psy100 exam 4

CH. 8
Longitudinal research design
one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as they age

cross-sectional research design
several different age-groups are studied at one time

cross-sequential research design
of longitudinal and cross-sectional

nature refers to heredity and the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, growth, intellect, social skills, etc.; behavioral genetics is relatively new held that attempts
to identify genetic basis of behavior.
Nurture refers to influence of the environment on inherited traits including parenting styles, socioeconomic status, physical surroundings, etc.

is the science of heredity

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
contains genetic codes and chromosomes. Aside from egg and sperm, humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell of the body. Individual gets 23 chromosomes from mother’s egg and 23 from father’s sperm. Most characteristics are determined by 22 such pairs (autosomes); the last pair determines sex of the person (sex chromosomes)

What determines physical & behavioral traits?
both dominant
and recessive genes determine physical and behavioral traits. specific physical and behavioral traits are dependent upon pairing of genes; more active genes are dominant, others are recessive. Most traits are polygenetic

What can cause disorders?
genetic and chromosome problems can cause
a variety of disorders. genetic disorders carried by recessive genes are expressed when a child gets two recessive genes. issue may also occur if chromosomes having an extra or a missing pair

1. In a __________ design, one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages.
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional
c. cross-sequential d. cross-longitudinal
d. cross-longitudinal

2. The cognitive and social changes students go through because they are born and grow up in an age of smartphones would be referred to as a(n)
a. experimental group.

b. control group.

c. dominance effect.

d. cohort effect.


3. Brandy has naturally blond hair. Based on this information, what do we know about Brandy’s parents?
a. At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for
blond hair.

b. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for
blond hair.

c. Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for
brown hair.

d. Neither of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.


4. When sets of genes group together, the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait. This is best explained by the process known as
a. dominant inheritance.
b. recessive inheritance.
c. polygenetic inheritance. d. amines.

5. Which of the following is a disorder resulting from recessive inheritance?
a. Turner’s syndrome c. cystic fibrosis
b. Klinefelter’s syndrome d. Down syndrome

6. Which disorder is characterized by having only one X chromosome in the 23rd pairing?
a. Tay-Sachs
b. Turner’s syndrome
c. Klinefelter’s syndrome d. PKU

Hazards to prenatal dev
drugs, x-rays & stress, father’s damaged sperm, TERATOGENS – environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal dev by crossing placenta

physical development
immediately after birth, body systems start to function
(i.e., respiratory, circulatory, temperature regulation, digestive). babies are born with (innate) reflex behaviors. # KEY AREAS – brain, motor, sensory

brain development
neurons grow & increase; brain devs fastest; brain 25% @ birth; 75% @ 2 yrs; 90% @ 5 yrs

motor development
newborn’s initial motor skills (sucking, swallowing, blinking…). Within 1 yr infant progresses to voluntary skills

sensory development
hearing is functional but not fully developed. vision is least developed (rods are functional, cones take about 6 months to fully develop). Touch, taste, smell. fetus hear sounds outside womb

Piaget’s theory
suggests children form mental concepts or schemes as they experience new situations and events

Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive dev
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations

basic unit of intellect – framework that organize interactions with environment

absorbing new info into existing schema

1. Sensorimotor
birth to 2 years
o cognitive development – via sensory experience and motor skills. Reason why babies put objects in their mouth, touch…
o Stage ends with –
♣ Object permanence – objects or people exist even not sensed (seen, headed, or touched) ex. Child can find hidden toy. Before -n out of sight,out of mind

2. Pre operational
2 – 7 years
o use mental symbols (words, images) to represent objects and ppl (obj permanence)
o Rapid development of language
o Thinking is egocentric. Child is center. Everyone feels as child feels ex. Child interrupts, focus on child who wants best everywhere
o Thinking is animistic – all things are living, has consciousness and feelings. Ex. Don’t sit on teddy bear, hurts him!

3. Concrete Operational
7-11 years – logical, not abstract
o Operations
♣ Internal transformation, manipulation to solve problems
♣ BUT only on images of tangible, “concrete” objects. Reason to use objects to teach how to add&subtract

4. Formal Operational
11 years and up
o Logical thinking, abstract reasoning, conceptualization, without using concrete objects
o If, then statements, hypothetical thinking, concept thinking
o Some adults don’t reach this level of thinking

1. One way researchers study newborn development involves measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a non- changing stimulus. This technique is referred to as
a. adaptation.
b. habituation
c. longitudinal study.
d. a cross-sectional design.

2. Which of a baby’s senses is the most well developed at birth?
a. vision b. touch c. hearing d. smell

3. In which of Piaget’s stages would a child be who has just de- veloped the ability to conserve?
a. sensorimotor

b. preoperational

c. concrete operations

d. formal operations


4. Vygotsky defines __________ as the process of helping less as the learner improves at a given task.
a. scaffolding
b. habituation
c. zone of proximal development d. metamemory

5. Which of the following tends to occur first in a child’s lan- guage development?
a. telegraphic speech
b. babbling
c. a holophrase d. cooing

Social – Emotional Development – 4 levels of of attachment
attachment, avoidant infants, ambivalent infants, disorganized

1. Attachment
emotional bond between infant and caregiver
o 1. Secure infants (attached-responsive) 60%
♣ Sensitive, responsive parents
♣ Willing to leave mom, explores room
♣ Touches base with mother
♣ Moderate distress when mom leaves and happy when mom returns
♣ Wary but calm with stranger

2. Avoidant infants (unattached-distant)
♣ Distant parents (not mentally and or physically there)
♣ Child does not seek contact with mother (like a stranger)
♣ Not bothered when mother leaves (rarely cries) or reacts when she returns
♣ Child ignored stranger

3. Ambivalent infants (insecure-inconsistent)
♣ Caring (parent’s terms) and indifferent- inconsistent parents
♣ Cling to mom, unwilling to explore
♣ Child very upset by mom leaving

4. Disorganized- disoriented infants (abused or neglected)
♣ later research than first 3
♣ Possible abuse or neglect by parents
♣ Babies unsure of mom’s return, confession and anxiety
♣ Approach with averted eyes, fearful, dazed, depressed look on face

1. According to Thomas and Chess, temperament styles often last _____________ and are often influenced by _____________.
a. into early childhood; the unconscious
b. into early adolescence; the environment c. into early adulthood; family
d. throughout adulthood; heredity

1. What kind of attachment, according to Ainsworth, is shown by a baby who clings to his or her mother, gets upset when the mother leaves, and demands to be picked up but at the same time kicks and pushes her away?
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. ambivalent
d. disorganized-disoriented

2. Studies by Harry Harlow showed that the most important element to developing attachment is
a. feeding.

b. physical contact.

c. mental challenges.

d. sleep.


4. Baby Lisa is beginning to learn more about herself. When she sees herself in a mirror, she smiles and laughs but no longer needs to touch the mirror or look behind it to find the baby that she sees. Researchers would say that baby Lisa is developing
a. trust versus mistrust.
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt. c. awareness of herself.
d. her internal identity.

5. According to Erikson, which stage results in a sense of in- dependence because of one’s ability to control their own actions?
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt c. initiative versus guilt
d. generativity versus stagnation

Baumrind’s 3 parenting styles

• 1a. Permissive indifferent
(low control, low warmth) parents set few limits and little attention or support; poor social skills, out of control, demanding.

• 1b. Permissive indulgent
(low control, high warmth) parents highly involved but few demands or controls, impulsive, immature, out of control

• 2. Authoritarian
(high control, low warmth) parents – rigid and punitive, require obedience, fellow rules, definite right&wrong; aggressive, poor communication skills

• 3. Authoritative
(high control, high warmth) parents- set limits, caring involved, teach – confident, self-control, socially skilled

• Stage 1 – Punishment -obedience orientation
– obedience from fear to rules to avoid punishment
o Right is whatever avoids punishment

• Stage 2- instrumental- exchange orientation
– obedience to rules to receive rewards
o Right is whatever benefits the person
• Conventional Level (adolescence&young adult; Piaget’s concrete operations)
o Moral reasoning is other-centered
o Person internalized standards of others; judges right and wrong in terms of standards

• Stage 3. – good-child orientation
– morality based on mutual relationships,
o Right is whatever is approved by others

• Stage 4 – law and order orientation
– morality of the social system, conscience, authority
o Right is one’s duty, respect for authority, social order
• Post conventional Level (adulthood: Piaget’s formal operations) Mostly at stages 3 and 4
o Moral reasoning – person’s own principles and values

• Stage 5 – social contract orientation
– obedience to laws&contracts.
o Right is laws that protect society and person; otherwise, change laws but over until change

• Stage 6 – universal ethics orientation
– right is following ones conscience even if violates law: universal ethical principles – respect for human life, justice, equality, dignity for all

• Stage 7 – religious faith
, higher than moral reasoning, right based on God’s standards of right and wrong

• Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages
o Personality – inborn biological
o FIRST theory though adulthood (65+)
o Each of erikson’s stages includes
♣ Conflict of person with social environment
♣ Satisfactory resolution results in healthy development

o Stage 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth – 1)
♣ Needs met – world is good&satisfying place
♣ Unmet needs – world is place of pain, frustration, and uncertainty

o Stage 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 yrs)
♣ Child’s need for independence (own will, make own choices)
♣ If parent encourages independence – autonomy
♣ If parent is impatient or overprotective – uncertainty, doubt, shame of abilities to express their will and explore environment

o Stage 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 yrs)
♣ Child past expressing autonomy, develops initiative
♣ If encouraged, child will have initiative, form realistic sense of ambition and independence
♣ If child is put down, then guilt over self-initiated activities

o Stage 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (5-12 yrs)
♣ Child develops industriousness ( working hard) and feels pride in accomplishing tasks, making&doing things
♣ If not encouraged, or rebuffed – sense of inferiority

o Stage 5. Identity vs Role Confusion (12-20 yrs)
♣ Conflict on developing sense of “who am I” to establish identity, occupational identity

o Stage 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-30 yrs)
♣ Intimacy – able to share, care, sacrifice, and commit self to another person
♣ Develops be identity and independence established
♣ If close bonds not formed, person may avoid interpersonal commitments and face and loneliness

o Stage 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (30-65 yrs)
♣ Giving back to the world (beyond self&family) for development of next generation
♣ If not expand outside

o Stage 8. Ego integrity vs. Despair (65+)
♣ People who have resolved earlier conflicts, review life with satisfaction and accomplishment
♣ Negative resolution – regret over life choices ad results in despair

• Storm and stress
(adolescence) – emotion; turmoil and rebellion. In reality, both sexes remain close to and admire parents

• Mid life crisis
(35 women, 40 men) Psychological and emotional turmoil. Re0evaluation occurs, but rarely with drastic personality or behavioral changes

• Empty-nest syndrome
– painful separation and depression that parents feel when last child leaves home

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