Psyc 319 Chapter 6

Functionalism was the end of searching for the “elements” of consciousness.

True
False

True

Darwin’s theory of evolution bridged the mental functioning between animals and humans.

True
False

True

Functionalism was replaced by Structuralism.

True
False

False

The mechanism for the theory of evolution is artificial selection.

True
False

Flase

Functionalists ask questions like “What is the function of consciousness?”

True
False

True

“r” the symbol for correlation coefficient, is based on the “r” at the beginning of the word “recess.”
False

Galton’s Anthropometric Laboratory was free to the public.
False

A suggestion of Galton’s “mental inheritance” was that “brilliant men produce brilliant sons.”
True

As a variable for men and women, height follows a normal curve distribution.
True

Wundt and Titchner both considered individual difference research to be inappropriate for psychology.
True

Animal psychology got a big boost from Darwin’s theory of evolution.

True
False

True

Descartes and Darwin were in complete agreement about the similarity between animals and humans.

True
False

False

C. Lloyd Morgan proposed the “law of parsley.”

True
False

False

Galton’s “association of ideas” refers to the thoughts and memories elicited by things we notice in the environment.

True
False

True

Romanes wrote the book on animal intelligence.

True
False

True

The most important consequence of functionalism was ____.
a.
the status it gave to pragmatism
b.
the introduction of evolution
c.
the replacement of experimentalism
d.
the development of applied psychology
e.
the development of clinical psychology
the development of applied psychology

____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.
a.
Charles Darwin
b.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
c.
Bain
d.
Erasmus Darwin
e.
Charles Lyell
Lamark

In his book ____, Darwin emphasized the similarity between human and animal mental processes.
a.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
b.
The Phylogeny of Thought
c.
On the Origin of Species
d.
The Ascent of Man
e.
The Descent of Man
The Descent of Man

____, a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God.
a.
Anaximander
b.
Erasmus Darwin
c.
Plato
d.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
e.
Isaac Newton
Erasmus Darwin

Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah’s ark?
a.
The giraffe’s neck had become too long after generations of having to reach for higher and higher branches to find food.
b.
Because the attitude of positivism allowed for no supernatural explanations.
c.
No inland body of water would hold such a vessel.
d.
There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat.
e.
Galton’s work in statistics showed that it was mathematically impossible.
There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat.

Darwin’s ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin’s work was his ____.
a.
hard data to support such a theory
b.
idea of survival of the fittest
c.
work on emotions
d.
idea of natural selection
e.
focus on lower animals
hard data to support such a theory

In his journal Mind, Darwin describes ____.
a.
early theory that has since been the foundation of cognitive psychology
b.
simple stimuli that elicit the same responses in humans and animals
c.
the developmental stages of his son in relation to human evolution
d.
the evolution of human mental functions
e.
an ape whose mental processes are analyzed
the developmental stages of his son in relation to human evolution

The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the ____.
a.
normal distribution of traits in a population
b.
tenet of survival of the fittest
c.
process of natural selection
d.
fact of variation among members of the species
e.
heritability of variations
fact of variation among members of the species

The essential difference between Wallace’s theory of evolution and Darwin’s was that the work of the former ____.
a.
did not have empirical data to support it
b.
was a restatement of Spencer’s ideas
c.
was a restatement of Lamarck’s ideas
d.
included the heritability of acquired traits
e.
was suppressed by Darwin
did not have empirical data to support it

A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was ____.
a.
work in comparative physiology
b.
a focus on individual differences
c.
the theory of eugenics
d.
statistical analyses
e.
the legitimization of the collective unconscious
a focus on individual differences

Darwin’s position on Lamarck’s idea that changes due to experiences can be inherited was the ____ of Lamarck’s ____.
a.
synthesis; ideas with Galton’s theory of the normal distribution
b.
replacement; doctrine with the doctrine of social Darwinism
c.
total rejection; doctrine
d.
replacement; doctrine with the variability hypothesis
e.
acceptance; doctrine
acceptance; doctrine

One of the early sources of modern child psychology was an article in 1877 by ____.
a.
F. Galton
b.
E. Darwin
c.
C. Darwin
d.
J. M. Cattell
e.
K. Pearson
Darwin

In the Original Source Material from his autobiography, Charles Darwin described himself as ____.
a.
having “no great quickness of apprehension or wit”
b.
“a poor critic”
c.
“moderate abilities”
d.
possessing a “love of natural science [which] has been steady and ardent”
e.
All of the choices are correct.
all of he above

Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to ____.
a.
Lyell
b.
Huxley
c.
Wilberforce
d.
Darwin
e.
Hooker
Huxley

How many years did Darwin wait to present his theory publicly?
a.
2
b.
11
c.
17
d.
22
e.
34
22

Galton’s Hereditary Genius was mainly concerned with ____.
a.
a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring
b.
isolating the gene responsible for making geniuses
c.
exploring his lineage and the eminent men in his family
d.
None of the above.
e.
All of the above.
a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring

Which of the following did Galton not endorse in the material from Hereditary Genius?
a.
the idea of natural equality
b.
definite limits to muscular and intellectual powers
c.
limiting one’s undertakings to matters within one’s reach
d.
babies are born alike
e.
None of the choices was endorsed by Galton.
the idea of natural equality

Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed?
a.
Huarte
b.
Quetelet
c.
Moyen
d.
Galton
e.
Pearson
Quetlet

Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are ____.
a.
the mean and the mode
b.
the mean and the median
c.
the median and the mode
d.
the mean and the standard deviation
e.
the variance and the standard deviation
the mean and the standard deviation

The aim of the research at the Anthropometric Laboratory was to assess ____.
a.
the collective mental resources of the British people
b.
the sensory capacities of humans
c.
the correlates of intelligence among eminent men
d.
developmental trends over the lifespan
e.
eugenics policy development
the collective mental resources of the British people

The idea of measures clustering around the of center or average of a distribution should be attributed to ____.
a.
Quetelet
b.
Cattell
c.
Darwin
d.
Newton
e.
Pearson
Quetelet

Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____.
a.
Fechner’s Law
b.
average error in psychophysics tasks
c.
just noticeable differences
d.
reaction times to stimuli
e.
acuteness of the senses
acuteness of the senses

The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of ____.
a.
artificial selection
b.
Darwin’s theory of evolution
c.
product-moment correlations
d.
eugenics
e.
natural selection
eugenics

The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.
a.
Quetelet; Galton
b.
Cattell; Galton
c.
Huarte; Quetelet
d.
Galton; Cattell
e.
Galton; Quetelet
Cattell; Galton

Who wrote a 16th-century book on individual differences and argued that children’s education should be individualized to recognize such differences?
a.
Galton
b.
Quetelet
c.
Butler
d.
Huarte
e.
Wundt
Huarte

The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____.
a.
Morgan
b.
the functionalists
c.
Romanes
d.
Conway
e.
the behaviorists
Morgan

According to ____, animals have no soul and thus are automata.
a.
Darwin
b.
Galton
c.
Romanes
d.
Morgan
e.
Descartes
Descartes

Galton studied paranoid disorders by ____.
a.
visiting insane asylums
b.
reading every book and article about it on which he could get his hands
c.
imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him
d.
inviting people suffering from paranoid disorders to the Anthropometric Laboratory
e.
All of the choices are correct.
imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him

The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by ____.
a.
Sherrington
b.
Romanes
c.
Galvani
d.
Huarte
e.
Morgan
Romanes

According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect ____.
a.
a correspondence of the “fight or flight” responses in humans and animals
b.
the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans
c.
evidence of animal intelligence
d.
evidence of instincts in humans
e.
a similarity of nervous systems between people and animals
the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans

Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work?
a.
child development
b.
heredity
c.
statistical techniques
d.
testing methods
e.
All of the above.
all of the above

The intent of Lloyd Morgan’s canon was to ____.
a.
make comparative psychology more behavioral
b.
exclude anthropological findings from the natural sciences
c.
make comparative psychology more scientific
d.
impose a criterion for a distinction between instincts and thinking in both animals and humans
e.
rid psychology of all traces of the technique of introspection
make comparative psychology more Scientific

Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ____.
a.
rationalism as purported by Berkeley, Kant, and Descartes
b.
Ebbinghaus’s decay theory of memory
c.
Müller’s interference theory of memory
d.
empiricism as purported by Locke and Mill
e.
the effects of childhood experiences on the adults
the effects of childhood experiences on the adults

The first experimental attempt to study word associations was by ____.
a.
Jung
b.
Galton
c.
Freud
d.
Wundt
e.
Ebbinghaus
Galton

Whenever we think we “know what’s on someone’s mind,” we are using which technique?
a.
introspection
b.
introspection by analogy
c.
identification
d.
projection
e.
the anecdotal method
Introspection by analogy