Psych Chapter 1& 2

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psychology
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the scientific study of thought and behavior
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psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
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human thought and behavior
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as a field, psychology is
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a social science, the practice of diagnosing and treating mental illness, and a biological science
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how does psychology differ from the related field of sociology
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psychology studies individuals; sociology studies groups
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cognitive psychology
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the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems
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developmental psychology
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the study of how thought and behavior change and remain stable across the life span
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behavioral neuroscience
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the study of the links among brain, mind, and behavior
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biological psychology
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the study of the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and how they influence behavior and thought
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personality psychology
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the study of what makes people unique and the consistencies in peoples behavior across time and situations
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social psychology
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the study of how living among others influences thought, feeling, and behavior
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clinical psychology
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the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and the promotion of psychological health
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health psychology
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the study of the role psychological factors play in regard to health and illness
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industrial/organizational (i/o) psychology
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application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings
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forensic psychology
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field that blends psychology, law, and criminal justice
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educational psychology
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the study of how students learn, the effectiveness of particular teaching techniques, the social psychology of schools, and the psychology of teaching
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sports psychology
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the study of psychological factors in sports and exercise
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what sub disciplines of psychology examines how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors change over the life span?
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developmental psychology
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A psychologist has conducted a series of studies on what part of the brain is most active during a memory task. She is probably
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a behavioral neuroscientist
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the main difference between a clinical and counseling psychologist is that counseling psychologists treat
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people with less severe psychological disorders
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shamans
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medicine men or women who treat people with mental problems by driving out their demons with elaborate rituals such a exorcism, incantations, and prayers
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asylums
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facilities treating the mentally ill in Europe during the Middle Ages and into the 19th century
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moral treatment
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19th century approach to treating the mentally ill with dignity in a caring environment
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psychoanalysis
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a clinically based approach to understanding and treating psychological disorders; assumes that the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior
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empiricism
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the view that all knowledge and thoughts come from experience
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psychophysics
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the study of how people psychologically perceive physical stimuli such as light, sound waves, and touch
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structuralism
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19th century school of psychology that argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior
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functionalism
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19th century school of psychology that argued it was better to look at why the mind works the way it does than to describe its parts
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introspection
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careful, systematic observations of ones own consciousness
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behaviorism
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a school of psychology which proposed that psychology can be a true science only if it examines obeservable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives
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humanistic psychology
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a theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of teachings ones highest potential
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positive psychology
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scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning
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gestalt psychology
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a theory of psychology that maintains that we perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts
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what perspective in psychology assumes the unconscious is the most powerful force behind most behavior
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psychoanalysis
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____ argued that thought, feelings, and motives are unimportant in understanding human behavior
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behaviorists
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positive psychology is a modern form of which school of thought
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humanism
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softwiring
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in contrast to handwriting, means that biological systems- genes, brain structures, brain cells, are inherited but open to modification from the environment
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nurture through nature
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the position that the environment constantly interacts with biology to shape who we are and what we do
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natural selection
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a feedback process whereby nature factors one design over another because it has an impact of reproduction
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evolution
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the change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur within a breeding species
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adaptations
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inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been selected for because they contribute in some way to reproductive success
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evolutionary psychology
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the branch of psychology that studies human behavior by asking what adaptive problems it may have solved for our early ancestors
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Which phrase most accurately reflects a modern perspective in psychology?
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nature through nurture
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charles darwins great contribution was the theory of
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how evolution works (natural selection)
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mind-body dualism proposes that
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the mind influences the body and the body influences the mind
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which of the following is a technique we argue for integrating the many perspectives in psychology
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using not believing everything you think, using the scientific method, making connections within and between chapters
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what area of psychology has reported findings that driving while using a hands free cell phone is much like driving while being drunk?
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cognitive psychology
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Dr. Porsche is a psychologist who conducts research on whether hands-free phone use distracts drivers and leads to more accidents. Dr. Porsche is probably what kind of a psychology?
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cognitive
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What does science entail?
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collecting observations/data
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3 distinct kinds of science
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physical, biological, and social
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what kind of science is psychology
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a social science
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scientific thinking
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process using the cognitive skills required to generate, test, and revise theories
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theory
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a set of related assumptions from which scientists can make testable predictions
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hypothesis
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a specific, informed, and testable prediction of the outcome of particular set of conditions in a research design
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scientific method
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OPTIC observation, prediction, test, interpret, communicate
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replication
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the repetition of a study to confirm the results; essential to the scientific process
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pseudoscience
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claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained with the scientific method
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the scientific method consists of
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observing, predicting, testing, interpreting, communicating
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which of the following is not a characteristic of science?
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it is an attitude
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scientific theories are
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a set of related assumptions that guide and explain observations and allow testable predictions to be made
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what distinguishes science from pseudoscience?
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the search for truth
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research designs
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plan of action for how to conduct a scientific study
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variable
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a characteristic that changes or varies such as age, gender, weight, intelligence, anxiety, and extraversion
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population
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the entire group a researcher is interested in
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samples
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subsets of the population studied in a research project
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descriptive designs
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study designs in which the researcher defines a problem and a variable of interest but makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate anything
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case study
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a study design in which a psychologist, observes one person over a long period of time
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naturalistic observation
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a study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world
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representative sample
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a research sample that accurately reflects the population of people one is studying
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correlational designs
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studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another; not designed to show causation
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correlation coefficients
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a statistic that ranges from -1.0 and +1.0 and assesses the strength and direction of association between two variables
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experiment
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a research design that includes independent and dependent variables and random assignment of participants to control and experimental groups
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independent variable
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one being manipulated
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dependent variable
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the outcome/response to the experimental manipulation
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random assignment
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he method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group
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experimental group
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a group consisting of those participants who will receive the treatment or whatever is predicted to change behavior
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control group
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group of research participants who are treated in exactly the same manner as the experimental group, except that they do not receive independent variable, or treatment
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confounding variable
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variable whose influence on the dependent variable cannot be separated from the independent variable being examined
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single blind studies
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studies in which participants do not know the experimental condition to which they have been assigned
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double blind studies
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studies in which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group
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effect size
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the measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect
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measures
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the tools and techniques used to access thought or behavior
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behavioral measures
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measures based on systematic observations of peoples actions either in their normal environment or in a lab setting
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social desirability bias
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the tendency toward favorable self-presentation that could lead to inaccurate self reports
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physiological measures
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measures of bodily responses, such as blood pressure, or heart rate, used to determine changes in psychological state
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statistics
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collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data
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descriptive statistics
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measures used to describe and summarize research
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median
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score that separates the lower half of scores from the upper half
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standard deviation
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a statistical measure of how much scores in a sample vary around the mean
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normal distribution
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bell curve, a plot of how frequent data are that is perfectly symmetrical, with most scores clustering in the middle and only a few scores at the extreme
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mean
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the average of a series of numbers
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mode
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the most commonly occurring score or value
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frequency
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the number of times a particular score occurs in a set of data
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inferential statistics
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analyses of data that allow us to test hypotheses and make an influence as to how likely a sample score is to occur in a population
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t-test
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statistic that compares two means to see whether they could come from the same population
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ethics
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the rules governing the conduct of a person or group in general or in a specific situation or more simply, standards of right and wrong
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debriefing
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the explanation of the purposes of a study following data collection
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quasi-experimental design
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research method similar to an experimental design except that it makes use of naturally occurring groups rather than randomly assigning subjects to groups
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Dr. Lovejoy wanted to do research on real world conditions that lead to aggression in a 10-year old children. She defined aggression as intent to harm another person and went to a local elementary school and videotaped a 10-minute recess period. She and her trained coders then coded the behavior of every child and counted the number of times each child acted aggressively. This is an example of what kind of research design?
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descriptive
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if Dr. Lovejoy wanted to examine whether certain personality traits make aggression more likely, she would most likely use what kind of research design?
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correlational
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researchers have consistently found that married men live longer than single men. from this finding, we can conclude that
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marriage correlates with a longer life
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in contrast to other kinds of research designs, a true experimental design must have 2 things:
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random assignment go participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable
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An advantage of self-reports questionnaires is that they are easy to administer to large numbers of participants. A disadvantage of questionnaires is that
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people do not always accurately report their true thoughts or feelings
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one advantage of behavioral measures compared to self-reported measures is that they
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are less prone to social desirability bias
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a psychologist who is interest in how brain activity relates to behavior will most likely use which kind of measure?
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physiological
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if two sets of scores have the same mean, then
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their variabilities could be the same or they could be different
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why is GPA a good example of the statistic mean?
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because it is calculated by adding scores and dividing by the number of scores
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scores that are widely spread apart have a
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high standard deviation
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when conducting research with humans, researchers
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always must obtain informed consent
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current guidelines on research ethics state that when studying humans, deception
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must be avoided whenever possible, can be used only if its of the research design, must be followed by debriefing, and must be fully justified
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ethical guidelines for research with nonhuman animals state that
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ethical and humane conditions must exist throughout the entire research process
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what is an enriched environment?
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a living situation that provides ample opportunity for play and activity
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what is the most rigorous study design that cab be used to study the effects of enrichment on brain development in humans?
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quasi-experimental design
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psyche
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soul/mind
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logos
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study of
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physiology + philosophy =
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psychology
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wilhelm wundt
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established first psychology laboratory, psychology was born
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who led the functionalism movement
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James
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who led the structuralism movement
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Titchener
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structuralists thoughts
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focused on analyzing consciousness into basic elements
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functionalists thoughts
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focused on investigating the function or purpose of consciousness
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John B. Watson
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founder of behaviorism
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B.F. Skinner
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environmental factors determine behavior
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Sigmund Freud
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founder of psychoanalytic school of thought
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who led humanism?
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Maslow and Rogers
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correlation
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numerical index of degree of relationships
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positive correlation
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variables increase or decrease together
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negative correlation
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one variable increases and the other variable decreases

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