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PSY 371 CHAPTER 10 Essay

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A pattern of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated use of a substance, sometimes also including tolerance for the substance and withdrawal reaction is ____.
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substance use disorder
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Cirrhosis of the liver accounts for approx. _____ deaths each year.
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29,000
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Cocaine affects which neurotransmitter system?
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dopamine
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The segment of the US population with the lowest prevalence of alcoholism is:
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Asian American males and females
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When alcohol concentration reaches ____ percent of the blood by volume, the individual has reached a state of intoxication.
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.09 %
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Which activity will have the greatest effect on making an intoxicated person sober?
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the passage of time
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Which drug increases the activity of the CNS?
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cocaine
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Which type of drug is not known to directly stimulate the brains’ reward center?
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opiods
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Which drug was used as a cough medicine before its addictive properties were known?
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heroin
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Which is an accurate statement about the effects of marijuana?
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it causes lower sperm count in some men
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Which result has not been linked to binge drinking?
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armed robbery
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Which substance is considered as addictive as heroin?
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nicotine
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Pairing alcohol use with drug induced nausea and vomiting is an example of?
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behavioral therapy (aversion)
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Genetic linkage studies have found an abnormal form of a gene for which type of neurotransmitter receptor?
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D2 (dopamine)
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Relapse prevention training is a form of ____ therapy?
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cognitive behavioral
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Which of the following is often mixed with heroin?
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battery acid
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What theory explains how the sight of a hypodermic needle can induce a “high” in one dependent on heroin?
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classical conditioning
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Approx. what percentage of campus arrests are alcohol related?
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83%
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In twin studies it was found that if one member of a pair of identical twins abused alcohol, the other abused it in ____ % of cases.
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54%
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In twin studies it was found that if one member of a pair of fraternal twins abused alcohol, the other abused it in ____% of cases.
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28%
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The treatment model advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous is an example of a ____ approach.
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sociocultural
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Drugs that attach to endorphin receptors sites and make it impossible for opioids to have their usual effect are known as:
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narcotic antagonists
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When different drugs are in the body at the same time, the combined effect can be greater than each drug taken alone. This is called a ____.
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synergistic effect
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Behavioral interventions for substance abuse and dependence:
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work best in combination with either biological or cognitive approaches
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Methadone is a(n):
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opioid
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Chronic and excessive use of alcohol or benzodiazepines may lower the brain’s production of:
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GABA
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_____ is the world’s most widely used stimulant.
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caffeine
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What ultimately determines the effect of alcohol on a person?
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the concentration of ethyl alcohol in the blood
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The withdrawal reaction that begins within three days after drinking stops, consists of terrifying visual hallucinations, and may lead to seizures, strokes, or even death is called:
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delirium tremens
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What is the greatest danger of cocaine use?
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overdose
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In the US, which group is more likely than other ethnic or cultural groups to display substance use disorders?
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Native Americans
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A drug is defined by your text as:
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any substance, other than food, that affects our bodies and minds
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Regular use of opioids may reduce the brain’s production of:
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endorphins
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Aversion therapy has been applied in the treatment of _____ use disorder more than any other substance use disorder.
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alcohol
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_____ is often given to people who are trying to stop consuming alcohol.
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disulfiram
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The _____ approach to treating alcohol use disorder teaches clients to keep track of their drinking behavior, apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking, and plan ahead for risky situations and reactions.
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cognitive behavioral
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Which two states do not have some form of legalized gambling?
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Hawaii & Utah
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Which category of drug is often given to patients in detoxification to reduce severe alcohol withdrawal reactions such as delirium tremens and seizures?
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antianxiety drugs
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Which drug treatment approach makes incentives ( such as program privileges) dependent on the submission of drug free urine specimens?
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contingency management
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Which of the following is not a sociocultural explanation for the cause of substance disorders?
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children whose needs are not met by parents grow up depending on others for comfort and this may develop into a dependent relationship with a substance
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Which drug has gained a reputation as being the drug of choice for all night techno dance parties?
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MDMA