The first to apply psychology to personnel selection was ____.
Binet and Simon’s test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its ____.
emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence
The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was ____.
Which American psychologist is noteworthy for writing in industrial/organizational psychology, psychotherapy, and forensic psychology?
The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by ____.
Cattell’s work was novel in its focus on ____.
Witmer’s “clinical psychology” is today known as ____.
Who wrote Psychotherapy?
The intelligence test data from World War I recruits indicated that whites scored higher than all other groups.
A significant finding by Witmer was that behavior disorders and cognitive deficits are substantially influenced by a child’s environment.
Whose therapeutic technique might be described as “therapist-centered?”
Attempts by psychologists during World War I to develop group tests of personality characteristics were a dismal and embarrassing failure.
____ used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the United States.
The psychologist responsible for using mental tests to assess whether immigrants were mentally defective was Goddard.
Scott argued that consumers ____.
are not rational beings
According to the intelligence testing of U.S. army recruits, which group scored higher on average?
Cattell’s mental tests, like those of Galton, dealt primarily with sensorimotor measures.
Münsterberg was best known ____.
through his publications in the popular press on applied psychology
The Hawthorne studies were crucial in exposing the importance of the conditions of the psychological work environment.
The main reason Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems did not survive in the United States was that they ____.
were not pragmatic
Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.
reinforcements and S-R connections
Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior?
Which of the following statements best describes the change that took place in animal psychology following the work of Romanes and Morgan?
The field became more objective as mentalistic terms were dropped from the descriptions of behavior.
An approach to learning termed ____ was developed by Thorndike.
In his mechanistic approach to psychology, Thorndike discarded concepts of satisfaction and discomfort.
Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect is similar to ____.
Pavlov’s law of reinforcement
In the typical conditioning experiment done by Pavlov, the food placed in the dog’s mouth is called the ____.
The Animal Mind, the first textbook on comparative psychology, was written by ____.
Thorndike argued that psychology should study behavior as well as conscious experience.
For Pavlov, humans and animals were ____.
In Pavlov’s terms, the conditional reflex is dependent on the formation of an association.
Who first demonstrated that reward had a stronger effect than punishment?
For Thorndike, learning is
Pavlov’s work illustrated the study of higher mental processes in _
One criterion of positivism is that knowledge must be private in nature.
More than any other researcher in psychology before him, Pavlov attempted to ____.
eliminate sources of error from his studies and implement the experimental method.
The crux of Pavlov’s work on conditioning was that higher mental processes could be studied in physiological terms.
For Watson, introspection was ____.
For Pavlov, ____ is necessary for learning to take place.
Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of ____.
Thorndike’s law of exercise
The most significant public impact of Watson’s varied undertakings was to ____.
transform childrearing practices
McDougall was especially critical of Watson’s ____.
McDougall’s arguments against Watson included that ____.
humans had free will and data pertaining to consciousness were valuable
After his dismissal from Johns Hopkins, Watson ____.
published for the American public through popular media
In Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, Watson stated that psychology is a natural science because it relies on the experimental method.
McDougall believed that human behavior ____.
derives from innate tendencies
In Watson’s system, fear, rage, and love are ____.
One part of the cerebral cortex is essentially equal to another in its contribution to learning; this is ____ principle of ____.
Which of the following was NOT one of Watson’s methods?
All of the choices were acceptable to Watson.
All of Watson’s methods are based on the concept of ____.
Watson proposed that thinking could be observed in subvocal speech and gestures.
One criticism of Watson was that his strict objectivity ____.
was hard to achieve
Watson’s position on verbal reports was ____.
All of the choices are correct.
According to Watson, the three fundamental emotions displayed by infants were ____
fear, rage, and love
The “Little Albert” study has been successfully replicated.
The most important research method of the behaviorists was ____.
the conditioned reflex method
A major criticism of Watson’s system is that it discounts ____.
sensation and perception
In Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It, Watson pointed out the importance of keeping all results on an entirely objective level.
In the long run, Watson’s behaviorism ____.
was absorbed into the mainstream of psychology and thereby lost its distinctiveness and revolutionary spirit and initiative
Watson’s contribution to the method of objective testing was ____.
to argue that the subjects’ responses were under the stimulus control of the test items
In Watson’s system, fear, rage, and love are ____.
The first person to de-condition a learned fear was ____.
For Watson, the distinction between humans and animals is ____.
Watson’s analysis of behavior was reductionistic.
Behaviorism was officially established in ____.
1913, with Watson’s “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It”
Watson’s second career was in ____.
Watson proposed that society as a whole could be improved by ____.
replacing religion-based ethics with experimental ethics
Watson argued that areas of applied psychology can be considered scientific because they ____.
seek general laws for the prediction and control of behavior
Watson planned to replace religion-based ethics with his experimental ethics based on behaviorism.
For Watson, the goal of psychology is ____.
the prediction and control of behavior
Consistent with the Darwinian notion that there is a continuum between animals and humans, Watson argued that there is no dividing line between humans and other animals in the application of experimental methods.
Freud’s infamous use of cocaine ____.
extended to middle age
A major theme of Freud’s system, borrowed from Darwin, was the ____.
importance of the sex drive throughout life
The major conceptions of mental illness in the 19th century were the psychic and the mental.
____ is an unconscious inability to bring into conscious awareness memories that are too shameful or painful to be faced.
Wundt and Titchener rejected the unconscious as subject matter because it could not be studied experimentally.
Freud proposed that neurotic behavior did not develop in persons who ____.
led a normal sex life
Freud’s system was deterministic and mechanistic.
According to Freud, the biological, need-related part of everyone’s personality is the ____.
Which of the following topics had already been discussed before Freud?
All the choices are correct
Freud argued that whether an event happened in childhood ____.
is less important than the patient’s belief that it occurred
Freud’s overriding goal was to ____.
describe and explain the dynamics of human behavior
The goal of Freud’s therapies was to ____.
make the unconscious conscious
In the case of Anna O., the recollections she revealed while under hypnosis involved ____.
ideas or experiences she found disgusting
Psychoanalysis was eradicated in Germany by ____.
the Nazi party
A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was ____.
A major criticism of Freud’s data is that there are discrepancies between his notes on the therapy sessions and the published case histories.
Fear of being the victim of a violent crime while visiting a gang-infested area in the United States is an example of ____.
By the 1930s and 1940s, psychoanalysis ____.
was wholeheartedly embraced by the American public
Freud himself held a positive attitude toward sex.
“A new movement requires something to revolt against”; Freud opposed the current trends in ____.
A treatment of mental disorders