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Psych Exam 3 Test Questions

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What percent of cigarette smokers began before 18?
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70%
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Describe “socially normative behavior” with respect to starting smoking
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An action that is perceived as normal makes the likelihood of starting the action higher
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Describe the effects of advertising on starting smoking
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Direct=Camel Joe cartoons, intentionally appealing to kids Indirect=placing logos on things that kids/adolescents enjoy like T-shirts, water bottles, and lighters
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Describe the effects of social role models and starting smoking
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Direct=seeing actors/actresses smoking influences adolescent viewers, especially young girls Indirect=if your peers smoke, you are more likely to start smoking
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Describe the effects of culture and gender on starting smoking
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People often smoke for the first time with close relative. Cultural norm to smoke? China yes=higher rates This idea reinforced by simultaneous declines in adult smokers and young smokers in U.S. Immigrants start to smoke if they perceive it as a social norm White adolescents smoke more than their black and hispanic counterparts
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Cognitive-affective theories of substance abuse
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Determined by 1. attitudes toward the behavior (TRA) 2. what others think of the behavior (TRA) 3. what are the consequences/benefits of the behavior (EVT)
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Social learning theories of substance abuse
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behavior learned from seeing similar use in family members, close friends, and role models -includes SCT
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Conventional commitment theories of substance abuse
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People who have weak bonds to social institutions like school, church, family sports… are more likely to use
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Personality trait theories of substance abuse
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People have characteristics that make them more likely to use, such as poor coping mechanism, low self-esteem…
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Integration theories of substance abuse
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The use of one substance leads to the use of a more dangerous/illicit substance, which leads to another and another…. -gateway theory
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Heavy drinking
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5 drinks/day
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Binge drinking
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5 drinks in 1hr
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Problems with drinking
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Cirrhosis, heart disease, stroke, cancer, GREATER RISK OF OTHER RISKY BEHAVIORS, ALSO A RISK TO OTHER PEOPLE
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Marijuana: effects and problems
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Effect: mimic dopamine Problems: short-term memory loss, weekend immune system, sexual dysfunction, cancer
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Cocaine/crack: effects and problems
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Effects: dopamine re-uptake inhibitor (stimulant) Problems: increased heart rate and BP, heart attack, seizures
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Heroin: effects and problems
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Effect: Opioid (initial euphoria and then “nodding”) Problems: veinous collapse, infections, liver disease
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Methamphetamine: effects and problems
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Effect: Release excessive amounts of dopamine Problems: hyperthermia, irritability, dehydration, convulsions, confusion, insomnia, CNS damage
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Ecstasy (MDMA): effects and problems
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Problems: hyperthermia, dehydration, liver, kidney, and heart damage
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Is there a link between substance use and risky sexual behavior?
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Yes, substance use decreases inhibitions and negotiation skills
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Why is DARE so readily adopted?
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DARE: 1. is very compatible with peoples views (compatible) 2. is able to be tried and then discontinued with little or no cost (trialability) 3. can be seen used by other schools before use (observability) 4. is extremely easy to use (complexity) 5. is better than doing nothing (relative advantage)
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What don’t evaluations of DARE focus on that they should?
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That even though it is ineffective in getting kids to stop using drugs, it helps them build a relationship with the police
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Definition of risky sexual behavior
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Any behavior that increases the risk of STIs or unwanted pregnancies
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Untreatable STIs
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The four H’s: 1. HIV 2. HPV 3. Hepatitis 4. Herpes
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Unprotected Sex
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Motivator for condom use is perception of peers using condoms
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Multiple Sex Partners
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Social norm impact if such behavior is a stigma or a not -is it shameful for the person in their society/culture to have multiple partners?
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Early Initiation
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Younger people having sex have less information about pregnancy, STIs, protection and where to get it
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Abstinence
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Only about 55 million
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What is a comprehensive sex ed program?
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Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP)
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Does PREP work?
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Comprehensive sex ed is proven to work overall when both abstinence and sex ed point of views are given. -increased negotiation skills and condom use
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What types of tumors are considered cancerous?
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ONLY MALIGNANT TUMORS
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Define Carcinomas
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Cancers derived from epithelial cells, such as basal cell carcinoma (skin cancer) and liver, bladder, prostate
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Define “S”arcomas
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Cancers derived from “S”oft tissue, such as muscle, fat, nerves and other supporting tissues
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Define Leukemia
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Cancer derived form blood producing tissues, such as bone marrow. Greatly affects the quantity and functioning of WBCs -Most common form of children’s cancer -Prone to infections
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Define Lymphoma
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Cancer derived from lymphatic tissue that greatly affects lymphocytes and thus adaptive (acquired) immune system -Prone to infections -Non-Hodgkin’s- real serious -Hodgkin’s- not so bad
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What are different in the rates of certain cancers in developed and developing countries?
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Developed countries have higher rates of cancer associated with lifestyle such as lung (smoking) and colorectal (diet and exercise)
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What are the cancer risks associated with gender?
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-Males have higher risk of cancer -Male top three cancers: lung, prostate, colorectal -Female top three cancers: lung, breast, colorectal
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What are genetic risks associated with cancer?
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-BRCA1/2 increased for breast and ovarian cancer -Lynch syndrome is an inherited disease associated with an 80% increased risk of colorectal cancer -Having a family member (1st, 2nd, or 3rd degree) increases risk of cancer
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What are the cancer risks associated with race?
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-Whites get more cancer, but black and Hispanic people die from it more (possibly due to SES? Access to care/screening/prevention?)
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What are environmental risks associated with cancer?
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-Carcinogens in the form of pollution, radiation, tobacco, alcohol, asbestos…
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What health behaviors are critical risk factors of cancer?
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-Diet and exercise (60-70% of all colorectal cancer attributed to diet and exercise) -Smoking (85-90% of lung cancer patients either smoke or used to smoke!!!) -Second-hand smoke
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What is Comorbid Depression and what is it associated with?
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Comorbid depression is depression that accompanies a disease or illness such as cancer (20-30% of the time). This can lead to greater pain, disability, and severity of disease and less likely to comply with treatment.
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Psychological cancer treatments: cognitive behavioral therapy
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Focused on educating people about stress management and coping -Increase problem focused coping=better outcomes
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Psychological cancer treatments: educational intervention
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1. educate people about cancer 2. educate people about coping
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Psychological cancer treatments: supportive expressive therapy (SET)
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Form support groups that focus on spirituality. -Emotional support
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Psychological cancer treatments: complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
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-Complimentary is used in addition to modern medical practices -Alternative is used in leu of modern medicine
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Types of cancer prevention
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Behavioral: screening and self-examination, and teaching kids to be active and eat healthy Vaccination: Gardisil for HPV
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How do people learn behavior according to Social Cognitive Theory
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1. Direct experience: by doing the action 2. Vicarious experience: by watching others do it and modeling 3. Persuasory learning: by listening to an authoritative figure about how to behave 4. Inferred knowledge: using logic to arrive at a conclusion on behavior -Self-efficacy: the belief in one’s ability to execute behaviors -Reciprocal determinism: cannot separate someone and their environment (cannot be proven)
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Does AIDS kill you?
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No, it is a distal cause of death. Common infections like pneumonia usually kill someone with AIDS because their immune system has been compromised
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How long can stage 1 of AIDS last?
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About 8-10 years or even more
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What is the difference between stage 2 and 3 of AIDS
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Stage 2: CD4+ < 500 cells/uL Stage 3: CD4+ < 200 cells/uL
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Is being a apart of a particular group, such as homosexual men or IVD users increase your risk of AIDS?
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No, the behaviors associated with those groups (anal sex and needle sharing) are what increase risk
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What, when, and who of GMHC Campaign
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-Gay Men’s Health Crisis Campaign -1980-1990s -Largely decreased incidence and mortality associated with AIDS in the gay male community through education and advocating for condom use
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What, when, and who of Ugandan HIV Prevention Program
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-Ugandan high risk 15-24 year olds -Used social marketing campaign advocating for condom use and education. -Halted spread of HIV in Uganda
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Where is the global epicenter of HIV?
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Southern Africa is the worlds epicenter with 70% of cases coming from Sub-Saharan Africa
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What is a dual infection?
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Two infections that increase the risk of one another. -HIV and malaria, however HIV is not carried by mosquitos
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What accounts for the majority of HIV spread in Eastern Europe and Asia?
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-Eastern Europe=IVDU -Asia=sex trade/tourism
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Types of HIV test
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-Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) -Rapid HIV test
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Why posttest counseling for negative results?
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Even though the person who gets a negative result for HIV they must have had a risky behavior that caused them to get the test
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What is HAART?
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This is an acronym for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
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How is mother-to-child transmission risk decreased?
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Administering nevirapine during labor or in the third trimester decreases risk of MTCT by 66%
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What is the best indicator for compliance with HAART?
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Strong social support system, which is a very important factor for coping with the disease and managing the complicated dosage schedule
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What is the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) based on?
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The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) -Behavior is determined by intention which is determine by 1. attitudes 2. subjective norms (what others close to you think)
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How does TPB explain behavior?
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1. Perceived behavioral control – the greater control one believes they have over a behavior the more likely they are to do it 2. Similarly, if someone believes they can accomplish a behavior they are more likely to do it (self-efficacy)
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What is the main critique of TPB and TRA?
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Does not address spontaneous, habitual, or unplanned behaviors because the two theories focus on the idea that one must think about what they intend to do, if they can do it, and if they have control over it.