PSY3213 Practice Final Exam

Milgram’s obedience study was purportedly an experiment on __________.
A) shock and memory
B) learning and shock
C) learning and reward
D) memory and learning
D) memory and learning

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ethical principles in the Belmont Report?
A) beneficence
B) respect for persons
C) empathy
D) justice
C) empathy

To be assured that research procedures have minimized risk to participants, a ___________ must be done before research can be approved.
A) plus-minus analysis
B) cost-reward analysis
C) risk-benefit analysis
D) pro-con analysis
C) risk-benefit analysis

In some cases, the risks entailed with loss of confidentiality are so great that researchers may wish to apply for a Certificate of Confidentiality from the __________.
A) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
B) American Medical Association
C) American Psychological Association
D) Institutional Review Board
A) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Informed consent forms should be written __________.
A) in the first person
B) using specific technical terminology
C) at a sixth to eighth grade reading level
D) in legalistic terms
C) at a sixth to eighth grade reading level

Any procedure that limits an individual’s freedom to consent to participate in a study can be __________.
A) a violation of confidentiality
B) potentially coercive
C) approved by the IRB
D) justified
B) potentially coercive

Which of the following is TRUE about the informed consent procedure?
A) It may bias the sample and limit generalizability of the results.
B) It leads to an expectation of payment for participation.
C) It ensures that participants will give unbiased responses.
D) It is no longer routinely used in laboratory research.
A) It may bias the sample and limit generalizability of the results.

Which of the following is a reason for the decrease in the type of elaborate deception used in the Milgram study?
A) Researchers have become more interested in emotions rather than cognitive variables.
B) There is an increased awareness of the ethical issues relating to the use of deception.
C) Ethics committees have banned the use of deception studies.
D) both b and c
B) There is an increased awareness of the ethical issues relating to the use of deception.

During a research study, the debriefing takes place _______.
A) as part of the informed consent procedure
B) after the completion of the study
C) before any deceptive activities begin
D) after an individual agrees to participate
B) after the completion of the study

The Stanford Prison Experiment is an example of a __________ study.
A) honest
B) role-playing
C) reality
D) simulation
D) simulation

According to the justice principle defined in the Belmont Report, any decision to include or exclude certain people from a research study must be __________.
A) approved by the American Psychological Association Ethics Committee
B) justified on scientific grounds
C) equal and fair to all participants
D) approved by the Judicial Committee of the Belmont Agency
B) justified on scientific grounds

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) The actual rules and regulations for the protection of human research participants were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
B) Every institution that receives federal funds must have an Institutional Review Board.
C) All research conducted at an institution is reviewed in some way by the IRB.
D) all of these
D) all of these

An anonymous questionnaire is usually considered __________ research.
A) exempt
B) minimal risk
C) greater than minimal risk
D) summary approval
A) exempt

All institutions in which animal research is carried out must have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee that is __________.
A) charged with conducting all animal research within the institution
B) composed of one doctor and two students
C) charged with ensuring that all regulations are adhered to
D) all the these
C) charged with ensuring that all regulations are adhered to

Fraud in the field of psychology is __________.
A) common and a major problem faced by the scientific community
B) considered to be a minor issue because it involves data, not people
C) not addressed in the APA Ethics Code
D) often detected when research results cannot be replicated
D) often detected when research results cannot be replicated

Which of the following is an example of a potential benefit of research?
A) acquisition of new skills
B) finding treatments for medical problems
C) payment for participation
D) all of these
D) all of these

Informed consent forms should include all of the following except
A) information about compensation participants will receive for their participation.
B) the person(s) the participant should contact if they have any questions.
C) exactly what is being studied.
D) assurances that the participant can withdraw at any time.
C) exactly what is being studied.

Steve is a 17 year-old college freshman enrolled in a General Psychology class. He wants to earn extra credit by participating in research experiments. What, if any, problems might Steve run into when trying to sign-up for these studies?
A) Universities do not allow minors are not allowed to participate in research.
B) While he can give his informed assent, he cannot give his informed consent.
C) Debriefings cannot be provided to minors.
D) Steve is unlikely to experience any issues when signing-up for research studies.
B) While he can give his informed assent, he cannot give his informed consent.

Which of the following is not an example of an honest experiment?
A) participants agree to be studied
B) participants are seeking out services they need
C) participants are deceived during the study but fully debriefed before they leave
D) participants know exactly what the researchers are hoping to accomplish
C) participants are deceived during the study but fully debriefed before they leave

Which of the following would not be considered a minimal risk study?
A) asking shoppers to fill out anonymous surveys
B) recording the weight and blood pressure of adult participants
C) recording individual behaviors on a problem solving task where behavior is not manipulated.
D) asking a healthy adult to walk on a treadmill for 15 minutes.
A) asking shoppers to fill out anonymous surveys

Which of the following is not an example of plagiarism?
A) copying text directly from a source and not quoting or citing
B) providing a citation for text directly copied from a source but not quoting
C) paraphrasing text from a source and not citing
D) all of these are considered plagiarism.
D) all of these are considered plagiarism.

Which of the following is NOT a quantitative approach to describing behavior?
A) the percentage of students enrolled in 4 or more courses
B) the number of drivers that are stopped by police officers each day
C) personal explanations for not wearing seat belts
D) the average age of children entering school
C) personal explanations for not wearing seat belts

Dr. V should use ___________ to describe and understand how homeless people live.
A) a lab experiment
B) a field experiment
C) archival research
D) naturalistic observation
D) naturalistic observation

Which of these statements is TRUE about naturalistic observations?
A) The field researcher becomes a direct participant interacting with those who are being observed.
B) The field researcher keeps detailed field notes.
C) The goal is to test hypotheses formed prior to the study.
D) both a and b
B) The field researcher keeps detailed field notes.

Naturalistic observation requires accurate description and ___________ interpretations.
A) objective
B) subjective
C) positive
D) intuitive
A) objective

Which of the following is a limitation of naturalistic observations?
A) Field research is very difficult to do.
B) Field research can be very time consuming.
C) It cannot be used to investigate complex social settings.
D) both a and b
D) both a and b

Dr. Jones is conducting a study in which he is observing how parents play with their children. When training his research assistants, he tells them to document how many times the parents smile at their children, frown at their children, encourage their children, and correct their children. This is most clearly an example of
A) a coding system.
B) archival research.
C) naturalistic observation.
D) a case study.
A) a coding system.

__________ observation refers to the careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting.
A) Nonparticipatory
B) Systematic
C) Specific
D) Naturalistic
B) Systematic

A(n) _________ is a type of case study in which a researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual.
A) psychobiography
B) case biography
C) autobiography
D) histobiography
A) psychobiography

Case studies are used to describe __________.
A) businesses
B) individuals
C) neighborhoods
D) all of these
D) all of these

__________ research involves using previously compiled information to answer research questions.
A) Case study
B) Archival
C) Laboratory
D) Experimental
B) Archival

Which of the following is NOT a type of archival research data?
A) oral statements
B) statistical records
C) survey archives
D) written records
A) oral statements

Which of the following is a major problem with the use of archival data?
A) The desired records may be difficult to obtain.
B) Information collected by someone else may not be accurate.
C) There is tremendous bias in written records.
D) both a and b
D) both a and b

Books, magazine articles, movies, television programs, and newspapers are examples of ___________ records.
A) ethnographical
B) mass communication
C) written
D) cultural communication
B) mass communication

Letters preserved by historical societies are an example of __________.
A) written records
B) survey data
C) mass communication records
D) both a and b
A) written records

Joe’s term paper for his psychology class this semester analyzed Abraham Lincoln from three different theoretical positions. Joe most clearly conducted a(n)
A) archival research.
B) a psychobiography.
C) systematic observation.
D) naturalistic observation.
B) a psychobiography.

Which of the following is not methodological issue in systematic observation research?
A) equipment needs
B) interrater reliability
C) reactivity concerns
D) validity concerns
D) validity concerns

Published systematic observation research tends to have reliability coefficients of at least
A) 60%
B) 70%
C) 80%
D) 90%
C) 80%

Dr. Jones is interested in hybristophilia; a rare paraphilia in which people are attracted to those who have committed crimes. Dr. Jones is most likely to conduct a(n)
A) case study.
B) naturalistic observation.
C) systematic observation.
D) archival researcher.
A) case study.

_____ is the methodical analysis of existing documents.
A) Systematic observation
B) Content analysis
C) Mass communication analysis
D) Psychobiography
B) Content analysis

Which of the following is true about naturalistic observation studies?
A) the data analysis is planned in advance
B) procedures are well defined
C) procedures are the same for all participants
D) informed consent may be given verbally
D) informed consent may be given verbally

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) Survey research data can complement experimental research findings.
B) Survey research data are limited to providing a “snapshot” of how people think or behave at a given point in time.
C) Survey research data can be used to study relationships among variables and ways that behaviors change over time.
D) Survey research data can be important for making public policy decisions by public agencies.
B) Survey research data are limited to providing a “snapshot” of how people think or behave at a given point in time.

If Rolando completed a survey and responded to all the questions in a way that made him look good, this would be an example of __________.
A) data manipulation
B) reactivity
C) a response set
D) the objectivity bias
C) a response set

Researchers can now take advantage of wireless communication devices by contacting people at different times each day and asking them to report their current activities and/or feelings. Barrett and Barrett (2001) refer to this as
A) random wireless sampling.
B) computerized experience-sampling.
C) focus group sampling.
D) CATI.
B) computerized experience-sampling.

When constructing questions for a survey, what is the first thing the researcher must do?
A) evaluate the potential participants
B) determine the research objectives
C) establish the desirable outcome
D) list any questions that come to mind about a topic
B) determine the research objectives

With open-ended questions, respondents are _________.
A) free to answer any way they like
B) given a limited number of response alternatives
C) led to respond in one particular way
D) likely to respond either “yea-saying” or “nay-saying”
A) free to answer any way they like

The __________ scale is a measure of the meaning of concepts.
A) graphic rating
B) confidence rating
C) semantic differential
D) theoretical perception
C) semantic differential

Which of the following statements about responses to questions is TRUE?
A) Children are unable to understand how to answer rating scale questions.
B) A nonverbal scale may help very young children provide ratings.
C) Only open-ended questions should be given to children who are under 12-years of age.
D) All questions seem double-barreled to children under 12-years of age.
B) A nonverbal scale may help very young children provide ratings.

A written questionnaire should __________.
A) look professional and attractive
B) have the most interesting and important questions first
C) make it easy to identify the questions and responses
D) all of these
D) all of these

___________ bias describes all the biases that can arise from the fact that the person asking the questions in an interview is a unique human being.
A) Respondent
B) Survey
C) Predictor
D) Interviewer
D) Interviewer

One way to study changes over time is to conduct a __________ study in which the same people are surveyed at two or more points in time.
A) respondent
B) time-sensitive
C) panel
D) focus group
C) panel

Which of the following will reduce the size of a confidence interval?
A) using a larger sample size
B) having a better theoretical understanding of the topic
C) increasing the margin of error
D) using qualitative data
A) using a larger sample size

With ___________ sampling, every member of the population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample.
A) simple random
B) probability
C) stratified random
D) random cluster
A) simple random

Which sampling technique has the advantage of a built-in assurance that the sample will accurately reflect the numerical composition of the various subgroups?
A) simple random
B) probability
C) stratified random
D) random cluster
C) stratified random

Which of the following is NOT a form of nonprobability sampling?
A) cluster
B) haphazard
C) quota
D) all of these
A) cluster

When response rates are low, there is a greater chance of __________.
A) randomized researcher bias
B) respondents and nonrespondents being different
C) interviewer bias that distorts the findings
D) response sets by the sampling frame
B) respondents and nonrespondents being different

All of the following are general types of survey questions except
A) questions about attitudes and believes
B) questions about facts and demographics
C) questions about behaviors
D) questions about response sets
D) questions about response sets

According to cognitive psychologists, all of the following are potential question wording issues except
A) they contain unfamiliar technical terms.
B) they contain unclear response sets.
C) grammatical errors.
D) their phrasing overloads working memory.
B) they contain unclear response sets.

Manny is filling out a survey about a recent dining experience. After reading the first two questions, he just answered “strongly agree” to the remaining 8 items. This is an example
A) nay-saying.
B) a social desirability response set.
C) yay-saying.
D) a double-barreled response set.
C) yay-saying.

Research on the semantic differential shows that concepts are rated along three basic dimensions. Which of the following is NOT one of those dimensions?
A) activity
B) evaluation
C) latency
D) potency
C) latency

Which of the following is false?
A) Written questionnaires are usually less expensive to administer than interviews.
B) Written questionnaires allow the respondent to be completely anonymous.
C) Mail surveys typically have a low response rate.
D) Using internet surveys solve most sampling problems inherent in survey research.
D) Using internet surveys solve most sampling problems inherent in survey research.

Dr. Smith wants distribute a survey to 300 people so he decides to administer the survey during his 300 person general psychology course that day. This is an example of _____ sampling.
A) cluster
B) purposive
C) haphazard
D) quota
B) purposive

A simple experimental design with two levels of an independent variable cannot __________.
A) detect a curvilinear relationship between variables
B) detect a monotonic relationship
C) reveal a positive relationship
D) show a negative relationship outcome
A) detect a curvilinear relationship between variables

__________ designs are research designs with more than one independent variable.
A) Simple
B) Monotonic
C) Factorial
D) Multi
C) Factorial

Dr. Vickman conducted a __________ factorial design to examine the effects of music and room temperature on participant’s memory. Participants were randomly assigned to study a list of nonsense words either listening or not listening to music in either a warm or cold room.
A) 1 x 2
B) 2 x 4
C) 2 x 2
D) 4 x 4
C) 2 x 2

In a 3 x 3 factorial design, how many conditions are there in the experiment?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 6
D) 9
D) 9

Dr. Snodgrass conducted a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design. This design will yield information about the main effect of _________ independent variables.
A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 8
B) 3

In a factorial design, a main effect is the __________.
A) the combined effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable
B) interaction effect of the independent variables and their effect on the dependent variable
C) the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable
D) interaction of the independent variables
C) the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable

In a factorial design, a(an) ___________ between independent variables indicates that the effect of one independent variable is different at different levels of the other independent variable.
A) main effect
B) factorial effect
C) interaction
D) moderation
C) interaction

In a IV x PV design, PV stands for __________ variable.
A) practical
B) participant
C) personality
D) procedure
B) participant

Gender and age are examples of __________ variables.
A) subject
B) participant
C) attribute
D) all of these
D) all of these

What statistical procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of the main effects and the interaction(s) in a factorial design?
A) t-test
B) correlation
C) analysis of covariance
D) analysis of variance
D) analysis of variance

A __________ effect(s) analysis examines mean differences at each level of the independent variable.
A) main
B) simple main
C) interaction
D) simple interaction
B) simple main

If a researcher planned to have 20 participants in each condition of a 2 x 3 independent groups factorial design, how many participants would be needed for this experiment?
A) 40
B) 60
C) 80
D) 120
D) 120

A researcher conducted a 2 x 2 completely repeated measures factorial design and planned 15 participants in each condition. How many participants would be required to conduct this experiment?
A) 15
B) 30
C) 45
D) 60
A) 15

Which of the following is TRUE of IV x PV designs?
A) They include a nonmanipulated variable.
B) They include a manipulated variable.
C) They include a personality variable.
D) both a and b
D) both a and b

In a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design, independent variable B has _________ levels.
A) 2
B) 3
C) 7
D) 12
A) 2

How would an interaction be indicated in a line graph?
A) as parallel lines
B) as intersecting lines
C) as overlapping lines
D) as diagonal lines
B) as intersecting lines

A researcher is conducting a 3 x 2 factorial experiment. In variable 1 participants are randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions. In variable 2 participants respond to both levels of the independent variable. Which of the following best describes this study?
A) it is an independent groups design
B) it is a repeated measures group design
C) it is a mixed factorial design
D) it is a simple main effect design
C) it is a mixed factorial design

Dr. Jones is conducting a 2 x 3 factorial experiment. He is interested in the impact of college major and study method on exam performance. How many levels of study method were used in this study?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 5
D) 6
B) 3

Dr. Jones is conducting a 2 x 3 factorial experiment. He is interested in the impact of college major and study method on exam performance. He found that study method effected exam performance regardless of the participants’ major. Which of the following is true?
A) Dr. Jones found a main effect for study method.
B) Dr. Jones found a main effect for college major.
C) Dr. Jones found a significant interaction between college major and study method.
D) There is not enough information provided to answer this question.
A) Dr. Jones found a main effect for study method.

Dr. Smith is conducting a 2 x 3 x 4 experiment looking at the impact of gender, age, and ethnicity on college GPA. How many PVs are in this study?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 24
C) 3

A research conducted a 2 x 4 study with 40 total participants. How many participants were in each experimental condition?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 5
D) 8
C) 5

Which of the following designs use a reversal of a manipulation?
A) withdrawal
B) ABA
C) ABAB
D) all of these
D) all of these

In which type of multiple-baseline design are several different behaviors of a single subject measured over time?
A) across situations
B) across subjects
C) across behaviors
D) across variables
C) across behaviors

Which type of program-evaluation study examines whether there are problems that need to be addressed in the target population?
A) needs assessment
B) program-theory assessment
C) process-evaluation assessment
D) efficiency assessment
A) needs assessment

Determining that the program design is based on a model that addresses the needs of the target population is called a (an) __________ assessment.
A) needs
B) program theory
C) process evaluation
D) efficiency
B) program theory

Once it is shown that a program does have its intended effect, researchers conduct a program evaluation called a(an) __________ assessment to determine if the program is “worth it.”
A) process-evaluation
B) efficiency
C) impact
D) program-monitoring
B) efficiency

One internal validity problem with a __________ design is that it lacks a control or comparison method.
A) one-group pretest-posttest
B) non-equivalent
C) one-group, posttest-only
D) independent-groups
C) one-group, posttest-only

Which of the following is a potential alternative explanation for the findings of a one-group, pretest-posttest design study?
A) maturation and history
B) testing and instrument decay
C) statistical regression
D) all of these
D) all of these

To test the effectiveness of a new diet program, a healthcare worker recruited 10 participants into the program. The researcher studied the amount of weight change that occurred over a two-month period. This is an example of which type of research design?
A) one-group, posttest-only
B) one-group, pretest-posttest
C) single-case
D) factorial
B) one-group, pretest-posttest

An educator wanted to test the effectiveness of a new testing method in reducing test anxiety. The anxiety level of students was measured before the test began and then tested again 30-minutes later. Just after the test began, a boy accidentally slipped off his chair and all the children laughed. This example best refers to ___________ as an alternative explanation for the research findings.
A) maturation
B) testing
C) history
D) instrument decay
C) history

__________ is defined as any time-related factor, such as fatigue, hunger, or boredom that might result in a change between the pretest and posttest measures of the dependent variable.
A) Maturation
B) Statistical regression
C) History
D) Instrument decay
A) Maturation

Statistical regression is likely to occur whenever participants are _________.
A) allowed to self-select their assignment to experimental condition
B) selected because of their extremely high or low pretest scores
C) subjected to different measurement scales on the pretest and posttest measures
D) all of these
B) selected because of their extremely high or low pretest scores

In a nonequivalent control group design, __________ is an internal validity problem.
A) the lack of a comparison group
B) test sensitization
C) selection differences
D) demand characteristics
C) selection differences

The difference between a one-group, pretest-posttest design and an interrupted-time series design is that the interrupted-time series design __________.
A) uses a posttest control group
B) requires multiple comparison groups
C) measures the variable over an extended period of time
D) incorporates several one-group, pretest measures
C) measures the variable over an extended period of time

In a single-case experimental design, the observation of a participant’s behavior before the manipulated treatment is referred to as a __________.
A) timed-series control measurement
B) preexperimental control treatment
C) reversal control measurement
D) baseline control period
D) baseline control period

Which of the following methods involves studying persons of different ages at only one point in time?
A) cross-sectional
B) longitudinal
C) control
D) both b and c
A) cross-sectional

Which of the following represents the correct order of the phases of program evaluation research?
A) needs assessment, process evaluation, program theory assessment, efficiency assessment, outcome evaluation
B) process evaluation, needs assessment, program theory assessment, outcome evaluation, efficiency assessment
C) needs assessment, program theory assessment, process evaluation, outcome evaluation, efficiency assessment
D) process evaluation, program theory assessment, needs assessment, outcome evaluation, efficiency assessment
C) needs assessment, program theory assessment, process evaluation, outcome evaluation, efficiency assessment

Which of the following best accounts for the hex associated with being on the cover of Sports Illustrated?
A) regression toward the mean
B) testing effects
C) instrument decay
D) history effects
A) regression toward the mean

A developmental researcher is interested in how self-esteem develops across the lifespan. He identifies 20 children in the first grade and has them fill out a series of questionnaires. He has them fill out the same questionnaires each year until they graduate high school. This is most clearly an example of
A) the cross-sectional method.
B) the longitudinal method.
C) the sequential method.
D) the nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design.
B) the longitudinal method.

Studies using ______ can reveal cohort effects.
A) the longitudinal method
B) the sequential method
C) the cross-sectional method
D) propensity score matching
C) the cross-sectional method

The sequential method is a compromise between
A) one-group posttest-only and one-group pretest-posttest designs.
B) propensity score matching and reversal designs.
C) nonequivalent control group and nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest designs.
D) longitudinal and cross-sectional methods.
D) longitudinal and cross-sectional methods.

A researcher is conducting a study on how couples communicate. He has 5 research assistants watch videos of couples having conversations and take detailed notes. After a couple of hours, though, his assistants become very tired and start making mistakes. This is an example of
A) instrument decay.
B) regression toward the mean.
C) maturation effects.
D) history effects.
A) instrument decay.

If you predict a curvilinear relationship, you must have at least three levels of the independent variable in your experiment.

True
False

True

A researcher studied the effect of defendant gender (male-female) and type of crime (robbery-embezzlement) on juror decisions. How many conditions are in this study?

two.
three
four

four

If a study has two or more independent variables, it is called a factorial design.

True
False

True

Participants gave longer sentences for embezzlement than robbery, irrespective of gender. This implies that there was a:

main effect of gender.
main effect of type of crime.
interaction.

main effect of type of crime.

In the IV X SV design, one of the independent variables is a characteristic of participants such as personality type.

True
False

True

In a mixed factorial design, one of the independent variables is a characteristic of participants such as personality type.

True
False

False

A researcher interested in attitude change designed an experiment that examined the effect of age (18-25 years of age, 35-50, and over 60) and type of media (newspaper, radio, television) on attitude toward a tax increase for local schools. In a completely independent groups design with 20 participants per condition, the researcher needs to study ______ people.

60
120
180

180

The effect of motivation depended on whether there was a clear standard for excellence. This sentence implies that there was a(n):

main effect of motivation
main effect of standard
interaction effect

interaction effect

A main effect is the effect of one independent variable averaged over the other independent variables.

True
False

True

Dr. Fox studied the effect of attractiveness on juror decisions. Dr. Ramirez studied the effect of type of crime on juror decisions. What would be gained by studying both independent variables in one experiment?

main effects
interaction
curvilinear relationship

interaction

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