PSYCH 211 – Lec 10 (readings)

What are an infant’s first social relationships with?
Usually parents
When do peer interactions begin in infancy?
around 6 mos. They can look, smile, and point to one another. Begine to laugh and babble when with other infants.
When to infants begin to engage in social evaluation of people based on those people’s behaviour toward others?
between 6-10 mos.
What types of people do preverbal infants tend to prefer?
-people who help others rather than harm or hinder others
-prefer a neutral indiviudal to one who hinders others
-prefer a helpful person to one who behaves neutrally
true or false: psychological processes involved in social cognition have a neural basis
true. Infants may have a rudimentary sense of morality hard-wired
How did Parten identify a developmental sequence of play?
Begun with nonsocial play: children playing alone or watching others play. Later children progress to having a well-defined role. Today researchers no longer share this view that they move through each stage of play in a rigid sequence.
What is the first type of social play and when does it appear?
Parallel play, appears soon after first birthday.
Parallel play
play along but maintain a keen interest in what other children are doing. Exchanges between youngsters begin to occur. When one talks or smiles, the other usually responds.
Simple social play
beginning around 15-18 months, toddlers no longer just watch one another play, but engage in similar activities, talk to or smile at one another, and offer each other toys. Play is interactive.
What has research on social pretend play with children who have language impairments show?
that social pretend play supports greater conversational richness between age peers than to other forms of play
How can the quality of social play cary?
With the characteristics of the child’s play partner i.e. interpersonal responsiveness, verbal skills, adaptability, play theme
At age 2 what type of play do youngsters engage in?
co-operative play.
co-operative play
organize their play around a distinct theme and take on special roles based on that theme
self-concept
attitudes, behaviours, and values that a person believes make him or her unique individual
What did William James believe was the foundation of self-concept?
the child’s awareness that they exist. Must realize that they exist independently of other people and objects and that thier existence continues over time.
How do investigators measure self-warenss in infants?
By using a mirror. In latter part of first year, babies sometimes touch the face in the mirror, but none of their behaviours indicate they can recognize themselves in teh mirror. Place a red mark on infant’s nose. Many 1-year olds touch the red mark on the mirror, but by 15 mos they reach up and touch their own noses. Virtually by age 2 all children do this.
What developmental trend of self-conept showed in infants who had never seen mirrors previously?
Sam developmental trend appeared.
When does self-awareness emerge?
Between 18-24 mos. Toddlers look more at photgraphs of themselves than at photos of other childre. Refer to themselves by name or with a personal pronoun, sometimes they know their age and their gender. Self-recognition reflects their cognitive development. It emerges after the establishment of deferred imitation skills.
Is a toddlers’ self-awareness focused largely on the past, present, or future?
Present. Don’t make connections between the current self and the previous self.
How did children who were more self-aware interact with unfamiliar peers?
-children who were self-aware were more likely to say “mine while playing with toys than children who were not yet self-aware
-claiming toys was a important way of defining the self within the social world, not simply aggressive
-also more likely to make positive comments during peer interactions
temperament
an infant’s consistent mood and style of behaviour
-not refer so much to what babies do as to how they do what they do
-differences in emotion and style of behaviour are evident in the first weeks after birth, and remain important throughout life
Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess
began the New York Longitudinal Study. Gathered initial data by interviewing babies’ parents and asking individuals unfamiliar with the children to observe them at home. Evaluated child’s behaviour on 9 temperamental dimensions. Using these 9 dimensions, placed most infants into 1 of 3 groups. Roughly 1/3 did not fit into any of the groups and rates as average on most of the 9 dimensions.
What are the 9 Dimensions of Temperament that were measured in the New York Longitudinal STudy
1) Activity level
2) Rhythmicity
3) Approach /withdrawal
4) Distractibility
5) Adaptability
6) Intensity of reaction
7) Mood
8) Threshold
9) Attention span and persistence
Activity level
amount of physical and motor activity in daily situations
Rhythmicity
regularity in eating, sleeping, toileting
Approach/withdrawal
response to a novel object (accepting vs. rejecting)
Distractibility
ease with which ongoing activity is disrupted by competing stimuli
Adaptibility
Ease with which the child adjusts to changes in the environment
Intensity of reaction
Energy level of the child’s responses
Mood
Balance between happy and unhappy behaviour
Threshold
Level of stimulation needed for the child to respond
Attention span and persistence
Amount of time devoted to an activity, particularly with obstacles or distractions present
What were the 3 groups categorized as by Thomas and Chess?
1) easy
2) difficult
3) slow to warm up
Easy babies
-40% of babies
-happy and cheerful, tended to adjust well to new situations
-followed regular routines for eating, sleeping, toileting
Difficult babies
-10% of babies
-unhappy
-did not adjust well to new situations
-irregular routines for eating and sleeping
-withdraw form novel experiences
-responded intensely to novel stimulation
Slow-to-warm-up babies
-15% of babies
-unhappy
-did not adjust well to ne stimuli
-did not respond intensely and tended to be relatively inactive
What did Arnold Buss and Robert Plomin propose about temperament?
-Temperament involves 3 primary dimensions
1) emotionality
2) activity
3) sociability
Emotionality
strength of the infant’s emotional response to a situation
-ease that response is triggered
-ease with which the infant can be returned to a nonemotional state
activity
tempo and vigour of a child’s movements
-active infants are always busy, exploring, enjoy vigorous play
-inactive infants more controlled behavioural tempo, mroe likely to enjoy quiet play
Sociability
-extent to which a person prefers to be with other people
What did Schmidt and Fox suggest regarding temperament?
Found 2 main types of child temperament:
1) bold/exuberant
2) Shy/socially withdrawn
-concluded that these temperament types remain relatively stable for the first 4 years of child’s life and that certain genetically linked characteristics of behaviour and physiology are associated
What did twin studies suggest about termeprament
Identical twins were more alike than fraternal twins with respect to social fearfulness (shyness), persistence, and proneness to anger
What has been found in infants and toddlers who have narrower faces?
They are upset by novel stimulation. This observation thought to be because the brain and facial skeleton originate form the same set of cells during prenatal development. Hypothesis is that genes influence levels of hormones that affect both facial growth and temperament
What contributes to a child’s temperament?
-the environment including parenting
-genes
ex: positive emotionality seems to reflect environmental influences. Infants often develop intense, difficult temperaments when mothers are abrupt in dealing with them and lack confidence.
Do babies from different cultures cry the same way?
No
-in stressful situtations (i.e. getting a shot), Japanese and Chinese infants are less likely to cry and are soothed more readily than European babies
-possible because the genes that contirbute to emotionality are less common among Asians than among Europeans
-Japanese mothers spend more time in close physical contact with their babies, might reduce tendency to respond emotionally
Fels Longitudinal Project
A study of many aspects of physical and psychological development form infancy
-fearful preschoolers tended to be inhibited as older children and adolescents
Is temperament stable over infant and toddler years?
-temperament is somewhat stable during the infant and toddler years ex: an active fetus is more likley to be an active infant who is difficult and unadpative
-newborns who cry under moderate stress tend to cry when they are placed in stressful situations at 5 mos
-infants who are frightened or upset by novel stimulation tend to be inhibited and less sociable as preschoolers
-temperament is at least somewhat stable through infancy and toddler years
How can temperament shape development?
-might determine the experiences that parents provide
-parents might read more to quiet babies but play more physical games with active babies
-contribute to each infant’s development, despite the fact that the infants’ temperaments could change over the years
What was the goal of Thomas and Chess’s study?
To discover temperamental features of infants that would predict later psychological adjustment
What did Thomas & Chess discover regarding temperamant and the development of behavioural problems?
-found 2/3 of preschoolers with difficult temperaments had developed behavioural problems by the time they entered school
-fewer than 1/5 with easy temperaments had behavioural problems
What type of child is more likely to succeed in school?
Persistent children are likely to succeed in school,
-active and distractable children are less likely to succeed in school
What is true of children with shy, inhibited temperament?
They often have difficulty interacting with their peers and do not cope effectively with problems.
What is true of children with anxious, fearful temperament?
They are more likely to comply with a parent’s rules and requests, even when the parents is not present
What is true of children with extroverted, uninhibited temperament?
-more likely to have accidents that cause injury
true or false: temperament influences children’s behaviour towrad other people
true.
How is inhibition and helping behaviour in 2-year olds related?
Child’s temperament helps to predict whether that child will help. Outoing children typically traslated this concern into action, helping boht mothers and experiments. Shy youngsters helped mothers but could not overcome their reluctance to help an unfamiliar adult who was not asking for help.
-no correlation found regard to the mothers, when interacting with their moms, shy and outoging children were equally likely to express concern and to provide help
-correlatoin between inhibition and expressing concern is small, shy and outgoing youngsters were equally likely to express convern when the experiment feigned injuyr
-correlation between inhibition and helping was negative, shy inhibited 2-year olds were less likely than outgoing 2-year olds to help an experimenter
What may prevent inhibited chidlren from helping others?
Their apprehensiveness in unfamiliar social seeings
True or false: shy boys and girls marry earlier than non-shy children
False. Shy boys and girls married later than non-shy children. In addition, shy boys became fathers later than non-shy boys
True of false: Shy girls are more educated than non-shy girls
false. Shy girls were less educated
Does temperament act alone on the child’s development?
No, influence of temperament often depends on the environment in which children develop.
When does resistant temperament tend to lead to behaviour problems?
Primarily when mothers do not exert much control over their children. Infants and toddlers who temperamentally resist control tend to be prone to behaviour problems, particularly aggression in later adulthood. However, Mothers who do exert control, resistant temperament is not linked to behaviour problems.
When does anxious and fearful temperament tend to lead to compliance?
Only when parents encourage compliance with discipline that elicits mild distress. Fearful children worry about the possibility of punishment. However, when parents seeek compliance by encouraging their child to co-operate, anvious temperament is no longer linked to compliance. Relation between temperament and compliance to a parent’s request depends on how the request is framed. ex: when asked to clean up because it will be helpful to the parent, fearful and fearless children and equally likely to comply.