnotized subjects become unresponsive when they are no longer motivated to act as instructed.
question
Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that "hypnotized" individuals are:
answer
merely acting out a role.
question
According to Hilgard, hypnosis is:
answer
a dissociation between different levels of consciousness.
question
Which of the following statements concerning hypnosis is true? People will do anything under hypnosis, Hypnosis is the same as sleeping, Hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior, Hypnosis improves memory recall.
answer
hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior
question
Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through:
answer
alteration of neural activity in the brain.
question
A person who requires increasing amounts of a drug in order to feel its effect is said to have developed:
answer
tolerance.
question
Dan has recently begun using an addictive, euphoria-producing drug. Which of the following will probably occur if he repeatedly uses this drug?As tolerance to the drug develops, Dan will experience increasingly pleasurable "highs.", The dosage needed to produce the desired effect will increase, After each use, he will become more and more elated, Dependence will become less of a problem.
answer
dosage will need to increase
question
All of the following are common misconceptions about addiction, except the statement that: to overcome an addiction a person almost always needs professional therapy, psychoactive and medicinal drugs very quickly lead to addiction, biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction, many other repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors fit the drug-addiction-as-disease-needing-treatment model.
answer
biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction
question
Which of the following is classified as a depressant? methamphetamine, LSD, marijuana, alcohol
answer
alcohol
question
Which of the following is not a stimulant? amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine, alcohol
answer
alcohol
question
Roberto is moderately intoxicated by alcohol. Which of the following changes in his behavior is likely to occur? If angered, he is more likely to become aggressive than when he is sober, He will be less self-conscious about his behavior, If sexually aroused, he will be less inhibited about engaging in sexual activity, All of the above are likely.
answer
all of the above are likely
question
Alcohol has the most profound effect on: the transfer of experiences to long-term memory, immediate memory, previously established long-term memories, all of the above.
answer
transfer of experiences to to long-term memory
question
How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on: the dosage and form in which the drug is taken, the user's expectations and personality, the situation in which the drug is taken, all of the above.
answer
all of the above
question
Cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by:
answer
blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells.
question
I am a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy by triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin. What am I?
answer
MDMA
question
THC is the major active ingredient in:
answer
marijuana
question
Which of the following statements concerning marijuana is true? A)The by-products of marijuana are cleared from the body more slowly than are the by-products of alcohol., B)Regular users may need a higher dose of the drug to achieve a high than occasional users would need to get the same effect., C)Marijuana is not as addictive as nicotine or cocaine., D)Even small doses of marijuana hasten the loss of brain cells.
answer
A
question
Which of the following was not cited in the text as evidence that heredity influences alcohol use? Children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of time, Boys who are impulsive and fearless at age 6 are more likely to drink as teenagers, Laboratory mice have been selectively bred to prefer alcohol to water, Adopted children are more susceptible if one or both of their biological parents has a history of alcoholism.
answer
children with abuse issues have a lower tolerance
question
Which of the following statements concerning alcoholism is not true? Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if they had an adoptive parent with alcoholism, Having an identical twin with alcoholism puts a person at increased risk for alcohol problems, Geneticists have identified genes that are more common among people predisposed to alcoholism, Researchers have bred rats that prefer alcohol to water.
answer
adoptive individuals with adopted parents that drink
question
The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by: white males, white females, black males, Latinos?
answer
black males
question
Which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenagers begin using drugs? family strength, religiosity, school adjustment, peer influence
answer
peer influence
question
Which of the following statements concerning the roots of drug use is true? Heavy users of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine often are always on a high, If an adolescent's friends use drugs, odds are that he or she will, too, Teenagers who are academically average students seldom use drugs, It is nearly impossible to predict whether or not a particular adolescent will experiment with drugs.
answer
impossible to tell
question
Which of the following was not suggested by the text as an important aspect of drug prevention and treatment programs? education about the long-term costs of a drug's temporary pleasures, efforts to boost people's self-esteem and purpose in life, attempts to modify peer associations, "scare tactics" that frighten prepubescent children into avoiding drug experimentation
answer
scare tactics
question
Which of the following statements concerning near-death experiences is true? Fewer than 1 percent of patients who come close to dying report having them, They typically consist of fantastic, mystical imagery, They are more commonly experienced by females than by males, They are more commonly experienced by males than by females.
answer
typically consis of fantastic mystical imagery
question
Which theorists believe that the mind and the body are separate entities?
answer
the dualists
question
Levar believes that once the body has died, the mind also ceases to exist. Evidently, Levar is a(n):
answer
monist.