systematic study of behavior and experience
soul or mind
belief that behavior is caused by a persons independent decision
nature vs. nurture
question of how differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment
phd and psyd
what degree does a psychologist hold
What degree does a psychiatrist hold
what degree does a therapist hold
human factors (ergonomist)
someone who tries to facilitate the operation of machinery so that ordinary people can use it safely and efficiently
industrial organizational psychology
psychology study of people at work
specialist in the psychological condition of students
someone who has an advanced degree in psychology with a specialty in understanding and helping people with psychological problems
someone who helps people w educational, vacational, marriage, health related & other decisions
studies the thought and knowledge process
one who tried to explain behavior in terms of the evolutionary history of the species, including why evolution might have favored a tendency to act in particular ways
follow a group of individuals across a span of time
Piagets stages of development
idea that objects continue to exist even when we do not see or hear them
“is my social world predictable or supportive?” (trust vs. mistrust)
“can I do things for myself or must I always rely on others?” (autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
“am I a good or bad person?” (initiative vs. guilt)
“Am I successful or worthless?” (industry vs. inferiority)
Behaviorism began, in part, as a protest against the views of
Pavlov was a pioneer in the study of
an inborn, automatic connection between a stimulus and a response
Pair the CS with the UCS
What procedure does an investigator use to produce classical conditioning?
In classical conditioning, the opposite of acquisition is
an increase in responding after a delay following extinction
Responding differently to stimuli that predict different outcomes is known as
Who of the following was the first to investigate operant conditioning?
the animal’s responses do not control the reinforcements
The main difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in classical conditioning
quick and predictable
Punishment is most effective when
give no einforcement after the response
What is the procedure for producing extinction in operant conditioning?
When someone acquires a complex response through reinforcement for gradual approximations to the response, the training procedure is known as
Executive functioning is one aspect of
depth of processing
Memory improves when there is an increase in
resemble what people were thinking about when they formed the memory
The encoding specificity principle refers to the fact that retrieval cues are more effective in stimulating a memory if those retrieval cues
The method of loci is an example of a
One difference between short-term memory and long-term memory is that short-term memory
Some people may have an experience in childhood and then not think about it again for many years.
inability to form new long-term memories
Prolonged deficiency of vitamin B-1 leads to a condition that is characterized by severe memory problems. The name of that condition is
fetal alcohol syndrome
A small head, malformed face, heart, and ears, seizures, hyperactivity, and learning disabilities are all associated with
After habituating to “ba,” they increase their sucking rate when they hear “pa.”
What evidence do we have that newborn infants can distinguish between the sounds “ba” and “pa”?
examines different groups of people at the same time.
The tendency for some kinds of people to be more likely than others to drop out of a study is known as
The people born in the 1970s have different interests and attitudes than the people born in the 1950s ever did. This is due to a difference in
answer hypothetical and abstract questions
To determine whether or not a child has reached the stage of formal operations, a psychologist might test whether the child can
social and emotional development
Erik Erikson’s stages of development deal with
is not useful after about 18 months of age.
Adolescents who have explored various identities and have made their own decisions about their future are said to have
Parents who are demanding and impose firm controls, yet are also warm and responsive to their children
When a woman is first pregnant, she is carrying a(n)
Partial identification with two cultures is known as
“Who am I?” (identity vs. role confusion)
“Shall I share my life with another person or live alone?” (intimacy vs. isolation)
“Will I add anything of value in the world?” (generatively vs. stagnation)
“Have I lived a meaningful life, or wasted my time?” (ego integrity vs. despair)
procedure in which a mother and her infant (usually 12 to 18 months) come into a room with many toys, and psychologists monitor the childs behavior as the mother & a stranger enter/leave the room at different times.
personal fable (Elkin)
teens are particularly prone to believing “it won’t happen to me!” “nobody understands how i feel” “everyone cares about my looks and clothing.”
parents that impose control but show warmth and encouragement to the child
parents that impose control but tend to be emotionally distant from the child.
parents that are warm but impose few limits
parents that are distant and do little more than provide resources.
purpose that psychologist should study observable, measurable behaviors. study what organisms do and the circumstances they do it in.
used nonsense syllables.
Von Restorff Effect
Distinctive/unusual information is easier to retain
the simplest test to give but the most difficult test to take.
gives the test-taker significant hints about the correct answer
He believed in scientific parsimony. used an “operant chamber” for shaping animal behavior. what animal?
classical conditioning. physiologist who won a Nobel Prize for his research on digestion. the learning process was unintentional.
developed a simple, behaviorist explanation of learning. graphed a learning curve to show the changes in behavior over successive trials in learning a maze.
operant conditioning. reinforcement.
operant conditioning. reinforcement.
a stimulus that, at first, does not produce a response.
a stimulus that naturally produces a response
a stimulus that produces a response after a period of aquistitions
a response that naturally is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
a response that occurs after a conditioned association with the unconditioned stimulus
how did pavlov discover classical conditioning
to remove a conditioned response, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
the extension of a conditioned response form the training stimulus to similar stimuli.
an individual is reinforced for responding to one stimulus but not another. The individual will respond more vigorously to the stimulus that produces reinforcement.
The temporary return of an extinguished response is
The cats tried many different behaviors and learn to select one that produced escape. Cats learned more quickly if the selected response produced an immediate escape. It appeared to Thorndike that the cats were not “understanding” the connections between the solution and the escape. No sudden increase occurred in the learning curve to support that assumption. Thorndike observed that the escape from the box acted as reinforcement for the behavior that led to it.
law of effect
thordikes theory that of several responses made to the same situation, those that are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction will, other thing being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur.
event that is reinforcing because of its own properties
event that becomes reinforcing by association with something else
always increases the probability of a behavior
always decreases the probability of a behavior
presenting something such as food
presenting (taking away) something such as pain
the tendency to respond to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response to the originally reinforced stimulus
reinforcement following completion of a specific number of responses
reinforcement for an unpredictable number of response that varies around a mean value
reinforcement for the first response that follows an unpredicted rely varying around a mean value, since the previous reinforcement.
reinforcement for the first response that follows a given delay since the previous reinforcement.
requires the test-taker to identify the correct item from a list of choices.
memory that which we know although we don’t experience conscious awareness of that knowledge.
(dont realize we are doing)
(dont realize we are doing)
information we know (or know we should know.) When asked to name state capital a conscious effort is made to remember.
memories dealing with principles of knowledge
memories containing events and details of life history.
memory recall of to do something
long term memory
a relatively permanent storage of mostly meaningful information.
a process that activates implicit memory.
sensory memory store
The computer has a “buffer.” A combination of memory and perception, it’s the first stage of memory processing.
short term memory
Temporary storage of recent information. The information is still vulnerable to corruption or loss.
Hints that help bring forth information in long-term memory
The formation of long-term memory
a detailed and vivid memory that is stored on one occasion and retained for a lifetime.
memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed.
any memory aid that encodes items in a special way. (loci)
severe loss or deterioration of memory