Psych 300 Final

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What is the process of encoding?
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Getting information into the memory system (your brain).
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What is the process of retrieval?
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Getting information back out of the brain.
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What does ‘automatic processing’ occur without?
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Conscious thought
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The difference between automatic and effortful processing best illustrates what?
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The two-track mind
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In an effort to remember how to spell \”rhinoceros,\” Saeko spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as…
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Rehearsal
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Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited capacity?
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Long-term memory
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What is Long-term potentiation?
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An increase in a synapses firing potential. A neural basis for learning and memory.
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Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious awareness of having this skill best illustrates ________ memory.
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Implicit
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The hippocampus plays a critical role in what type of memory?
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Explicit
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How are memories primed?
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Using a retrieval cue
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Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of…
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Retrieval
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What is the misinformation effect?
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A memory that has been corrupted by misleading information.
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What has research on young children’s eyewitness recall shown?
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Before the age of 3, it is unreliable because asking leading questions can plant a false memory.
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What techniques are used by professional therapists to promote false memories in patients?
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Hypnosis, drug-induced recall, and imagination-enhancing exercises.
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To help resolve the controversy over reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, what do the major psychological and psychiatric association’s suggest?
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A neutral person asks non-leading questions in words that can be understood.
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You should study before sleeping in order to minimize..
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Retroactive interference
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Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of people how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. What did the group who heard the vividly descriptive word \”smashed\” in relation to the accident later recall?
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Seeing glass fragments
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What is motivation?
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A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
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A motivated state is often triggered by what physiological need?
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Drive
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The lowest-level need in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs includes what?
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Physiological needs; ex. Hunger and thirst.
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According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
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Adequate clothing, self-esteem
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What is set point?
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The point when an individuals \”weight thermostat\” is set.
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Breaking diet restrictions and gorging on forbidden foods may serve as a trigger for what disorder?
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Bulimia
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How can the level of serotonin in the brain be changed?
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Increased by a diet high in carbohydrates
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Most humans are genetically predisposed to do what?
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Form close enduring relationships with fellow humans
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What are the basic components of emotion?
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Physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.
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According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are…
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Physical arousal and cognitive appraisal.
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What does research on the lie detector suggest?
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They are more likely to declare the innocent guilty than to declare the guilty innocent.
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Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at each other’s what?
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Eyes
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What are the facial expressions associated with particular emotions?
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The same throughout the world
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Baring the teeth are universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates of what?
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Evolutionary perspective
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What is catharsis?
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Emotional release through aggressive action or fantasy
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Employees who have just been laid off are asked questions that released angry feelings toward their employer. Researchers found that this opportunity to express anger did what?
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Increased their hostility
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Relative deprivation refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by what?
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Others’ attainments
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One way to improve your subjective well-being is to do what?
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Participate in regular aerobic exercise
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The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to what?
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Our tendency to judge events in comparison to our past experiences.
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Psychologists define stress as what?
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The process of appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging event.
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In the 1920s, Walter Cannon discovered that emotion-arousing incidents trigger an outpouring of ________ from the adrenal glands.
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Epinephrine and norepinephrine (stress hormones).
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In a stressful situation, feelings of pain are dulled by what?
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The sympathetic nervous system
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Walter Cannon observed that a variety of stressors trigger what?
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A fight-or-flight reaction
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What does general adaptation syndrome describe?
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The body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages; alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
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Resistance to stress is greatest during the ________ of the general adaptation syndrome.
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Resistance
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The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by what?
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Exhaustion
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What causes AIDS?
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HIV
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How would you describe a Type A personality?
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Competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
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How would you describe a Type B personality?
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Easy-going, relaxed people.
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Anger is the toxic core of what?
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A Type A personality.
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To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy’s behavior best illustrates what?
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Emotion-focused coping.
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As a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg experienced inescapable brutalities. He stopped eating and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates what?
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Learned helplessness
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Laura and Tom don’t think using a condom will have any impact on whether Laura gets pregnant. Their lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of what?
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Internal locus of control
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The ability to delay gratification of our impulses best illustrates what?
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Self-control.
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What is biofeedback?
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A system of recording, amplifying, and feeding back information about subtle bodily responses.
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What is the faith factor?
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Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active.
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Which part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning?
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Cerebellum
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Basal metabolic rate is the body’s resting rate of
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Energy expenditure
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In surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, two-thirds of Americans reported…
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sleeping difficulties.
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In response to stress, the adrenal gland releases what?
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Stress hormones.
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The three phases of the general adaptation syndrome are what?
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Alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.
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What are Lymphocytes?
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white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system.
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Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.
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Type A
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Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as what?
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problem-focused coping.
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The perception that our fate is determined by luck reflects what?
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an external locus of control
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People who typically anticipate that their outcomes in life will be negative best illustrate what?
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Pessimism
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Aerobic exercise has been most closely linked to a decrease in what?
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Depression.
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The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to
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decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.
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The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
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Behavioral constistency
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According to Freud, the unconscious is
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the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
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One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei’s dream reflects a(n)
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Oedipus complex
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Gene frequently brags about his many sexual exploits. Freud would have suggested that Gene is fixated at the ________ stage.
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phallic
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Maslow’s description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he
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selectively studied people with qualities he admired.
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According to the social-cognitive perspective, behavior is influenced by the interaction between persons and
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their environment.
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Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests. He justifies his behavior by mistakenly thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His incorrect belief best illustrates
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self-serving bias.
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The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most strongly emphasized in cultures that value
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Individualism
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A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by
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excessive anxiety and worry serious enough to cause disruption to one’s life
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Obsessions are
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repeated, intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts or images that cause great anxiety or distress
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Compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that had survival value. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective.
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neuroscience
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Some murderers show no interest in controlling their impulses. This lack of self control is most closely related to reduced brain activity in their ________ lobes
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Frontal
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In large amounts, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a ________.
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Depressant; depressant
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By triggering a release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, ________ boosts alertness and diminishes appetite
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Nicotine
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Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?
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Lsd
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Research regarding depression indicates that
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with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence
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The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes that depression is perpetuated by
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Conscious role-playing
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Depressed people explain their failures in terms that are internal, stable, and global. Their explanations tend to be self-focused and
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Pessimistic
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One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
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flat affect, lack of initiative
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Schizophrenia that develops rapidly, seemingly as a reaction to stress, is called ________ schizophrenia.
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Acute
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Schizophrenia is associated with an excess number of receptors for
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dopamine
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People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.
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North America; February
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Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that
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There is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
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Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
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Psychotherapy
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A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
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Uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches
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Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult’s psychological disorder by exploring that person’s childhood experiences?
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A psychoanalyst
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According to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the
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Blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy
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Psychoanalysts are most likely to view patient transference as
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a potential aid to the patient developing insight
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Which therapeutic approach relies most heavily on people discovering their own ways of effectively dealing with their difficulties?
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client-centered therapy
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An important feature of client-centered therapy is
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Empathy
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Systematic desensitization involves
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A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
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Therapists practice ________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer approximations
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behavior modification
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Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to
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emphasize the importance of clients interpretation of life events
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Research has shown that clients’ level of satisfaction with psychotherapy
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shows that psychoanalysis is more effective than cognitive therapy
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Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a
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psychiatrist
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Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess whether the success of drug therapy in treating disorders is due to the drugs or to
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the placebo effect.
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Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help
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overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.
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Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.
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mood – stabilizing
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Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
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Depression
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Psychosurgery involves
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Removing or destroying brain tissue
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Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
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Social psychology
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The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others
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situational influences; personal dispositions
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Compared to people from East Asian cultures, those from individualistic Western countries are more likely to demonstrate
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the fundamental attribution error
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Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
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Belief based feelings
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The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
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comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
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The discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts clash is called
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cognitive dissonance
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Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
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improve performance of simple tasks in the presence of others
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The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as
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Social loafing
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Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying
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social inequalities
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According to the scapegoat theory, one source of prejudice is
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frustration
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Social rejection has been observed to intensify
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aggression.
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Culturally modeled guides for how to act in various situations are called
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Social script
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Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates
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altruism
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To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals indicates
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conflict.
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Noncompetitive contact between members of two different ethnic groups is likely to reduce prejudice when the contact is between individuals with
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equal status
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Wilhelm Wundt performed experiments to study what?
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\”Atoms of the mind\”
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Who was Sigmund Freud?
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Founding father of psychoanalysis; believes personality is influenced by childhood experiences.
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Who was the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
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Mary Whiton Calkins
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What did Psychology focus on in it’s early years?
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The \”science of mental life\”.
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American psychologists emphasized the study of what between 1920 and 1960?
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The \”scientific study of observable behavior\”.
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Which major force in psychology emphasized unconscious sexual conflicts?
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Freudian psychology
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Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people’s what?
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Potential for healthy growth
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Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between what 2 processes?
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Thought processes and brain functions.
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Contemporary psychology is best defined as ..
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Behavior and mental processes.
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Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?
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Evolutionary.
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Several weeks after a political election, voters often think they could have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates what?
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The hindsight bias.
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Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are …….
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Curiosity, skepticism, and humility.
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What is a hypothesis?
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A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
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What is an operational definition?
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A statement of the operations used to define research variables.
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What is a case study?
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An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
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Professor Rodriguez notes that people are attracted to those who are good-looking. Handsome men will therefore be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor’s prediction regarding employment success is an example of what?
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A hypothesis
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What type of research uses a representative random sample?
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A small group that accurately reflects a larger population.
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Midori wants to find out how students reacted to a proposed tuition hike at her school. She sends a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the school’s alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Midori used the technique of called…
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Random sampling
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What is naturalistic observation?
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Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
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What is correlation?
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A measure of the extent in which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
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What is a placebo?
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An inert substance or condition that is assumed to be an active agent.
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What is a double blind procedure?
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Participants and research staff are ignorant about who has received the treatment or a placebo.
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What is an independent variable?
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The experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied.
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What is a dependent variable?
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The outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
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The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of what?
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Survey, question, read, rehearse, review.
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In answering multiple-choice questions what do smart test takers do?
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Try to answer the questions as if they were fill-in-the-blank.
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What is observation?
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process of gathering information, organizing and giving meaning to sensory information.
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What is replication and how does it work?
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Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
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What is an action potential?
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Rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell
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What is the all or none response?
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Either a muscle fiber contracts completely when exposed to a threshold stimulus, or not at all.
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What are endorphins?
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Natural opiates released in response to pain and exercise.
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Name the major divisions of the nervous system.
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Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System (with Somatic and Autonomic systems).
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What does the central nervous system consist of?
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Brain (thinking, feeling, and acting) and spinal cord.
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What are the hormones that are chemical messengers called?
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Endocrine system glands.
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What is an EEG?
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A test used to detect abnormalities related to electrical activity of the brain.
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What is a PET scan?
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Shows how organs and tissues are working.
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What is a fMRI?
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Functional, technique for measuring brain activity.
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The \”little brain\” attached to the rear of the brain stem is called …
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cerebellum
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The capacity of a brain area to reorganize in response to damage is known as
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Plasticity
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What does the corpus callosum do?
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Connects the two brain hemispheres.
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What is cognitive psychology?
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Study of mental processes such as attention, memory, and language.
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What is consciousness?
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our awareness of ourselves and our environment
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What is a Circadian rhythm?
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Biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
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How long is the human sleep cycle?
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90 minutes.
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Why is REM sleep called paradoxical sleep?
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REM sleep is outward paralysis with internal arousal.
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What could chronic sleep debt contribute to?
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Physical and mental fatigue.
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Traffic accident rates have been found to ________ after the spring change to daylight saving time and to ________ after the fall change back to standard time.
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Increase, decrease.
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What is sleep apnea?
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The stopping of breathing with asleep.
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What is narcolepsy?
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Sudden uncontrollable sleepiness or lapsing into REM sleep.
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According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to what?
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It’s underlying but censored meaning.
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What is the activation-synthesis theory?
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Dreams are the brain’s attempt to make sense of random electrical activation coming from the brain stem.
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What do Developmental psychologists study?
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Nature and nurture. Continuity and stages. Stability and change.
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The genome is the complete of what?
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Complete instructions for making an organism
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What are the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called?
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genes.
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The unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers. This best illustrates the ________ of nature and nurture.
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interaction
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The placenta develops from the outer cells of what?
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Zygote
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What is gender schema theory?
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The idea that children learn about what it means to be male and female from the culture they grow up in.
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What is a teratogen?
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Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, the can reach the embryo/fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
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What are the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome?
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Birth defects and mental retardation.
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Compared to girls living in father-absent families, girls with fathers present are less likely to experience what?
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Teen pregnancy.
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Erikson would have suggested that adolescents try out various occupational and social roles to help them develop what?
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A sense of identity.
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Gender differences in verbal fluency are consistent with evidence that there is what kind of a difference between man and women lobes?
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the frontal lobes are thicker in women than in men.
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Is homosexual orientation a choice?
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no
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Professor Assad suggested that women are more cautious about selecting a sexual partner. This attitude has proven to be a reproductive advantage to women because the birth process is especially time-consuming for women, illustrating the logic of what theory?
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evolutionary
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What influence on homosexuality is most clearly seen from evidence of animal species?
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sexual interactions between same-sex organisms in several hundred different animal species.
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Compared with women, men are more likely to do what when it comes to sex activity?
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initiate sexual activity, masturbate, and think about sex.
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If pregnant sheep are injected with ________, during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior.
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testosterone
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What does gender identity refer to?
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the sense of being male or female
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Describe the refractory period?
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period of time after the first stimulus when response to a second stimulus is not possible
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In most nonhuman mammals, females become sexually receptive when…
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estrogen levels are highest.
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A problem that consistently interferes with a person’s ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called what?
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sexual disorder
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Compared with men, women experience a greater risk of what disorder?
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Eating disorder
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In everyday behavior, men are LESS likely than women to do what to others?
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smile at others
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A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.
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X, Y
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Twin and adoption studies have been most helpful for teasing apart the influences of what interaction?
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environmental (nurture).
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How is Culture defined?
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shared beliefs, values and behaviors across a group of people
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Adolescence extends from what and extends to what?
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the beginning of sexual maturity to independent adulthood
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Puberty is most closely related to the onset of what?
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menarche
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Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. What is this called?
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a selection effect
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Piaget was convinced of what regarding a child’s mental development?
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it develops through a series of stages.
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What is contact comfort?
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stimulation and reassurance derived from the physical touch of a caregiver
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What is Cognition?
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The processes associated with perceiving, making sense of, and using information.
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Describe the sensorimotor stage.
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Infants/toddlers use their senses and motor skills to explore the world. It occurs from birth to two years old.
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What are schemas?
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knowledge, procedures and relationships that we use to understand and function in the world – in response to the need for equilibrium
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To identify which of Lucy’s brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n)
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PET scan
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In considering gender differences, you should remember that..
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gender similarities are much greater than gender differences
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Sensory adaptation refers to
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the loss of responsiveness in receptor cells due to constant stimulation.
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In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of…
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the unconditioned stimulus
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A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
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continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
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In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
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the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.
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What is perception?
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The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, which enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
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What is sensation?
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The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
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The process by which our sensory systems transform stimulus energies into neural impulses is called
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Transduction
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Who emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences?
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Immanuel Kant
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What is Kinesthesis?
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perception of body position and movement; feedback system for motor system (muscles)
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What is a gestalt?
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a form of existential therapy
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What is the visual cliff is a laboratory device used for?
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testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
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What is retinal disparity?
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a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images form the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object
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If two objects are assumed to be the same size, what could be said retinal image?
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retinal size
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What is perceptual set?
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the predisposition or ‘readiness’ to perceive something in accordance with what we expect it to be. Our expectations of what an object or event will be make us more likely to interpret the object or event in the predetermined way.
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What are context effects?
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The tendency to recover info more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the same info
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What is perceptual constancy?
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Our tendency to see objects as unchanging while the stimuli from them change in size, shape, and lightness.
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What can be said about Psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes?
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they have reported visions that are no more accurate than guesses
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What is psychokinesis?
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the supposed ability to move objects by mental effort alone.
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Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in what?
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lens
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Where is the blind spot located?
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the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye creating a \”blind\” spot because no receptor cells are located there
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The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel consist of what?
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nerve cells in the brain.
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Simultaneously processing different aspects of a problem or scene is known as what?
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parallel processing
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Anything that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is a called what?
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positive reinforcement
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A dog will most rapidly learn to roll over on command if the dog’s trainer uses what reinforcer?
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Immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers
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Resistance to extinction is strongest with ________ reinforcement.
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partial intermittent reinforcement
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Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of what?
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cognitive processes

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