PSY 379 Final

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Cervical cancer is related to
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sexual behavior of women. reproductive history of women. sexual behavior of women’s sex partners.
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The number one preventable cause of death in the United States is
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cigarette smoking.
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One reason that consuming red meat may raise the risk for cancer is
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the methods of preparation, such as grilling and smoking, provide risks.
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For men, death rates are highest for _____ cancer.
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lung
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About two thirds of cancer deaths in the United States are associated with
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diet. sedentary lifestyle. cigarette smoking.
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Kaposi’s sarcoma is a cancer that occurs most frequently in the United States as a result of
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HIV infection.
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If pizza protects against cancer, the ingredient most likely to provide that protection would be the
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tomato sauce.
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Since about 1993, cancer death rates in the United States have
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decreased slightly.
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Since the mid-1990s, cancer deaths in the United States
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began to drop.
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Gwyneth Paltrow fears cancer and focuses on diet and use of natural products to decrease her risk. However, she has a history of smoking and doesn’t mention that risk, which suggests that she exhibits
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an optimistic bias.
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Which ethnic group has the lowest risk for Type 2 diabetes?
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European Americans
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For a person with a terminal illness, a personal re-examination of his or her life
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may lead the person to find a new meaning in his or her life.
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Those AIDS patients who have better psychological adjustment to their situation
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have active coping styles.
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At present, Alzheimer’s disease cannot be
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cured.
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The increased number of HIV cases immediately after 1992 was primarily due to
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change in the definition of HIV.
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The process of grieving
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occurs in people who have been diagnosed with a chronic illness and occurs in people whose loved ones have died.
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Psychologists are most likely to help diabetic patients through
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improving their adherence to their treatment regimen.
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Health psychology’s involvement with diabetes has included
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understanding how diabetics conceptualize their illness. understanding the effects of stress on blood glucose metabolism. helping diabetics understand the requirements for managing diabetes.
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The lifestyle changes that are necessary to manage diabetes are essentially a problem of
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compliance.
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Grant is a gay man who is LEAST likely to become HIV positive if he
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is 50 years old and engaged in a long-time monogamous relationship with a gay partner.
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Derwald says that he wants to quit smoking and is considering using nicotine replacement to help him quit. What is your advice to him?
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Nicotine replacement therapy can help people stop smoking; give it a try.
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Although many smoking cessation programs are successful at getting people to stop smoking, another important problem remains. It is
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the high rate of relapse during the first year.
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Evidence that smoking causes lung cancer comes from data showing that from 1959 to 1988
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lung cancer death rates for nonsmokers remained about the same. lung cancer death rates among smokers rose steadily.
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The annual number of excess deaths in the United States attributable to smoking has been estimated to be about
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438,000.
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The presence of nicotine can be detected in the brain
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as rapidly as 7 seconds after smoking.
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A disorder characterized by the obstruction of respiratory passages and loss of bronchial elasticity is
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emphysema.
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When smokers are allowed to smoke only bad-tasting cigarettes,
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people who smoke for relaxation will show little interest in smoking these cigarettes. people who are addicted to nicotine will not cut back on the amount of cigarettes they smoke. people who smoke for pleasure will smoke few or no cigarettes.
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Jill, a 22-year-old college senior, wants to quit smoking, but she is worried that she will gain weight. What would you advise her to do?
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Quit smoking but begin a regular exercise program.
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Which of the following diseases is rarely diagnosed among nonsmokers?
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Chronic lower respiratory disease
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Who is most likely to begin smoking as a means of weight control?
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Teenage girls with a fear of weight gain
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Treatment for the use and abuse of illegal drugs is similar to the treatment of _____, both in the philosophy and the administration of treatment.
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alcohol abuse
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After the legal age for buying alcohol was raised to 21, consumption among adolescents ages 12 to 17
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dropped dramatically.
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With regard to the consumption of alcohol in the United States, it is most accurate to say that about
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66% of the adults drink; about 20% binge drink.
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The drug MDMA (“Ecstasy”) produces its effects by
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prompting a massive release of serotonin.
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College-aged men who have been drinking
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are more likely than sober men to be willing to have unprotected sex.
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What effect does alcohol have on the cardiovascular system?
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It increases blood pressure in some individuals.
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Amphetamines
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can produce hallucinations and paranoid delusions.
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Along with cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol’s principal threat to health is its likelihood of causing
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unintentional injuries.
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Korsakoff syndrome is sometimes found among long-term, heavy users of alcohol and is characterized by
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confusion, disorientation, and memory impairment.
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According to E. M. Jellinek, people diagnosed as gamma alcoholics
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cannot control alcohol consumption once they begin to drink.
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Who is most likely to gain health benefits from dieting?
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a person who is 40 pounds overweight and is able to lose 10% of her body weight
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Unlike anorexics, bulimics
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frequently feel guilty over their eating patterns are are motivated to change.
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Which of these techniques represents a person’s distribution of body fat?
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waist-to-hip ratio.
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Like many other anorexics, Mary-Kate Olsen, whose story began Chapter 14,
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experienced problems with relapse after completing treatment.
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When overweight children attempt to lose weight,
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they succeed in behavioral programs that involve their family.
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Stable weight is maintained when
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the amount of calories expended equals the amount eaten.
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Male anorexics are quite similar to female anorexics in terms of social class and family configuration, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis. However, they differ from female anorexics in that their ideal body build is
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muscular.
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_____ levels fall when fat stores fall, which may provide a long-term signal to eat more.
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Leptin
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____________ are MOST likely to be described as lacking impulse control.
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Both bulimics and binge eaters
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Charlotte is bulimic. Which of these is LEAST likely to be characteristic of Charlotte?
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Amenorrhea
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Isotonic exercise is designed to
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increase muscle strength.
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People who have high aerobic fitness, compared with those who have low aerobic fitness,
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have a lower death rate from heart disease.
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Physical activity can increase self-esteem by
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reducing weight. reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. reducing levels of depression. reducing levels of anxiety.
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The dropout rates for exercise programs are
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about the same as noncompliance for other medical and behavioral regimens.
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In 2007, a panel of experts reviewed the evidence on how much exercise is enough and recommended that every adult should
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participate in 30 minutes of moderate vigorous activity 5 days a week, plus strength training.
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Clinton was a long distance runner in high school and college. Now, at age 30, he lives an inactive life. Clinton believes that his earlier experiences as a track star will offer permanent protection against cardiovascular disease. Clinton’s
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belief is incorrect.
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Kermit wants to exercise with a minimum of injury. What precautions should he take?
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He should use proper shoes and equipment.
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With regard to diet, exercise, and weight loss, which statement is true?
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Exercise alone can produce weight loss.
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With regard to physical activity and breast cancer, evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle
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may be more of a risk for some women than for others.
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Women who exercise
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have about the same rate of all-cause mortality as do men who exercise.
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Cancer and heart disease represent _________ strain.
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long term
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Research on role ambiguity and role conflict has focused primarily on
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psychological strains.
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_____________ consists of low-intensity verbal acts of rudeness and insensitivity that are not always clearly intended to harm someone else.
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Incivility
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Two career couples with children and single parents are particularly prone to which of the following?
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work-family conflict
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Kay works one shift for several weeks and then moves to a different shift for a few weeks, and then works a different shift again. This is called
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rotating shifts.
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The most popular alternative long work schedule is the
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4/40.
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Francis works a schedule that calls for her to work four (4) 10 hour days each week. This type of work schedule is called
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long work schedule.
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Working the night shift is associated with sleep disturbances and
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social problems.
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In research on burnout, ____________ is the feeling that the employee is not achieving anything worthwhile at work.
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reduced personal accomplishment
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What percentage of workplace violence was committed by coworkers or former co-workers?
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15%
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From about 1900 until the mid-1990s, cancer death rates in the United States
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rose steadily.
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Which of these hypothesis best explains the recent drop in cancer death rates in the U.S.?
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better treatment procedures and changes in lifestyle.
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In the United States, _____ cancer accounts for about 28% of all cancer deaths but only about 15% of cancer cases.
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lung
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For women, death rates are highest for _____ cancer.
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lung
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In the United States, both prostate cancer and breast cancer
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have high incidence but relatively lower death rates.
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Cancer deaths of the lungs, breast, prostrate, and colon/rectum account for about half of all cancer deaths in the United States. Cancer deaths from which of these sites continue to rise?
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None of these
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In the United States, _____ cancer has the second highest death rate of any cancer.
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colorectal
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Which of these is the strongest inherent risk factor for cancer?
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advancing age
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Taylor is a 28-year-old stockbroker with a 6-year-old son. She smokes about 30 cigarettes a day and consumes about 5 to 10 alcoholic drinks during a week. Because her mother died of cancer of the esophagus at age 64, Taylor is trying to reduce her risk of cancer. Her best course of action would be to
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quit smoking
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Since about 1930, the rise and fall of lung cancer death rates have lagged about 30 years behind the rise and fall of _____.
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smoking rates
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Lee Ann believes that diet is an important factor in cancer. She wants to eat a diet that will protect her. Current research indicates that
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Lee Ann should eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables.
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Josh is a 22-year-old nonsmoking college senior who wants to reduce his risk for lung cancer. His best course of action would be to
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adopt a life-long diet that contains high levels of fruits and vegetables.
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Physical activity seems to offer some protection against
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colon cancer.
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Physical activity is most likely to protect women against breast cancer if
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they begin a physical activity program early in their lives and maintain physical activity.
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Kristy is a 21-year-old college student who is concerned about breast cancer because both her mother and grandmother developed the disease before the age of 55. Current evidence shows that Kristy can reduce her chances of breast cancer by
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continuing as a nondrinker. continuing as a nonsmoker. beginning and maintaining a regular physical activity program.
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Skin cancer is more common among
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light-skinned people.
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Women who have had children early in life, compared with those with later pregnancies or with no children, tend to have
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decreased risk for breast cancer.
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Research indicates that a diagnosis of cancer often
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results in feelings of fear and anger.
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Research indicates that psychotherapy can help cancer patients
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reduce the distress of cancer and treatment but not extend their lives.
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The type of social support that tends to be most helpful to people with chronic illness may be described as
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“invisible.”
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The Robinsons have a chronically ill child and come to you for advice. Your most helpful advice would be to tell them to
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join a support group.
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The underlying causes of Alzheimer’s disease are not known, but _____ seems to be involved in the development of this disease.
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glucagon
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Which of the following is NOT a risk for Alzheimer’s disease?
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high educational level
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Inez, a 75-year-old woman, has trouble sleeping, wanders from home at night, displays memory loss, becomes unexpectedly angry with her husband, and is suspicious of her children. These symptoms best describe a person with
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Alzheimer’s disease.
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Insulin is
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a hormone.
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Glucagon acts to _____ and insulin acts to _____.
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stimulate the release of glucose . . . take glucose into cells
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Which type of diabetes requires insulin injections?
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Type 1
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The primary goal in treating asthma patients is
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adherence to their medications.
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Of the various types of AIDS, the one most frequently found in Africa is
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HIV-2
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In the United States, the proportion of HIV infection is highest in
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African American Men
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During the decade from 1995 to 2005, the incidence of HIV infection grew fastest for
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male-female sexual contact.
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The proportion of new HIV cases in the United States has decreased most for
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gay men.
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HIV usually progresses over a decade or more; the longest phase in its development is characterized by
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a period of latency in which the person experiences few, if any symptoms.
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Which of these factors is LEAST associated with unprotected male-male sexual contact?
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committed relationship
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Carter is a gay man who is MOST likely to become HIV positive if he
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is also an injection drug user.
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Injection drug use
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affects African Americans and Hispanic Americans more than European Americans.
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Heterosexual sex is more likely to
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lead to HIV infection in women than in men.
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When HIV positive women give birth to a child,
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use of antiretroviral drugs drastically reduces the chance of transmission to the baby.
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Psychologists have a role in the AIDS epidemic because
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the major modes of infection are behaviors.
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Nicotine
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has addictive properties.
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Many of the adolescents who begin smoking
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do not believe that the hazards apply to them.
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Madison is a nonsmoking 16-year-old high school sophomore who has a large cigarette-sponsored poster in her bedroom. Compared with nonsmoking Wendy, who has no such poster in her room, Madison is more likely to
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begin smoking.
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Among 9-14 year old children,
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girls were more likely than boys to smoke as a means of weight control.
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The leading cause of death in the United States is the second leading cause of tobacco-related deaths. It is
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cardiovascular disease.
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Pat, a smoker who fears that stopping smoking would lead to weight gain, is most likely
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a woman under 30 years of age.
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During the past 30 years,
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smoking-related deaths from cancer have increased in the United States. smoking-related deaths from cancer have caught up with and surpassed smoking-related deaths from cardiovascular disease.
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Whereas smokers’ relative risk for lung cancer death is about 23.3, their relative risk of death from cardiovascular disease is about
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2.0.
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In general, research on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (passive smoking) has found that passive smoking
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may slightly increase people’s risk for lung cancer.
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Passive smoking
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increases one’s risk for heart disease by about 25 percent.
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_____ suffer the most health problems from passive smoking.
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Children
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In general, which group of people suffers more respiratory diseases from exposure to secondhand smoke?
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young children of smoking parents
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More intensive cessation programs are more expensive; research indicates that
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the expense is worth it—such programs are more effective.
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Smokers who are most likely to quit are
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those who have support from their therapists and their families.
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Some ex-smokers “slip” and have one cigarette. Then, they equate this slip with a full relapse and resume smoking at their former rate. This phenomenon is called the
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abstinence violation effect.
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Many smokers worry about weight gain if they quit smoking. Research suggests that
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the average weight gain is modest.
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Alcohol consumption in the United States reached its peak during
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the early 1800s.
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Since 1980, the per capita consumption of alcohol in the United States has
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declined.
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The combination of physiological dependence and withdrawal symptoms is usually referred to as
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addiction.
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Erick drinks about seven or eight drinks a day. Besides the risk of accidents, Erick’s greatest INCREASED risk is that of
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cirrhosis of the liver.
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Research on the relationship between alcohol and homicide indicates that
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both the victim and the killer are likely to have been drinking.
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Research continues to show that
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moderate drinkers have a lower death rate than nondrinkers. moderate drinkers have a lower death rate than heavy drinkers. nondrinkers have a lower death rate than heavy drinkers.
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Most studies of level of alcohol consumption and mortality found this kind of a relationship:
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J-shaped.
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Low to moderate levels of drinking decrease the risk for _____ but high levels of drinking increase the risk for _____.
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Alzheimer’s disease . . . Korsakoff syndrome
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Studies of twins show that
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both heredity and environment play a role in mild and severe drinking problems.
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The balanced placebo design by Marlatt and his colleagues has been used to measure
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the expectancy effect of alcohol.
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The alcohol myopia view of drinking assumes that alcohol consumption leads to
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increased friendliness and sexiness.
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Which of these statements regarding Alcoholics Anonymous is true?
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It insists on the goal of total abstinence.
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Studies on controlled drinking have found that
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abstinence-oriented programs sometimes produce controlled drinkers.
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Molly is a licensed professional counselor who has just begun working with problem drinkers. She read some studies on controlled drinking, and she plans to help people learn to control their rate of alcohol consumption. Molly should know that
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most treatment facilities in the United States do not support this goal.
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Relapse rates are
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about the same for smoking, alcohol abuse and opiate use.
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According to the FDA, Schedule 1 drugs have
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high abuse potential and no accepted medical use.
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Barbiturates are synthetic drugs that
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produce both tolerance and dependence.
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_____ NOT part of the digestive system.
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The esophagus is
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The hormone _____ provides a short-term signal for eating, and _____ provides a long-term signal.
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ghrelin . . . leptin
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The goal of Keys’s project, begun during World War II, was to study
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the effects of hunger and food deprivation.
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When the participants in the study on experimental starvation were re-fed at the end of the starvation phase of the experiment,
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many of them gained more weight than they had lost.
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The skinfold technique and bioelectrical impedance are ways to measure
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percentage of body fat.
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Throughout most of history, being plump or fat
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was a mark of prosperity.
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During the early years of 21st century, the people of the United States have been generally
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heavier than they want to be.
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The history of the human species has been marked mostly by shortages of food,
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which would make a “thrifty” metabolism a survival advantage.
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Research has shown a positive relationship between obesity and
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high blood pressure. nonfatal heart disease. diabetes. gallbladder disease.
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Which of these people has the GREATEST danger of developing a health problem?
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a man who gains 20% above the ideal recommended weight.
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What would you tell your female friend who is 15 pounds above her ideal weight and who has asked you for advice?
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“Forget about dieting; adopt a regular exercise program and stop overeating.”
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Anorexics
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see themselves as being too fat.
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Chris is anorexic. Which of these is LEAST likely to be a characteristic of Chris?
answer

male
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The immediate aim of treatment programs for anorexics is usually
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weight restoration.
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The cognitive behavioral treatment for bulimia aims to
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change eating patterns. change distorted cognitions concerning body image.
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Lisa frequently goes on an eating binge, but she never purges afterward. Lisa is about 40 pounds overweight. Lisa most likely has
answer

binge eating disorder.
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Individuals with anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder all share
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weight concerns. body image problems.
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Which of these eating problems is MOST prevalent in the United States?
answer

overeating
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After 17 years of long-distance running, Jim Fixx died of coronary artery disease while jogging. He was 52 years old. His experience shows
answer

the risks as well as the benefits of exercise.
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Isometric exercise is designed to
answer

increase muscle strength.
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Willa is a track star in college. Her specialties are the 100-meter dash and the 200-meter dash. The type of exercise she is receiving during these races is mostly
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anaerobic.
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Lynn would like to quit smoking, but she is concerned that she will gain weight. What advice would you give her?
answer

Quit smoking, eat regularly, and begin a regular physical activity program.
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Tara is relatively satisfied with the looks of her upper body, but she wants to lose weight on her hips while retaining the rest of her body composition. Tara should
answer

understand that exercise will not accomplish spot reduction.
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In the famous study of the relationship between physical activity and coronary heart disease among workers on London’s double-deck buses,
answer

the problem of self-selection of drivers and conductors was not adequately addressed.
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The Harvard alumni study found that some level of physical activity offers a protection against heart attack. The optimum level of activity was equivalent to jogging _____ miles a week.
answer

20
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A report from the 2000 Toronto symposium concluded that
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physical activity was related to a reduction in cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.
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Research on the effects of physical activity has generally found that a program of regular physical activity
answer

can add as much as two years to people’s lives. can lower levels of disability during old age.
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Research indicates that exercise protects against heart disease by
answer

raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
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Exercise is MOST likely to protect against osteoporosis in
answer

middle-aged and older women.
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Your great aunt Inez is a healthy 85-year-old who has led an essentially sedentary lifestyle. Now she is thinking about walking in the shopping mall but comes to you for advice. What would you tell her?
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“Consult a trainer, who will probably tell you to start easy and gradually increase both speed and distance.”
question

Evidence that exercise protects against Type 2 diabetes
answer

suggests that exercise decreases the risk of developing this type of diabetes.
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Studies on the effects of exercise on clinically depressed patients have generally found that exercise
answer

can reduce depression and is at least as effective as other forms of therapy.
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Research into the effects of exercise on anxiety have generally found that
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both aerobic and nonaerobic exercise reduce state anxiety.
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Many authorities have suggested that male obligatory exercisers are analogous to
answer

female anorexics.
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Programs designed to boost adherence to exercise programs are somewhat successful, but an alternative to such programs is
answer

to incorporate more physical activity into people’s lifestyles rather than encourage people to begin an exercise regimen.
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In research on burnout, ___________ is the feeling of tiredness and fatigue at work.
answer

emotional exhaustion
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____________ is the extent to which employees are unclear about what their job functions and responsibilities are supposed to be.
answer

Role ambiguity
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Repetitive strain injuries can be decreased by
answer

giving employees frequent rest breaks. designing tools and equipment to reduce the strain.
question

Allan is unsure of the expectations of his new job. He is most likely experiencing which of the following?
answer

Role ambiguity
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Many teachers in community colleges in Florida are supposed to grade 5,000 words of writing from each of 150+ students in each semester. This is simply too much for them to do. That is, the___________ is very high.
answer

quantitative workload
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When a person is emotionally exhausted and has low work motivation after being on the job for years, we say s/he is experiencing
answer

burnout.
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Which of the following statements about musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) is true?
answer

Improper posture can lead to MSD.
question

What strain does burnout lead to?
answer

Absence, turnover and poor performance
question

Work-family conflict is a form of:
answer

extrarole conflict
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Workload has been shown to be related to
answer

physical strains. psychological strains. behavioral strains.
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People who work with the public are at greater risk for:
answer

nonfatal assaults
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Job stress that results from a lack of a clearly defined job function is called
answer

role ambiguity.
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Which of the following is NOT a component of burnout measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory?
answer

Physical exhaustion
question

When Aaron took Organic Chemistry he discovered that the work was too difficult for him. That is, the __________ was very high for Aaron.
answer

qualitative workload
question

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with exposure to this stressor.
answer

Mobbing
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What type of job stressor is likely to be present when two supervisors send conflicting instructions to the same employee?
answer

Role conflict
question

The text mentions that concern of _________ has had considerable impact on safety practices in the health professions. For example, now most dentists routinely wear masks and rubber gloves.
answer

AIDS
question

In the United States, the _________ is charged with seeing that workplace safeguards are used to protect workers.
answer

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
question

People living in poverty may have worse health behaviors (e.g., smoking, diet, exercise). If we control for smoking, hypertension, cholesterol, BMI, etc., what happens to the relationship between SES and illness?
answer

The relationship still exists, indicating that these health behaviors are NOT responsible for health disparities
question

In certain cases, SES leads to certain behaviors (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking), that in turn lead to health outcomes. What are these intervening variables called, in a statistical sense?
answer

Mediators
question

Which of the following statements is the least accurate?
answer

Health gradients cannot be reduced by intervention at a societal level
question

SES is __________ illness
answer

correlated with
question

This approach presents developmental influences on health as four nested systems, in which the perceived environment plays a role in health behaviors and outcomes.
answer

Systems Theory
question

A complicated and multi-dimensional factor that includes a combination of occupation, early and upper education, traumatic backgrounds, geographic location, disability, ethnicity, etc., is referred to as which of the following?
answer

Socio-economic status
question

Whitehead (1995) recommended which of the following to reduce inequalities?
answer

Strengthening individuals and communities
question

Laypeople have certain beliefs about why health disparities exist. They are most likely to blame the poor health of a group of people on:
answer

the individual’s poor lifestyle choices
question

Health disparities exist due to behaviors and experiences associated with low SES, which occur at different levels. According to the book, bullying, gangs and violence, smoking, drinking, drugs, and unprotected sex are examples of experiences that occur in which level?
answer

Mesosystems: peer groups
question

Lung cancer research receives a great deal less funding than breast cancer research. Why might that be?
answer

Because of stigma, such that people are more willing to donate money to a disease (like breast cancer) that supposedly only affects innocent people, instead of a disease (like lung cancer) that only affects people who “deserve” it

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