Longitudinal research design
of longitudinal and cross-sectional
to identify genetic basis of behavior.
Nurture refers to influence of the environment on inherited traits including parenting styles, socioeconomic status, physical surroundings, etc.
and recessive genes determine physical and behavioral traits. specific physical and behavioral traits are dependent upon pairing of genes; more active genes are dominant, others are recessive. Most traits are polygenetic
a variety of disorders. genetic disorders carried by recessive genes are expressed when a child gets two recessive genes. issue may also occur if chromosomes having an extra or a missing pair
c. cross-sequential d. cross-longitudinal
a. experimental group.
b. control group.
c. dominance effect.
d. cohort effect.
a. At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for
b. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for
c. Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for
d. Neither of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.
a. dominant inheritance.
b. recessive inheritance.
c. polygenetic inheritance. d. amines.
a. Turner’s syndrome c. cystic fibrosis
b. Klinefelter’s syndrome d. Down syndrome
b. Turner’s syndrome
c. Klinefelter’s syndrome d. PKU
(i.e., respiratory, circulatory, temperature regulation, digestive). babies are born with (innate) reflex behaviors. # KEY AREAS – brain, motor, sensory
o cognitive development – via sensory experience and motor skills. Reason why babies put objects in their mouth, touch…
o Stage ends with –
♣ Object permanence – objects or people exist even not sensed (seen, headed, or touched) ex. Child can find hidden toy. Before -n out of sight,out of mind
o use mental symbols (words, images) to represent objects and ppl (obj permanence)
o Rapid development of language
o Thinking is egocentric. Child is center. Everyone feels as child feels ex. Child interrupts, focus on child who wants best everywhere
o Thinking is animistic – all things are living, has consciousness and feelings. Ex. Don’t sit on teddy bear, hurts him!
♣ Internal transformation, manipulation to solve problems
♣ BUT only on images of tangible, “concrete” objects. Reason to use objects to teach how to add&subtract
o Logical thinking, abstract reasoning, conceptualization, without using concrete objects
o If, then statements, hypothetical thinking, concept thinking
o Some adults don’t reach this level of thinking
c. longitudinal study.
d. a cross-sectional design.
a. vision b. touch c. hearing d. smell
c. concrete operations
d. formal operations
c. zone of proximal development d. metamemory
a. telegraphic speech
c. a holophrase d. cooing
o 1. Secure infants (attached-responsive) 60%
♣ Sensitive, responsive parents
♣ Willing to leave mom, explores room
♣ Touches base with mother
♣ Moderate distress when mom leaves and happy when mom returns
♣ Wary but calm with stranger
♣ Child does not seek contact with mother (like a stranger)
♣ Not bothered when mother leaves (rarely cries) or reacts when she returns
♣ Child ignored stranger
♣ Cling to mom, unwilling to explore
♣ Child very upset by mom leaving
♣ Possible abuse or neglect by parents
♣ Babies unsure of mom’s return, confession and anxiety
♣ Approach with averted eyes, fearful, dazed, depressed look on face
a. into early childhood; the unconscious
b. into early adolescence; the environment c. into early adulthood; family
d. throughout adulthood; heredity
b. physical contact.
c. mental challenges.
a. trust versus mistrust.
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt. c. awareness of herself.
d. her internal identity.
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt c. initiative versus guilt
d. generativity versus stagnation
o Right is whatever avoids punishment
o Right is whatever benefits the person
• Conventional Level (adolescence&young adult; Piaget’s concrete operations)
o Moral reasoning is other-centered
o Person internalized standards of others; judges right and wrong in terms of standards
o Right is whatever is approved by others
o Right is one’s duty, respect for authority, social order
• Post conventional Level (adulthood: Piaget’s formal operations) Mostly at stages 3 and 4
o Moral reasoning – person’s own principles and values
o Right is laws that protect society and person; otherwise, change laws but over until change
o FIRST theory though adulthood (65+)
o Each of erikson’s stages includes
♣ Conflict of person with social environment
♣ Satisfactory resolution results in healthy development
♣ Unmet needs – world is place of pain, frustration, and uncertainty
♣ If parent encourages independence – autonomy
♣ If parent is impatient or overprotective – uncertainty, doubt, shame of abilities to express their will and explore environment
♣ If encouraged, child will have initiative, form realistic sense of ambition and independence
♣ If child is put down, then guilt over self-initiated activities
♣ If not encouraged, or rebuffed – sense of inferiority
♣ Develops be identity and independence established
♣ If close bonds not formed, person may avoid interpersonal commitments and face and loneliness
♣ If not expand outside
♣ Negative resolution – regret over life choices ad results in despair