Psych 1A Chapter 12 Social Influence

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In Solomon Asch’s study, confederates were instructed to
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give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task
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Research on conformity suggests that if a _____ response is required, ______ show more conformity than ______.
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public; women; men
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A person demanding _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change
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obedience
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A door-in-the-face technique involves
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asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a small commitment
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In Milgram’s study, as the teachers became reluctant to continue, the experimenter:
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todl them that they had to continue.
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Which of the following statement best describes attitudes
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Attitudes are learned through experiences as we live and work with others
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according to the __, people either expand on what they hear or they pay attention to the surface characteristics of persuasive messages
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elaboration likelihood model
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Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she doesn’t like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of
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direct contact
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Warren has been struggling to eat healthier, but he forgot to pack a lunch and he is starving. He pulls into the fast food drive-though lane, and as he ponders the options he decides to order a hamburger instead of a cheeseburger. He gets a small order of French fires instead of a large order. By adding a diet soda instead of a regular one, Warren is trying to reduce the _______ that he is experiencing.
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cognitive dissonance
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People can reduce cognitive dissonance by:
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forming new cognitions to justify their behavior
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Studies have found that the _____ is particularly active when people have made a decision that reduces dissonance and then acted on that decision
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left frontal cortex
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Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on:
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implicit personality theory
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Research has found that social categorization is:
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a natural process
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In explaining our own behavior, we tend to use situation rather than personal attributions. Such a phenomenon is known as:
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the actor-observer bias
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Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Marco is using an example of:
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situational cause
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_____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and _____ is the behavior that can result from that attitude
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Prejudice; discrimination
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The formation of in-groups and out-groups
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begins in childhood
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The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is
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stereotype vulnerability
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Strategies for overcoming prejudice include
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intergroup and equal status contact.
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Some research suggest that ________ is one of the main factors that influence people’s choices for selecting people they want to know better
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physical attractiveness
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Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of
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intimacy and commitment.
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In one study, college students liked another student simply because they were told that the other student liked them. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
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reciprocity
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_______ love, based on many years of shared responsibilities and experiences, is what binds many marriages together.
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Companionate
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In Sternberg’s theory, _______ encompasses the physical aspects of love.
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passion
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The sadistic behavior of the \”guards\” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study
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highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people.
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Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in
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aggression
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Once someone has taken responsibility to help, the next step in the decision-making process is
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planning a course of action.
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In the Latane and Darley smoke-filled room study, participants were most likely to report the smoke when
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they were the only ones in the room.
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The presence of others heavily influences helping behavior when a situation is:
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ambiguous
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End of Ch. 12
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In the Milgram study and several similar studies, between _____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level
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61 and 66
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A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through
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persuasion.
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According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and
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commitment
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_______ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
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Diffusion of responsibility
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Studies have found that the _____ is particularly active when people have made a decision that reduces dissonance and then acted on that decision
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left frontal cortex
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If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, it is an example of the
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foot-in-the-door technique.
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Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of
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direct contact.
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Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
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proximity
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Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. This is an example of
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altruism
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The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of
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groupthink.
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Attitudes
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are learned through experiences and contact with others
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People can reduce cognitive dissonance by
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forming new cognitions to justify their behavior
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Scapegoats are
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typically members of the out-group.
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The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to _____.
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the presence of multiple witnesses
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Sheri’s coworker, Stephanie, is extremely scared of spiders and screams every time she sees one in the warehouse. After a few weeks of working closely with Stephanie in the warehouse, Sheri is scared of spiders, too. This is
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vicarious conditioning.
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Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on
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impression formation. <=== It is NOT this one implicit personality theory. fundamental attribution error. prejudice.
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When parents tell their children that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and unhealthy, and the children develop negative attitudes toward smoking, it is an example of
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direct instruction.
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A police officer comes to Jane’s office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Jane nonetheless takes what she learned seriously and begins to pay more attention to her safety. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer’s message
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central-route processing
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Jackie is assigned to a group project. It is in her best subject, and she finds the material easy. Jackie will probably experience
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social facilitation.
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The ABC Model of Attitudes includes
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Affect, Behavior, and Cognition.
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According to your textbook, the _____ theory explains prejudice and discrimination between the Nazi soldiers and Jewish people during WWII
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realistic conflict
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_________ is common in college settings, where students and instructors from many different backgrounds live, work, and study together.
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Discrimination
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_________ has been linked to higher levels of aggression
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Testosterone
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According to the ________, people either expand on what they hear or they pay attention to surface characteristics of persuasive messages
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theory of social facilitation elaboration likelihood model that’s-not-all technique <=== It is NOT this one ABC model of attitudes
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The \”jigsaw classroom\”
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is a technique that gives each individual only part of the information needed to solve a problem, so they must work with others to find the solution
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Fritz Heider developed _______ to explain why people choose the particular explanations of behavior that they do.
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attribution theory
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Groupthink can be minimized by
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voting by secret ballot
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Zimbardo’s prison guard experiment supports the idea that
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taking on particular social roles can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior.

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