PSY4930 Language Development Quiz Answers

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Dr. Marchman studies how children learn grammatical rules for forming the past-tense in English by creating computational models that use a domain general learning mechanism to learn to produce regular and irregular past-tense words like walk-ed and ran. Which of the following approaches to language research is Dr. Marchman using?
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the connectionist approach
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A chronological view of child language development demonstrates that children learn language in the following stages:
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None of these answers are true. (Other three answer choices: All at once. Syllable sounds, grammar and communicative competence. Phonology, vocabulary, grammar.)
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Studies of children “without language,” such as Psammeifhus’s study, Goldin-Meadow’s studies of homesigning children, and the “Wild Boy” from Aveyron, provide:
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evidence about the roles of input and the child’s biological capacities in acquiring language
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The biological approach to researching child language acquisition:
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examines how language and language development are related to biological processes.
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Roy’s study of his son’s language learning where he recorded video and audio in all rooms of his house is an example of what kind of design and method:
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Longitudinal design, observational method
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Dr. Montague argues children seem to learn language despite not being taught about the rules of language. This “poverty of the stimulus” argument leads him to suggest that children must be “hard-wired” to learn language with specialized brain regions that encode the rules of language. What theoretical approach(es) does Montague’s arguments support?
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Universal Grammar approach
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The “word segmentation problem” refers to which of the following hard problems in language learning:
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It is difficult to determine the boundaries between words from the speech signal
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Julie is a linguistically-gifted 4-year-old who likes to engage in word-play. She recombines the sounds of the word “C-A-T” to form another word, “A-C-T. ” Which design feature of language is she demonstrating?
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Duality of patterning
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Dr. Rowland wants to compare the kinds of grammatical structures children hear in different languages by analyzing a large dataset of language samples that include child-directed speech.
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The Child Language Data Exchange system (CHILDES)
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The language is composed of the following components:
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Phonology, lexical development, syntax and morphology, and communicative competence
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The study of continuity and discontinuity in language development:
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asks if children’s early grammars are qualitatively different from the grammars of adults.
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Standardized measures of language development:
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All of these answers are true. (Other three answer choices: Get norm-referenced measures for placement in school programs. Are used to evaluate the relationship of language to IQ. Examine the relative language delay of children with language disorders.)
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The view that language learning is shaped by the communicative function that it serves describes which of the following views of language learning:
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The functionalist approach
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Which of the following is an example of semanticity in language:
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You discover a new kind of jellyfish that is extremely venomous and name it after your ex, everyone afterwards then uses that new name to refer to this creature.
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Aphasia is ____________________.
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an impairment of language due to brain injury
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The development of Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL):
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has demonstrated the importance of young children for adding complexity to a developing language.
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Attempts to teach primates human language have found:
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that they have been unable to learn the grammar of a human language.
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The FOXP2 Gene:
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Is involved in the formation of the basal ganglia, important for motor control
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The equipotentiality hypothesis holds that:
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the right and left hemisphere have equal capacity for language at birth
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The invariance hypothesis refers to the view that:
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the left hemisphere is specialized for processing language from birth.
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A Creole is a language that
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is learned by children born into a community in which a pidgin language is used as a common means of communication. The children add to the language and develop syntax complexities.
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Telling a story about events that happened a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away demonstrates which design feature of language?
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Displacement
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Which of the following options is a consequence of developmental changes in brain plasticity:
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Children recover their language abilities more completely from brain injury than adults do
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The critical period hypothesis states that:
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there is a critical age range during which children are able to develop language.
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Which language design feature is missing from the honeybee waggle dance?
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Productivity
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Joint attention is:
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a social-communicative act in which a person jointly attends to both an object and another person
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Which of the following statements would be the most consistent with the current understanding of infant TV, DVD and video viewing
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None of these statements are true (Other four answer choices: Young children can learn how to read from videos. Early media viewing is associated with a universally positive benefit on language skills Baby Einstein Videos are associated with positive learning outcomes for young children Early media viewing is universally harmful and should be avoided at all costs)
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Hermine is a 10-month-old who has started to point to objects that are just out of reach. What kind of gesture is Hermine producing?
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Deictic gestures
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Which of the following are NOT true about Infant Directed Speech (IDS)?
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IDS is consistently used in all cultures across the world.
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Which of the following provides evidence that, at least in part, children’s language development depends on their general cognitive skills?
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the fact that children who have difficulty on tasks of executive function also show poorer language skills
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Parents who are highly responsive to their child’s early vocalizations have (compared to parents who are less responsive)
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Babies who cry less often and show more advanced language development.
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Dr. Werker wants to investigate whether or not an infant understood the difference between two speech sound that does not exist in her language. What would be a useful method to test this idea?
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the conditioned head-turn procedure.
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Which of the following are true about Infant Directed Speech (IDS)?
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all of the above are true statements about IDS. (Other three answer choices: Infants prefer to listen to IDS over Adult Directed Speech. IDS carries consistent emotional messages across different languages. IDS contains more prototypical vowels than Adult Directed Speech.)
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Categorical Perception of phonemes refers to the fact that:
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we hear sounds as belonging to a single phoneme category, even though the acoustic differences between sounds are along a continuous dimension.
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Which of the following constitutes evidence that infants can hear and learn about sounds in-utero?
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the fact infants prefer to listen to specific passages of poetry they were read in-utero.
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Which of the following are potential explanations discussed in the lecture and textbook for why joint attentional skills and language are related (you can select more than one)
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Joint attention and language skills develop at the same time, but are not necessarily related to each other Joint attentional skills help children recognize correspondences between non-verbal behaviors (like gaze) and new words Joint attention and language skills develop at the same time, but are not necessarily related to each other
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Dr. Kuhl finds that children do not seem to be able to learn speech-sound distinctions from video, but can learn these distinctions from a live speaker. Which of these concepts does this finding illustrate?
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Social gating
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Compared to children raised in high Socioeconomic households, children from low Socioeconomic backgrounds:
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hear substantially less language input and have substantially smaller vocabularies at age 3 years.
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What do biological and usage based theories of phonology focus on?
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Biologically based theories focus on the role of anatomical and physiological factors in development while usage based theories focus on the role of environmental input.
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Which of the following statements about phonemes and English spelling is true?
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in a many-to-many correspondence: each sound may correspond to many different letters and each letter may correspond to many different sounds.
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The tuning of speech perception in the first year of life refers to
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Children lose the ability to discriminate speech sounds that do not occur in their own language
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The phonological development of individual children
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depends on the particular language children are learning and also on the particular strategies that each child prefers to use.
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Which of the following is NOT a factor in describing how consonantal sounds are produced:
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Whether or not you tense your mouth
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Which of the place of articulation is not used to produce the phonemes in English
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Uvular
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Isabella is a very vocal 10-month-old. She seems to use the sound “ga” to refer to many different things, such as a car, a bottle, a teddy bear, and a dog. “Ga” is an example of what kind of utterance:
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Protoword
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The development of infants’ speech sounds follows the following trajectory
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vegetative sounds, canonical babbling, non-reduplicated babbling, words
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Which of the following is a FALSE statement about children’s early word recognition?
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Children show no evidence for recognizing words before they can produce words.
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Phonological awareness is
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the ability to think about and reflect on the sounds of one’s language.
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Boris is a native speaker of Croatian and English. One day, he overhears someone talk about a type of wine, “Grk.” Immediately, he knows that this wine is NOT an English word, but could potentially be a Croatian word. What kind of knowledge is Boris using to make this judgment?
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Phonotactic knowledge
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The content of infants’ babbling is
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influenced by the language the infant hears.
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Which of the following constitute evidence that children’s phonological development is influenced by environmental factors?
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all of the above are evidence for the importance of environmental factors on phonological development.
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The development of phonology depends on:
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both biological and environmental factors.
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The sounds that create differences in meaning are called:
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Phonemes
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Phonological processes are
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systematic sound changes that children make when producing sounds in their early words
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A teacher asks a child to retrieve a “stapler” from her desk. Although the child did not understand what a stapler is, she was able to retrieve the correct item on the desk because she knew the names of all the other items. This is an example of:
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the mutual exclusivity phenomenon
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A child is presented with a picture of an unfamiliar animal and told it is called “a hyrax”. That child can use the Taxonomic assumption to draw which of the following inferences?
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the word “hyrax” can be extended to refer to all animals that look like animal in the picture.
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Children’s on-line processing and recognition of words:
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is positively correlated with a child’s language experience: children who hear more words also faster processors
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Which of the following words categories make up the largest portion of children’s first 50 words?
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General nominals
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A child is presented with a picture of an unfamiliar object and told that “This is a pagoda. Do you see the fancy finial?” The child determines that the entire item is called a “pagoda” and that the ball on the top is called a “finial”. What word learning processes did this child make?
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the Whole Object assumption and the Mutual Exclusivity assumption
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Children typically say their first words around:
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10-15 months
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The mental lexicon includes:
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All of the above are true. (Other three answer choices: Information about how words are used grammatically. Information about word meanings. Information about how words sound.)
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One of the first words of a young child was “go.” For almost a month, the child said this word only when her mother was buckling her in her car seat. This is an example of:
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context-bound word use.
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Syntactic Bootstrapping is a word learning process that:
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allows children to draw inferences about a word’s meaning from the sentential context in which it is used.
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The vocabulary Word Spurt:
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is idiosyncratic: some children show them and some do not.
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Which of the following is TRUE about nouns and verbs in children’s early word learning?
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In English, verbs make up a much larger proportion of a child’s early vocabulary than nouns do
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One of the first words of a young child was “ball” For almost a month, the child used this word to refer to a baseball, an orange, a balloon, and the sun . This is an example of:
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Overextension.
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Language productivity (or generativity) refers to the fact that:
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human knowledge of language can produce an infinite number of different sentences.
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Across languages:
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children generally learn morphemes which are highly frequent and perceptually salient first.
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The development of children’s use of questions shows that:
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children understand both interpretations of a complex wh-question (“When did the boy say he hurt himself?”) while still in preschool.
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Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) is calculated by:
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Averaging the total number of morphemes a child produces per utterance
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Constructivist and Nativist accounts of language development DISAGREE about which of the following:
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whether or not a child is born with language-oriented biases that help them use input from adults to learn their native language.
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The meanings expressed by children’s 2-word utterances:
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include several kinds of basic relations among actors, objects and actions.
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The sentence, “I saw three boys and three girls on the playground”:
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Has 12 morphemes, 10 tokens, and 9 types
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Which of the following is true about Open and Closed class words in language?
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open class words are content words and closed class words are function words.
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Children’s past tense overregularizations (e.g. saying “goed” instead of “went”) demonstrate that:
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children have learned the regular rule for the past tense.
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The plural morpheme “-s” (as in “There are two goblins”) is:
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a bound morpheme, because it adds meaning to the noun but it cannot stand alone in the sentence.
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Type Token Ratio (TTR) is a measure of:
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The lexical diversity in a language sample
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What kinds of sentences make up the highest proportion of 2-year-old’s sentences?
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Imperative and Declarative statements
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Which of the following are missing in telegraphic speech?
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Function words and bound morphemes
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Benjamin Lee Whorf is associated with what strong hypothesis about the relationship of language and thought?
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Whorf hypothesized that the language we speak determines the way we think, including determining the categories of our thought.
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The term language socialization refers to the way in which:
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children become socially competent language users in their cultures.
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Children acquiring Mandarin learn verb earlier than children acquiring English because:
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the structure of Mandarin grammar means that children are more likely to hear verbs in a prominent position, namely the end of the sentence.
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Evidence for the position that language and thought are independent of each other comes from:
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research with infants. Even before they have any language, infant are capable of a variety of kinds of abstract thought.
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The Sesame Street character, Kami, is an asymptomatic HIV-positive 5 year old girl in South Africa. Sesame Street workshop hopes to encourage children to talk about HIV and AIDS and to dispel myths about this disease. This example highlights:
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How language can influence children to adopt the attitudes and behaviors of their culture
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Theory theory:
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Proposes a bidirectional relationship between language and thought, each influence each other equally
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Adult English and Korean speakers often describe spatial situations differently. For example, speakers of English describing a ring on a finger focus on support (e.g., they use the word on) while speakers of Korean describing the same thing focus on the tightness of the fit of the ring (e.g. they use the word kkita, meaning ‘tight fit’). Research with young children acquiring these two languages has found that:
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children learning English are able to correctly use English spatial terms at approximately the same age that children learning Korean are able to correctly use Korean spatial terms.
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Japanese mothers are more likely to use an indirect comment to instruct a child (e.g., Drinking juice is healthy) while American mothers are more likely to use a direct command (e.g. Drink your juice!). This difference in phrasing reflects:
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a difference in social values between the two cultures.
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Some researchers have argued that our autobiographical memories depend on language because:
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most people cannot remember anything about their childhood from before they had enough language skills to tell a basic story.
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Recent research on bilingualism and cognitive functioning indicates that children who are bilingual have
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cognitive advantages in metalinguistic awareness and executive function control.
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A child speaks a low prestige heritage language at home and receives schooling in a second, high prestige language. The child has many friends in school and desires to become an integrated member of the larger community. Which of the following is TRUE about this child?
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the child is at risk of losing her first language in a process of attrition
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Which of the following factors influence how well a person acquires a second language in childhood?
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all of these are factors which influence how well a person acquires a second language in childhood
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Sequential bilingualism is when:
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a child begins to learn a second language after having already started to learn a first one.
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Research on bilingual education programs in the U.S. has shown that:
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supportive dual language programs in which children are instructed in both their home language and also English lead to higher academic performance.
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In order for a child to become bilingual, which of the following must be true about her environment?
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none of the above statements describe environmental requirements for becoming bilingual
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Rana came to the United States with her family when she was seven years old, and had never before spoken English, but was speaking at a developmentally-appropriate level in Arabic. She was enrolled at a public school which had a bilingual education program to support English Language Learners. After several years, her grandparents came to visit, but, because she no longer regularly practiced her first language, she could no longer converse in Arabic. Which of the following best describes Rana’s language learning situation:
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Rana learned English via immersion, and experienced subtractive bilingualism.
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Studies examining the rate of language development in bilingual children have found that:
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bilingual children’s language development is tied to the amount of experience they have in each language
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In the United States, Bilingualism is:
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Not uncommon. About a quarter of all children grow up speaking more than one language.
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Code switching is:
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a systematic shifting between languages that is sensitive to grammatical structure and also social situations.
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Resistance to bilingual education programs in the U.S.:
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is based on misconceptions about how people learn language as well as reactions to poorly implemented programs
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Which of the following is NOT a factor in children’s ability to become bilingual?
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all of the above are factors that influence a child’s ability to become bilingual
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A critical task for simultaneous bilinguals is:
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differentiating between their languages.
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Over the first year of life, bilingual children :
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maintain their ability to hear phonemic contrasts in both of their languages while losing their ability hear phonemic contrasts beyond those languages.
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Which of the following is NOT an example of a nonliteral use of language?
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yes/no questions
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Studies that compare children’s language abilities at the beginning of a school year and at the end of a school year have found that:
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children’s language abilities improve, and improve more than they do over an equally long period of time when the children are not in school.
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When children first enter school:
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their oral language skills are largely in place.
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Leah read a challenging book today that included several new words that she had never encountered before. She was able to learn most of these new words by using the contextual cues alone and did not use a dictionary to look up any of the word meanings. Which of the following word learning processes did Leah use?
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Quick, incidental learning
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The ability to use word formation processes such as noun compounding in new and creative situations:
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develops over the school years and is subject to individual differences so that so that even some adults are better at it than others.
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Phonological awareness in pre-school aged children is important because it predicts:
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children’s reading ability through 4th grade.
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The Miami dialect:
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Has unique phonological, lexical and syntactic features that blend elements of English and Spanish
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Studies of conversational style in school age and teenage children have found that these children are:
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able to maintain topics and be responsive to their conversational partner.
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Aimee is a college student who is active in many leadership roles in her campus and is well-respected and liked by her peers. When she speaks among other students, she often ends her utterances with a low vocal register that includes some “creaky” or “rattling” sounds. This is an example of what phenomenon:
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Vocal fry
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Studies of children’s accents indicate that:
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peer influences can cause children to change or acquire new accents.
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Which of the following teachers would be most likely to improve the language abilities of the children in her class?
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a teacher who used a range of sentence types, including complex ones, and also used more advanced vocabulary items.
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Juan has just learned a new word today “interstate”, and was able to understand this word meaning because he understands the simpler word “state” and that the prefix “inter-” means “between”. What kind of word is this an example of?
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Derived word
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Sign languages, such as American Sign Language (ASL) are:
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natural languages, containing all the grammatical complexities found in spoken languages.
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Which of the following statements regarding cochlear implants are true:
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Even with extensive therapy and support, some children who receive cochlear implants do not acquire strong spoken language skills.
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Research on children using American Sign Language (ASL) as their first language indicates that:
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deaf children make the same errors and learn language elements in the same sequence as hearing children.
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Children who are described as having specific language impairment (SLI) have:
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limited language development in a variety of areas.
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Studies of phonological development in children who are blind find:
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they are somewhat delayed in producing sounds that have highly distinctive visible components such as /b/, /m/, and /f/.
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An area of relative strength in the language development of children with Down Syndrome is:
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pragmatic development.
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Studies of how children in special populations learn language:
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All of these answers are true.
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The prevalence of specific language impairment (SLI) is:
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More frequent than autism, and similar to dyslexia
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Children with Williams syndrome:
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Have strong social/pragmatic communication skill and weak visuo-spatial skills
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Deaf babies:
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babble manually as well as orally, to some extent.
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Research on language development for deaf students who are in oral programs (that is, programs that teach deaf children a spoken language) has found that:
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only a small percentage of deaf children in these programs achieve intelligibility in their spoken language or any reasonable understanding of it.
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For individuals with autism, the area of language development that is most affected is:
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communicative competence.
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Among children who are deaf, the most successful readers are:
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children who have been exposed to a sign language from birth.

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