Psych Chapter 14

question

medical model
answer

proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease, let to more humane treatment
question

what is abnormal behavior?
answer

deviant, maladaptive and personal distress
question

deviant
answer

the behavior deviates from what considers to be normal; may vary from culture to culture
question

maladaptive behavior
answer

impairments of everyday behavior, like using drugs, alcohol, cocaine, when it interferes with a person’s social or occupational functioning
question

personal distress
answer

subjective pain and suffering, depression or anxiety
question

epidemiology
answer

the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in population
question

prevalence
answer

the percentage of the population that exhibits a disorder during a specified period of time
question

lifetime prevalence
answer

the percent of people that will endura a specific disorder at any time during their lives
question

negative stereotypes
answer

1. psychological disorders are incurable 2. people with psychological disorders are dangerous 3. epopel with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways
question

Psychodiagnosis
answer

classification of disorders, American psychiatric association, 5 axis
question

anxiety disorders
answer

the class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
question

generalized anxiety disorder
answer

free-floating anxiety, not tied to a particular threat physical symptoms, more prevalent in women, onset 5%
question

phobic disorder
answer

marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger, affects daily behavior, only when serious matter usually mild, accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety, trembling or palpitations
question

panic disorder
answer

characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly, physical symptoms of anxiety
question

obsessive compulsive disorder
answer

marked by uncontrolled intrusion of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
question

agoraphobia
answer

fear of going out in public places
question

post traumatic stress disorder
answer

involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of major traumatic event, women experience more than men, nightmares, flashbacks, intensity of one’s reaction at the time of the traumatic event
question

concordance rate
answer

indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
question

biological factors of anxiety
answer

1) twin studies say there is a moderate genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders, inherited differences in temperament make people more vulnerable than others to anxiety disorders, inhibited temperament characterized by shyness, timidity, wariness, strong genetic basis 2) anxiety sensitivity may make people more vulnerable to anxiety disorders, highly sensitive, overreact with fear, neurotransmitters , therapeutic drugs appear to alter activity at GABA synapses , abnormalities in neural circuits using serotonin implicated in PTSD and panic and OCD
question

Mowrer
answer

anxiety responses can be acquired though classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning, originally neutral stimulus, paired with a frightening event, becomes conditioned stimulus eliciting anxiety. once fear is acquired though classical conditioning, person may start avoiding anxiety-producing stimulus, avoidance response is negatively reinforced because it is followed by a reduction in anxiety, process involves operant conditioning
question

Martin Selgiman
answer

preparedness, people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire some fears easier than others, explains why people develop phobias of ancient sources of threat like snakes and spiders, much more readily than modern sources of threat like hot irons or electrical outlets
question

evolved module for fear learning
answer

automatically activated by stimuli related to past survival threats in evolutionary history and is relatively resistant to intentional efforts to suppress resulting fears
question

phobic stimulus problems
answer

people with phobias cant recall or traumatic conditioning experience that led to their phobia, trying to find larger role for cognitive factors
question

cognitive factors
answer

people more likely to suffer with anxiety 1) tend to misinterpret harmless situations as threatening 2) focus excessive attention on perceived threats 3) selectively recall information that seems threatening. when subjects were asked to interpret a statement, anxious people interpreted it as threatening and nonanxious subjects interpreted in less threatening way
question

stress
answer

people with panic disorders had experienced a dramatic increase in stress in a month prior to disorder, stress and anxiety disorders are positively associated
question

somatoform disorders
answer

are physical ailments that cannot me fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors
question

somatization disorder
answer

marked by history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin, mostly in women and coexists with depression and anxiety, have long and complicated history of medical treatment, distinguishing feature, diversity of victims’ physical complaints, the patients are very resistant to suggestion that their symptoms are result of physchological distress
question

conversion disorder
answer

characterized by a significant loss of physical function usually in a single organ system, symptoms include partial or complete loss of vision, hearing, paralysis, troubled by more severe ailments than people with somatization disorder, acute onset triggered by stress
question

hypochondriasis
answer

characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness, dont have real illness, skeptical and disbelieving, overinterpret every sign of illness, happens with anxiety disorders and depression
question

Etiology of somatofrom disorder
answer

function of personality and learning
question

personality factors
answer

people with histrionic personality characteristic, self-centered, suggestible, excitable, highly emotional, overly dramatic, trait of neuroticism seems to elevate individuals susceptibility to somatoform disorders, pathological care-seeking behavior see in these disorders, caused by insecure attachment styles
question

cognitive factors
answer

people focus excessive attention on internal physiological processes and amplify normal bodily sensations into symptom of distress, lead them to pursue unnecessary medical treatment, faulty standard of good health
question

sick role factors
answer

physical symptoms reinforced by indirect beliefs derived from their illness, avoid life problems, provide an convenient excuse when people fail, attention from others
question

dissociative identity disorder
answer

involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually different personalities, multiple personality disorder, have more than one identity, unaware of each other, people usually have a history
question

dissociative disorders
answer

class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
question

dissociative amnesia
answer

sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting, after people have experienced disasters, accidents, stress, abuse
question

dissociative fugue
answer

people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity, forget name, address but remember how to drive and do math
question

etiology of dissociative disorders
answer

psychogenic amnesia and fugue attributed to excessive stress, certain personality trains, fantasy, intensely absorbed in personal experiences, more susceptible to dissociative disorders, believe people with multiple personalities are engaging in intentional role playing to use mental illness-face saving excuse for personal feelings
question

mood disorders
answer

class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social and thought processes, episodic
question

unipolar disorder
answer

experience emotional extremes at just one end of the mood continuum, troubled only by depression
question

bipolar disorder
answer

vulnerable to emotional extremes at both ends of the mood continuum, periods of depression and mania (excitement and elation)
question

major depressive disorder
answer

people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure, negative emotions form the heart of the depressive syndrome
question

dysthymic disorder
answer

consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify diagnosis of a major depressive episode
question

bipolar disorder
answer

characterized by the experience of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression, manic periods, self esteem goes way up, hyperactive
question

cyclothymic disorder
answer

exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance
question

etiology of mood disorders
answer

psychological and biological factors
question

genetic vulnerability
answer

twin studies show that genetic factors are involved in mood disorders, hereditary can create a predisposition to mood disorders, environmental factors determine whether this predisposition is converted into an actual disorder, influence of genetic factors appears to be stronger for bipolar disorders than for unipolar disorders
question

neurochemical and neuroanatomical factors
answer

heredity may influence susceptibility to mood disorders by creating a predisposition toward types of neurochemical abnormalities in brain, correlation between mood disorders and abnormal levels of 2 neurotransmitters in brain, norepinephrine and serotonin, low levels of serotonin underlying depression, correlation between depression and reduced hippocampal volume, depression occurs when major life stress causes neurochemical reactions that suppress neurogenesis, reduced hippocampal volume
question

cognitive factors
answer

Martin Seligman-depression is caused by learned helplesness, giving up behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events, originally considered learned helplessness to be a product of conditioning but revised it with cognitive, pessimistics explanatory style are vulnerable to depression, people who ruminate depression remain depressed longer, NEGATIVE THINKING , negative thinking and depression are linked could be caused by neurochemical changes in brain
question

interpersonal roots
answer

depression-prone people lack social skills, lead to negative emotions and depression, lack of social support, depressed people are depressing
question

precipitating stress
answer

stress creates mood disorders, stress affects how people with mood disorders respond to treatment and whether they relapse or not, people vary in vulnerability to mood disorders
question

schizophrenic disorders
answer

are a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
question

symptoms of schizophrenia
answer

hears voices, argumentative, aggressive, emotionally volatile, personal hygiene deteriorates,
question

symptoms-delusions
answer

false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality, person’s train of thought deteriorates, noticeable deterioration in the quality of a person’s routine functioning
question

symptoms-hallucinations
answer

are sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input, hear voices, some victims show little emotional responsiveness, a symptom referred to as flat affect, show inappropriate emotional responses that don’t go with the situation
question

four types of of schizophrenic disorders
answer

paranoid type, catatonic type, disorganized type, undifferentiated type
question

paranoid type
answer

dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur, many enemies, feel like they are being watched and manipulated, believe that must be enormously important people, seeing themselves as great inventors
question

catatonic type
answer

is marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity, remain virtually motionless and oblivious to the environment, others catatonic excitement, hyperactive, not common
question

disorganized type
answer

a particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen, emotional indifference, frequent incoherence, complete social withdrawal, delusions center on bodily functions
question

undifferentiated type
answer

which is marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
question

negative symptoms
answer

involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech
question

positive symptoms
answer

involve the behavioral excesses of peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas
question

etiology of schizophrenia
answer

genetic vulnerability, neurochemical factors, structural abnormalities, neurodevelopmental hypothesis, expressed emotions, precipitating stress
question

genetic vulnerability
answer

twins concordance rates higher for identical twins, child born to 2 parents more likely, inherit a polygenically transmitted vulnerability to schizophrenia
question

neurochemical factors
answer

changes in activity of one or more neurotransmitters in the brain, dopamine hypothesis asserts that excess dopamine activity is the neurochemical basis for schizophrenia, weed used in teens, leads to schizophrenia, amplify neurotransmitter activity in dopamine circuits
question

structural abnormalities in brain
answer

deficits in attention, perception and information processing, impairments in short-term memory are prominent, association between enlarged brain ventricles, reflect degeneration of nearby brain tissue, could be consequence of schizophrenia or cause of the illness
question

neurodevelopmental hypothesis
answer

is caused in part by various disruptions in various normal maturational processes of the brain before or at birth, caused by viral infections or malnutrition, minor physical anomalies, would be consistent with prenatal neurological damage
question

expressed emotion
answer

is the degree to which a relative of a patient displays high critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward patient,high levels of emotion foster high relapse rates for patients suffering mood and anxiety disorders
question

precipitating stress
answer

biological and psychological factors influence individuals’ vulnerability, high stress lead to schizophrenic
question

personality disorder
answer

class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
question

diagnostic problems
answer

categorical approach- describe personality disorders which assumes people can reliably be placed in discontinuous diagnostic categories, dimensional approach, describe personality disorders in terms of how people score on a limited number of continuous personality dimensions
question

antisocial personality disorder
answer

marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms, more common in males, lead to crimes, maybe high status people, rarely experience affection ,promiscuous, irresponsible
question

etiology of antisocial personality disorder
answer

biological factors, genetic predisposition, over arousal promotes antisocial disorder, house is erratic, ineffective
question

insanity
answer

legal status that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness, M’nagthen rule-insanity exists when a mental disorder makes a person unable to distinguish right from wrong, criminal proceedings
question

involuntary commitment
answer

people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will, civil proceedings, mental health professionals 1)dangerous to themselves 2)dangerous to others 3)in need of treatment, can authorize temporary commitment
question

diagnosis
answer

involves distinguishing one illness from another
question

etiology
answer

refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
question

prognosis
answer

a forecast about the probable course of illness
question

psychosomatic disease
answer

genuine physical ailments caused by psychological factors

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member