Psych Ch14

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The correct order for the three stages of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome is
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alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
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In a stress reaction, the pituitary gland releases the hormone ACTH, which stimulates
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the adrenal cortex.
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The idea that emotional tension can be released through behavior and that this response may be adaptive is known as
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catharsis.
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Dr. Gouin believes that getting a promotion at work or getting married is just as stressful as losing a job or getting a divorce. Dr. Gouin’s beliefs are MOST like those of
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Holmes and Rahe.
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Studies of the immune system in animals have found that stressors such as crowding
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can reduce various aspects of immune system activity.
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The hypothalamus communicates with the endocrine system by way of the
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pituitary gland.
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As a task becomes more complex, the optimal level of arousal to perform the task best
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decreases.
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There is one week left in the semester, and Andre has put off working on his five term papers until the very last minute. Although it has always taken him three to four days to write a single term paper, Andre is convinced that he can write all five papers in the week that remains. In this instance, Andre may be dealing with stress-induced anxiety using
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denial of reality.
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While Barb frequently talks to others about her emotions when in a stressful situation, her husband Mike actively tries to suppress his emotions and does not like to discuss the stress in his life. Compared to Barb, Mike MOST likely exhibits
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elevated blood pressure and increased autonomic arousal.
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Luigi knows that the surgeon general has determined that smoking increases the risk of various types of cancers, but he is sure that he won’t develop cancer. Luigi’s pattern of behavior illustrates the idea that
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people often underestimate the risks associated with their own health-impairing behaviors.
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Thelma goes to a nightclub and flirts with dozens of men whenever she feels neglected and ignored by her husband. In this example, Freud would suggest that Thelma is dealing with the stress generated by her feelings of neglect through
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overcompensation
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The physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for action was first identified by
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Walter Cannon.
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Studies have shown that if people can give up smoking,
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their overall health risks decline reasonably quickly.
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The unifying theme in psychology, our experience of the world is highly subjective, is BEST illustrated by the part of the definition of stress that states
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circumstances that are perceived as threatening are stressful.
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Geena has made it to the final round in a game show. She must now choose between accepting the cash that she has earned to date and risking the cash on the chance to win a new car. As Geena tries to decide between the two available alternatives, she is facing
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an approach-approach conflict.
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Which of the following is NOT offered by psychologists as an explanation for why people delay seeking needed medical treatment?
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Fear of possible medical treatments
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According to Lazarus and Folkman, we evaluate our coping resources during
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secondary appraisal.
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A person who is hard-driving, ambitious, competitive, and at risk for having a heart attack is said to have
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a Type A personality.
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The general adaptation syndrome shows that the body
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may gradually weaken and die from continued stress.
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Scott is taking a course in American history, and his professor has given all the students in the class a choice between completing an in-class final exam that will count for 60% of their final grade or writing a 25-page term paper that will count for 60% of their final grade. As Scott considers which of these two options he will choose, he is facing
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an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
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The term \”psychosomatic disease\” is used to refer to
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genuine physical illness caused at least partly by psychological factors.
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If you cannot decide whether to submit to back surgery, which you dread, to alleviate your back pain or to continue to live with the pain, which you sometimes find unbearable, you are caught in
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an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
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Lazarus and Folkman distinguished between _________ appraisal (where you determine whether an event is stressful) and _________ apprasial (where you evaluate your coping resources).
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primary, secondary
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According to Freud, when an individual copes with stressful situations by trying to atone for unacceptable desires or behaviors, that individual is using the defense mechanisms of
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undoing.
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Anthony just received a pop quiz from his instructor, but he decides that he doesn’t care how he performs on the quiz because his score is irrelevant to his grade. This evaluation is part of Anthony’s _________ appraisal of the situation.
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primary
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Health-impairing lifestyles appear to develop
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slowly
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Francis finished writing her economics final and was convinced that she had failed the exam and would have to repeat the course. She was so stressed out by the thought of taking the course a second time that she drank eight glasses of wine when she got home. Based on this information, it appears that one method that Francis uses to cope with stress is
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self-indulgence.
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According to Hans Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, the stage in which the body appears to be functioning efficiently, although in actuality arousal may continue to be higher than normal, is called
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resistance
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Recent research suggests that ____ emotions experienced while under stress appear to play a key role in helping people bounce back from the difficulties associated with stress.
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positive
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Stress effects appear to be moderated by the
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hypothalamus activating the sympathetic nervous system.
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In the Featured Study investigating the link between depression and heart disease, the results suggest that
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the emotional dysfunction of depression may cause heart disease.
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The person who is MOST likely to experience frustration is one who
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is a perfectionist.
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The week of final exams subjects MOST students to what kind of stress?
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Pressure
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The principle cause of coronary heart disease is
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atherosclerosis
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Virginia has wanted to be a physician for as long as she can remember, but she has been unable to gain entry to medical school. Virginia is probably experiencing
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frustration.
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Pete is the lead prosecution attorney in a murder case. So far, the case has not been going well for him, and the defense attorneys have presented effective rebuttals for most of the points he has raised. The judge adjourned the case for the weekend, and Pete will have to present his closing arguments first thing Monday morning. While he is trying to write his closing statement, he daydreams about a surprise eyewitness to the crime suddenly stepping forward and clinching the case for him. In this example, Pete is MOST likely
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experiencing frustration, and he is using fantasy to deal with the anxiety the frustration has generated.
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Stress often contributes to the onset of full-fledged psychological disorders. Which of the following disorders has NOT been linked to stress?
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Antisocial personality disorder
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Laboratory experiments with cardiology patients have shown that brief periods of mental stress
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can trigger acute symptoms of heart disease.
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James Pennebaker and his colleagues have shown that
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talking or writing about traumatic events can have beneficial effects.
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Minor stresses may be more strongly related to mental health than major stressful events, largely because
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of the cumulative nature of stress.
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A police officer gives you a speeding ticket, and you take out your frustration and anger on your roommate. This diversion of anger to a substitute target is known as
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displacement.
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Constructive coping includes all of the following EXCEPT
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reliance on the use of defense mechanisms.
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Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate?
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Optimism is associated with self-sufficiency and an unwillingness to seek social support
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Which of the following statements concerning burnout is FALSE?
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Burnout only occurs in individuals who have high-status occupations
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The Social Readjustment Rating Scale was designed specifically to measure
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change.
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One of the largest problems associated with illness confronted by the medical profession is
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the delay in receiving treatment by people who need it.
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Prior to 1996-97, the average length of survival for people after the onset of AIDS was
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18 to 24 months.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the primary reasons people procrastinate seeking medical attention when faced with a medical emergency such as a heart attack?
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People enjoy visiting their physicians
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Emily is an excellent student. She puts in long hours on her schoolwork and often gets the top mark in the class. However, she is always relaxed and seems fairly easygoing. She does her schoolwork as it is assigned and doesn’t put herself under pressure by leaving things to the last minute. She is also always willing to take the time to patiently explain difficult material to other students in her classes. Emily would MOST likely be described as having
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a Type B personality.
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Leigh works as a tax accountant and has to complete complex worksheets for each of her clients. Adriana works in a factory where she performs a fairly simple visual inspection of the finished product. Assuming both Leigh and Adriana experienced a high level of arousal after hearing some distressing news, you should expect that
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Leigh’s performance will be impaired more than Adriana’s performance.
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Efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress refers to
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coping.
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Researchers have uncovered strong links between cognitive reactions or ________ and specific emotions.
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the appraisal of the event
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The gender gap in stress reactivity is thought to be due in part to the effects of
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estrogen.
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The finding that neurogenisis can be caused by exercise is important because neurogenisis appears to enhance
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learning and memory.
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The general adaptation syndrome describes one’s
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physiological responses to stress.
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Which type of conflict tends to be MOST unpleasant and highly stressful?
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Avoidance-avoidance
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When the adrenal medulla is stimulated,
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large amounts of catecholamines are released into the bloodstream.
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When a choice must be made between two unattractive goals, we are said to be experiencing
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an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
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Neurogenesis
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can be hindered by stress.
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One personality characteristic correlated with good physical health is
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conscientiousness
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Americans tend to prefer _________ social support, while Asians tend to prefer ________ social support.
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implicit; explicit
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Analyzing the possible gains and losses before undertaking a health-treatment program is an example of
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making a risk-benefit analysis.
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Physiological responses to stress occur via two major pathways through which the ____ conveys signals to the ____.
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hypothalamus; endocrine system
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Smoking is to lung cancer as Type A behavior is to
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coronary disease.
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A person’s chance of developing heart disease is roughly doubled if the person has
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depression.
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Your text outlines a number of ways in which people can think more systematically about health decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of the suggestions outlined in your text?
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Delay making a final decision until you have the opportunity to consult with professionals in the field
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Mary and John are teaming up to make an important sales presentation to 15 executives from a Fortune 500 company. Mary finds the challenge exhilarating, but John is a nervous wreck over the presentation. Their differing reactions illustrate which of your text’s unifying themes?
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Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
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Which of these characteristics has NOT been linked to optimism?
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Higher levels of conscientiousness
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The relationship between level of arousal and performance is described by the
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inverted-U hypothesis.
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According to Albert Ellis, the key to making realistic appraisals of stress is to
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dispute irrational assumptions.
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The physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for action is called
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the fight-or-flight response.
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The component of Type A personality associated with coronary heart disease appears to be
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hostility.
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What area of psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness?
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Health psychology
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When final exam time rolls around, Murray finds himself eating all the time. This reaction to stress can be referred to as
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self-indulgence.
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Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
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One should seek to avoid all stress
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Megan is looking at the ballot form for a citywide referendum and trying to decide whether or not to support the proposed change. If the referendum passes, there will be better services available for all city residents, but it will also mean that residents pay more property taxes. As Megan tries to decide whether to support the proposed referendum, she is facing
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an approach-avoidance conflict.
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Bertram was on death row awaiting execution. He refused to allow any appeals on his behalf and insisted that the law be followed exactly. In this example, Freud would suggest that Bertram is dealing with the stress generated by his situation through
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intellectualization.
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How do defense mechanisms accomplish their goal of diminishing stress?
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Through self-deception
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Persistent exposure to long-term stress can foster overproduction of cytokines, resulting in
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chronic inflammation.
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The stress that a person actually experiences in different situations is critically influenced by the
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appraisals that the person makes.
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People with higher scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale have been found to
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be more vulnerable to physical illness and psychological problems.
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You have just come face to face with a bear on your walk through the woods. Your body automatically mobilizes itself for action in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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alarm
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In times of stress, stimulation of the pituitary gland results in the adrenal gland secreting hormones that tend to
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increase energy and inhibit tissue inflammation.
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Which one of the Big Five personality traits has been associated with greater longevity?
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Conscientiousness
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Harry is an excellent basketball player who seldom misses a shot during practice. After yesterday’s practice, Harry’s coach told him that some scouts from a big college would be at today’s practice. Based on the research by Baumeister, it is likely that this increase in pressure will make Harry
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more self-conscious and will interfere with his performance.
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Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
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Many sexually active heterosexuals underestimate their risk for HIV infection.
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As an individual experiences prolonged stress and begins to use coping efforts, physiological arousal stabilizes at a level higher than normal. This occurs during the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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resistance
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The two major pathways via which the brain may signal the endocrine system are through
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the pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system.
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Which of the following is NOT a component of the broaden and build theory of positive emotions? Positive emotions
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enhance the effectiveness of defense mechanisms.
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Which of the following statements concerning positive emotions and stress is the LEAST accurate?
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Experiencing positive emotions while under stress is rare, and it is associated with denial in most individuals.
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A change in your marital status, a job change, moving, having a baby, and getting promoted are all examples of
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life changes.
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Imagine you studied for this psychology exam with two of your classmates. If one classmate, Becky, was very nervous and \”stressed out\” about the exam, and the other classmate, Craig, thought the exam \”wasn’t a big deal,\” their differing attitudes are MOST consistent with the finding that
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people’s appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective.
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Exposure to second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke has NOT been linked to an increased risk for
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depression.
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Rick imagines he is secretly admired by women who all wish he would seduce them. Rick, who is socially inept, is using the defense mechanism of
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fantasy.
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The formation of new neurons is known as
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neurogenesis.
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A recent study using photos of professional baseball players appeared to indicate that people who experience positive emotions _____________ than those who experience fewer positive emotions.
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live longer
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When experiencing a stressful situation, expressing your emotions in writing or talking to others about your difficulties
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may have beneficial effects.
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The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) is BEST described as including
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positive and negative and large and small events.
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Research suggests that efforts to actively suppress emotions result in
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increased autonomic arousal and decreased stress.
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Martin knows that excessive exposure to the sun can increase a person’s risk of skin cancer and cataracts. However, he can’t resist getting out and enjoying a sunny day, and putting on sun block seems to him to be a major inconvenience. Martin’s current pattern of behavior illustrates the idea that
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the risks associated with health-impairing habits tend to lie in the distant future.
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The serious consequences of ____ are BEST described as resulting from the illness’s negative effect on the body’s immune system.
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AIDS
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Jim always comes to the office early, argues his position aggressively during meetings, and frequently feels frustrated when things don’t go his way. Jim’s behavior is typical of a person with a
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Type A personality.
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Brooke had been battling the rising floodwaters around her home for more than 72 hours. It seemed that no matter how many sandbags she stacked, it wasn’t enough. At this point, she just feels that there is nothing else that she can do. Her overall energy reserves are totally depleted, and her body just wants to give up. According to Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, Brooke is probably experiencing
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physiological exhaustion.
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Herbert Benson has demonstrated that if you settle yourself comfortably in a distraction-free environment, focus your attention on a constant stimulus, and adopt a passive attitude, you may well experience what he called
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the relaxation response.
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The Featured Study by Pennix and colleagues showed that depression tripled the subjects’ risk for cardiac death. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are
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positively correlated.
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__________ refers to successful adaptation to significant stress and trauma and a lack of serious negative outcomes.
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Resilience
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Which of the following statements concerning the effects of stress is MOST accurate?
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Stress can promote personal growth and self-improvement.
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Studies of the immune system in humans have found that stress
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can lead to decreased levels of immune activity.
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The name Hans Selye gave to the body’s response to stress is
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the general adaptation syndrome.
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Dustin was driving his car on an icy road when the back end started to skid out of control. His car crossed the centerline, and he could see the headlights of rapidly approaching oncoming traffic. His entire body became energized. His heart rate and respiration increased, and he began to perspire profusely. According to Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, Dustin was experiencing
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an alarm reaction.
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The stage of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome one enters after the body’s unsuccessful first attempt at dealing with the stressor is the
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resistance stage.
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Coping techniques that involve self-deception to distort reality in order to make a situation appear less threatening are referred to as
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defensive coping.
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The hormones secreted into the bloodstream during times of stress are
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catecholamines and corticosteroids.
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Imagine that a researcher publishes the results from a study that indicate a statistically significant association between sleep deprivation and coronary disease. This result would mean that
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the findings are not likely to be due to chance fluctuations.
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When you tell yourself that you will never be happy again now that your significant other has ended the relationship, you are engaging in what Albert Ellis calls
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catastrophic thinking.
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Neurogenisis can be promoted by
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exercise
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Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of stress? Stress includes circumstances that
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are traumatic.
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Events that are stressful for one person may not be stressful for another; this may be the result of the fact that
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how individuals appraise a situation determines whether they are likely to perceive events as stressful.
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The fight-or-flight response causes
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an acceleration in breathing and heart rate and a reduction in digestive processes.
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Circumstances that threaten, or are perceived to threaten, one’s well-being and tax one’s coping abilities define
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stress
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Threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint are known as ____ stressors; ____ stressors are threatening events that have a long duration and no apparent time limit.
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acute; chronic
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Research has demonstrated that brief periods of mental stress can trigger sudden symptoms of heart disease in approximately ____ of patients with stable heart disease.
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30-70%
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Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Exercise has little, if any, effect on one’s risk of disease B. Even a moderate amount of exercise reduces one’s risk of disease C. Only a substantial amount of exercise reduces one’s risk of disease D. Only individual forms of exercise, and not team sport forms of exercise, reduce one’s risk of disease
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Even a moderate amount of exercise reduces one’s risk of disease
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Garret is frustrated and angry when his request for a pay raise is turned down. After work, Garret goes to his gym and hits the punching bag for 10 minutes. Garret finds that he feels less tense and wound up after his workout. This change in Garret’s mood is consistent with the concept of
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catharsis.
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A teen who regularly engages in masturbation touches a religious icon exactly 10 times after each masturbatory act. In this example, Freud would suggest that the teen is dealing with the stress generated by the act of masturbation through
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undoing
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Demands or expectations to behave in a certain way define the notion of
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pressure
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According to optimal-arousal theories, which of the following situations would be LEAST affected by a high optimal-arousal level?
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Buttoning a shirt
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Holmes and Rahe reasoned that major sources of stress for people come from
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changes in one’s life that require readjustment.
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Stress and health research suggests that
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stress may relate to the incidence of physical illness in general.
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When compared to Type A people, Type B people tend to be more
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relaxed, easygoing, and friendly.
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Recent studies have revealed an association between work-related pressure and
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heart disease.
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Which of the following is the best piece of advice regarding exercise and its ability to reduce your vulnerability to stress?
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Gradually increase your participation in an enjoyable activity.
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According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis put forth by Dollard and his colleagues,
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aggression is always caused by frustration.
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What does the research have to say about the general effect of everyday problems and the minor nuisances of life?
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Minor stresses may have significant harmful effects on both physical and mental health.
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Wayne was a highly motivated teacher, who really tried to make a difference in the lives of his students. However, the constant budget cutbacks and the long hours that he puts in have taken their toll. He has become disillusioned with teaching, and he often calls in sick. In this case, it is quite likely that Wayne is experiencing
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burnout.
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In times of stress, activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in the adrenal gland secreting hormones that tend to
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mobilize the body for action.
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An organism first recognizes the existence of a threat and physiological arousal occurs during the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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alarm reaction
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Noncompliance with medical advice occurs approximately
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30-50% of the time.
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In general, the LEAST stressful conflict is the
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approach-approach conflict.
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The Social Readjustment Rating Scale was designed specifically to measure
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change
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With three finals and two papers on her schedule at the beginning of finals week, Kim was very aware of feeling her body \”all keyed up\” as she worried how she could possibly do everything she needed to do. By the middle of the week, Kim felt calmer and was dealing fairly well with budgeting her time and was completing tasks in a timely fashion. During the middle of finals week, Kim was MOST likely in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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resistance
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Steve was excited when he finally landed the lead role in one of the community theater productions. He has been rehearsing his part for the past two months, but on the day that the play is scheduled to open, Steve awakens with a bad case of laryngitis and is unable to perform. At this point, Steve is MOST likely experiencing
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frustration.
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If one thinks of the general adaptation syndrome by the initials \”GAS,\” it is MOST appropriate to say \”the body runs out of gas\” during the
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stage of exhaustion.
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The pursuit of a goal that has both attractive and unattractive features defines
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an approach-avoidance conflict.
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Stress affects the immune system by
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reducing its activity, thus causing the body to become more vulnerable to illness.
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Allie has a chronic medical condition. She was advised to take a drug from a manufacturer that claims it reduces the risk of mortality from her condition by 25%. Before taking the drug, it is MOST important that Allie investigate
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the base rate for mortality from her condition.
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A major idea behind rational-emotive therapy is that stress is caused by
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catastrophic thinking.
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Jim is on the brink of flunking out of school. Instead of increasing his studying, he spends his time daydreaming about how he’ll win the state lottery so he won’t need a degree. Jim is experiencing
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frustration and engaging in fantasy.
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Suki routinely responds to stress with a learned helplessness response. Suki’s response will involve
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passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
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Lola saw her family doctor last week because she had experienced a number of asthma attacks in the preceding month. Her family doctor told Lola that her asthma was a psychosomatic disease. Lola’s doctor was telling her that
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her asthma has an organic basis, but that it was caused in part by psychological factors.
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Webb’s teacher has told him that there is really no way for him to earn a passing grade in his statistics class, even if he earns 100% on all the work that remains. However, Webb has convinced himself that he will still pass the course if he just works really hard for the rest of the semester. In this instance, Webb may be dealing with the stress-induced anxiety aroused by the teacher’s comments through the use of
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denial of reality.
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The Flashback football team was down by 35 points at half-time, but they made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock, they scored a touchdown that narrowed the other team’s lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the final seconds. As the team lines up for the last play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing
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pressure.
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Research suggests that an important factor that contributes to impaired task performance is that stress
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disrupts attention.
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Compared to optimists, pessimists are MORE likely to deal with stress by
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engaging in wishful thinking.
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The negative effects of ____________ may be more severe than the negative effects of obesity, lack of exercise, and excessive drinking.
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inadequate social support
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Unconscious reactions for dealing with unpleasant emotions such as anxiety or guilt are referred to as
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defense mechanisms.
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The optimal level of arousal for task performance
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decreases as the tasks become more complex.
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Which of the following statements regarding the connection between social support and immune functioning is MOST accurate?
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Social support can serve as a buffer in times of high stress.
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Which of the following situations is MOST likely to result in chronic stress?
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Being diagnosed with AIDS
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Research has demonstrated that the act of forgiving someone when one believes another person’s actions were harmful or unjust is associated with
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better adjustment and well-being.
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The hypothalamus initiates the body’s physiological response to stress by activating the endocrine system through two major pathways that first signal the
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autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland.
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In dealing with stress, coping responses
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may be adaptive or maladaptive.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the barriers to effective healthcare provider-patient communication discussed in the text?
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Many providers resent patients who ask questions
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Which of the following is one of the barriers to effective healthcare provider-patient communication discussed in the text?
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Patients may forget to report some symptoms Many providers overestimate their patients understanding of technical terms Medical visits are generally brief and allow little time for provider-patient discussion
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Disturbed behavior that occurs after a major stressful event is referred to as
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posttraumatic stress disorder.
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Sonja used to work out five days a week when she was in her late teens. In her 20s, she worked out three days a week. Now she is in her 40s, and she only seems to work out when she has the time. Sonja’s pattern of behavior illustrates the idea that
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many health-impairing habits creep up on us.
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James has an important job interview tomorrow morning, and he obviously wants to do a good job of selling himself to the interviewer. James is MOST likely experiencing
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pressure.
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Which of the following is NOT a common psychological problem that has been shown to be related to chronic stress?
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Phobias
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Which of the following is a common psychological problem that has been shown to be related to chronic stress?
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Insomnia/sleep disturbances Poor academic performance Sexual difficulties
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Valerie is doing homework for her statistics class. When she checks the answer she has just calculated for the problem she has been working on, she finds it is incorrect. She is frustrated and tells her roommate, \”I don’t know why I’m even trying, I’ll never catch on in this course. I should just give up now.\” According to Albert Ellis, Valerie’s statements reflect
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catastrophic thinking.
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The key to ____ is to detect catastrophic thinking and dispute the irrational assumptions that cause it.
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rational emotive therapy
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Simon smokes, Orson is obese, and Chester is a \”couch potato\” who does not exercise. All three men have a higher risk of developing ____ than normal-weight men who exercise and do not smoke.
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heart disease
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A person who loves to eat but at the same time fears becoming overweight is MOST likely experiencing
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an approach-avoidance conflict.
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All of the following were cited in the textbook as factors that promote relaxation EXCEPT for
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drinking a small amount of alcohol.
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All of the following were cited in the textbook as factors that promote relaxation
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Comfy position Passive attitude Focusing on a constant stimulus
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Finding humor in a stressful situation
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can help to reduce stress by promoting social support.
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Roommates Ann and Margaret both woke up yesterday with a headache, upset stomach, and muscle stiffness. While Ann was showering for her 9:00 art history class, Margaret rushed off to the college health clinic. MOST likely Margaret exhibits a ____ than Ann.
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higher level of anxiety and higher level of neuroticism
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Recent research suggests that chronic stress can impair people’s ability to pay attention by reducing activity in the
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prefrontal cortex.
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During the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, arousal decreases and the body’s resources may be depleted.
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exhaustion
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Sherman’s house was almost completely destroyed by fire last week. As he walked through the charred remains with the insurance adjuster, Sherman joked, \”It’s too bad that the only thing that wasn’t destroyed is that ugly painting that my brother-in-law gave me for my birthday.\” In this stressful situation, Sherman’s joking attitude
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can help to redefine the situation in a less threatening way.
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Which of the following statements is TRUE?
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Even a moderate amount of exercise reduces one’s risk of disease
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Most of Conrad’s friends consider him to be highly neurotic. It is likely that, compared to his friends, Conrad is
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more likely to perceive events as stressful.
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One’s risk of developing heart disease is related to the amount of stress in one’s life, whether ones has Type A personality, is depressed, is obese, or smokes. This partial list of risk factors BEST reflects the unifying theme in psychology that
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behavior is determined by multiple causes.
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Physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress defines
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burnout.
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When a choice must be made between two attractive goals, we are experiencing
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an approach-approach conflict.
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Which of the following is an example of a stressful situation that involves pressure?
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You are meeting your significant other’s parents tomorrow and your partner wants you to make a good impression
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Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate? High levels of social support
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are associated with action-oriented, problem-focused coping responses.
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College health clinics are probably MOST likely to experience an increase in students seeking treatment for colds and other minor illnesses
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during finals week.
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Being prevented from reaching a goal will cause MOST individuals to experience
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frustration.
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Waiting in line, car trouble, shopping for holiday gifts at the end of the year, and balancing your checkbook are considered examples of
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acute stress.
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Current research on change and stress suggests that
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change is not inherently or inevitably stressful.
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Research MOST strongly suggests that people who have been betrayed by someone will experience improved mood if they
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forgive the betrayer.
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Which one of the following is NOT an effect associated with recreational drug use?
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Increased risk for sexual impotence
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In one study of over 14,000 participants, the researchers found a statistically significant association between high sodium intake and the prevalence of hypertension among normal-weight subjects. The prevalence of hypertension in the group with the lowest sodium intake was 19.1%; the prevalence of hypertension in the group with the highest sodium intake was 21.8%. This data suggests that
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even though the finding was statistically significant, it may not have much practical importance.
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Which of the following is an example of a stressful situation that involves conflict?
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You can’t decide whether to go to Florida or Mexico for spring break
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The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) is BEST described as including
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positive and negative and large and small events.
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Inadequate or poor quality sleep is associated with all of the following EXCEPT
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decreased appetite.
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Inadequate or poor quality sleep is associated with all of the following
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poor health decreased appetite impaired immune functioning increased mortality

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