PSY 320 Test 3

According to the notion of cognitive economy, a characteristic like “has wings” would be stored along with which of the following semantic memory nodes?
bird
Properties and facts are stored at the highest level possible, according to the principle of:
cognitive economy
According to research by Collins and Quillian, the statement “Siamese cats have blue eyes” will be verified:
faster than “Siamese cats give birth to live young.
Collins and Quillian’s hierarchical network model would predict that which of the following statements would take the LONGEST time to verify?
Boo is a living thing.
Studies of semantic memory have shown that in a lexical decision task, people are faster at responding to the stimulus “bread” if it is paired with a stimulus such as:
“butter.”
Priming in lexical decision tasks may be explained by the idea of:
spreading activation
Conrad has found evidence that the statement “A shark can move” can be verified in the same amount of time as “An animal can move.” These results suggest that reaction time is best predicted by:
frequency of association
Contrary to the predictions of hierarchical models, Rips, Shoben, and Smith have found that people can verify the statement “A pig is an animal”:
faster than “A pig is a mammal.”
According to the typicality effect, the statement “A dog is a household pet” should be verified:
faster than “A ferret is a household pet.”
The word superiority effect is related to the idea of:
spreading activation
Collins and Loftus’s spreading activation theory differs from the hierarchical network theory in that:
it dispenses with the idea of cognitive economy.
In Collins and Loftus’s spreading activation theory, very similar concepts:
are placed close to each other and have many connecting links.
ACT models distinguish among three types of memory systems:
working memory, declarative memory, and procedural memory
According to ACT models, _______ memory represents information in if-then production rules.
procedural
Which of the following is NOT one of the memory systems postulated by ACT?
semantic memory
Which of the following would be a part of your declarative memory system?
being able to name a hybrid car
Which of the following would be a part of your procedural memory system?
knowing how to swing a baseball bat
According to Anderson, procedural memory represents information as:
production rules.
In Anderson’s ACT model, that part of declarative memory that is very highly activated at any particular moment is called:
working memory.
Initially, the connections between units in a connectionist model have weights that are set:
at random.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding a connectionist training “epoch”?
It begins by generating a random output.
A ________ is a mental representation of some object, event, or pattern.
concept
A ______ can be defined as a class of similar things that share either an essential core, or some similarity in perceptual, biological, or functional properties.
category
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the classical view of concepts?
It accurately predicts the typicality effect.
Studies of concept usage have shown all of the following EXCEPT:
There is high agreement between subjects on judgments such as “Do BOOKENDS belong to the category FURNITURE?”
“Characteristic features” and “family resemblance” are important aspects of the _________ view of concepts.
prototype
Which of the following is a good example of a basic level of categorization?
piano
If “soda” is a basic-level category, then ______ would be a subordinate level.
Coca-Cola
If “sandwich” is a basic-level category, then ______ would be a superordinate level.
food
Which of the following is a good example of a superordinate level of categorization?
Fruit
Which of the following poses a problem for the prototype view of concepts?
an inability to explain why the typicality of a particular instance can depend upon context
According to the ______ view of concepts, people categorize new instances by comparing them to representations of previously stored instances.
exemplar
In Reber’s studies of nonanalytic concept formation in which participants attempted to learn to categorize letter strings derived from complex “grammars,”
participants who learned letter strings that followed the grammar made fewer errors than control participants learning random strings.
Which of the following factors does NOT encourage a person to store information about particular exemplars, according to Brooks?
We know in advance how we will be called upon to use our newly acquired information later.
Implicit learning is also known as:
nonanalytic concept formation.
The _____ view of concepts argues that concepts include representations of at least some individual instances and not only abstract summaries.
both exemplar and schemata
The schema view of concept formation assumes that:
information is abstracted across instances.
Rumelhart and Ortony viewed ____ as the fundamental building blocks of cognition.
schemata
Which of the following is true regarding schemata?
Schemata can indicate relationships among various pieces of information.
You might have a “script” for:
what happens when you go to the barber/hairstylist.
If information from a story is presented in scrambled order,
people tend to recall it in the scripted order.
A schema for a routine event, such as going to the dentist, is called a:
script.
Bower, Black, and Turner investigated people’s use of scripts and found high agreement about:
characters, props, actions, and level of description.
Research on scripts has shown all of the following EXCEPT:
Central concepts of a script are less well remembered than other events in a story, because they are taken for granted.
Which of the following would NOT be likely to be a part of your “restaurant” script?
picking up your fork
The ______ view of concepts argues that a person uses his/her theories about the way the world works to justify the classification of instances in the same category.
knowledge-based
Which of the following is an example of a nominal-kind category?
triangle
Which of the following would be considered an example of a “natural kind” concept?
wolf
Which of the following approaches would definitely NOT be characterized as a similarity-based approach to conceptual structure?
knowledge-based
Research conducted under the framework of “psychological essentialism” has suggested that:
we use a knowledge-based approach to classify artifact concepts.
Behaviorists objected to the study of visual imagery because:
it cannot be investigated with sufficient scientific control.
Several mnemonic devices, including the method of loci, the pegword method, and the method of interacting images, have in common their reliance on:
visual imagery.
Paivio’s ____ hypothesis argues that long-term memory contains two separate systems that represent information in verbal and visual forms, respectively.
dual code
In Paivio’s study of paired-associate learning, subjects learned four types of word pairs:
I. concrete-concrete (for example, book-table)
II. concrete-abstract (for example, book-freedom)
III. abstract-concrete (for example, freedom-table)
IV. abstract-abstract (for example, freedom-honesty)
Which of the following accurately portrays participants’ recall of the four types of pairs, from highest recall to lowest?
I, II, III, IV
The dual coding hypothesis states that recall will be best when items are coded:
both visually and verbally.
According to the dual-coding hypothesis, which of the following word pairs would be easiest to remember?
ferret-catalog
The relational-organizational hypothesis is supported by:
the fact that noninteractive images do not facilitate recall whereas interactive images do facilitate recall.
Which of the following methods would most help you to remember the word pair “elephant-cigar”?
visualizing an elephant smoking a cigar
When participants in an experiment were asked to imagine a letter and mentally move clockwise around the letter’s corners,
they could respond more quickly in verbal form than by pointing.
Forming a visual image and then moving from one location on the image to another is known as:
imaginal scanning.
According to the symbolic distance effect, which of the following questions would be answered most quickly?
Which is bigger, a mouse or a house?
Which of the following questions would take you the LONGEST TIME to answer?
Which is faster, a snail or a caterpillar?
Studies of mental rotation have shown all of the following EXCEPT:
Mental rotations are faster when done in a clockwise direction than in a counterclockwise direction.
Cooper’s studies of the mental rotation of complex polygons indicated that:
people rotated more complex polygons in the same amount of time as simpler polygons.
The results from the studies of Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser indicated that:
subjects’ reaction times to mentally “scan” across a map of an island were strongly correlated with the distance scanned.
Barbara Tversky’s research suggests that people’s mental maps are:
systematically distorted by the use of heuristics.
Your mental map of your campus is probably:
more regular, with more straight lines and right angles, than reality.
Research by Chambers and Reisberg indicated that:
people frequently spontaneously reverse ambiguous pictures but not ambiguous visual images.
Research by Chambers and Reisberg on ambiguous figures such as the duck/rabbit showed that:
different people can form different mental images of the same physical stimulus.
When comparing people’s speed at reasoning with abstract concepts (smarter- dumber), spatial concepts (above-below), and visual relationships (cleaner-dirtier), Knauff and Johnson found that ______ relationships had the slowest performance.
visual
Which of the following is NOT one of Finke’s principles describing the fundamental nature and properties of visual images?
Images contain only information that has been intentionally stored.
Finke theorized that there are _____ principles of mental imagery.
Five
Finke’s principle of _____ states that mental imagery allows us to retrieve information that was not intentionally stored.
implicit encoding
Which is NOT one of Finke’s principles of visual imagery?
perceptual equivalence.
Both blind and sighted participants take longer to “scan” the visual image of a map when the actual distance between two landmarks is greater. This illustrates the idea of:
spatial equivalence.
Visual images are formed in pieces that are assembled into a final product. This is a statement of the principle of:
structural equivalence.
One criticism of visual imagery research is that the studies:
may involve demand characteristics.
When the experimental task itself “cues” the subject about how to behave, the task is said to have:
demand characteristics.
Images can prime the visual pathway, making it easier to detect a faint stimulus. This is an example of:
perceptual equivalence.
When an experimenter gives subtle cues to participants about how to behave, we say that a(n) ______ has occurred.
experimenter-expectancy effect
Nickerson and Adams showed that when it comes to memory for commonly seen objects like pennies.
people are not very good at recognizing a penny even though they see it frequently.
A propositional representation is thought to be ______ in nature.
neither verbal nor visual
Some theorists believe that there is a single code for all types of information; this code is known as a _______ representation.
propositional
Kosslyn compared people’s verification times for statements like “Cats have claws” (high association, small visual part of a cat) to “Cats have heads” (low association, large visual part of a cat). He found that people were:
faster at verifying “heads” when they used imagery, “claws” when they did not.
Neurological studies indicate that processing mental images activates:
areas of the brain involved in visual perception.
Participants doing mental imagery tasks tend to show brain activity in the:
occipital lobe.
Your occipital lobe would be activated when you:
perform a mental rotation task.
When you imagine hearing a song, which part of your brain is probably active?
temporal lobes
The temporal lobes would be most active when you:
imagine listening to your favorite song.
Which of the following studies is least susceptible to demand characteristics?
PET scan studies
How do people represent and navigate in and through space? This is a question of
spatial cognition.
According to Barbara Tversky, there are three types of “space” that result in different types of spatial cognition: space of the body, space around the body, and:
space of navigation.
Knowledge of where your feet are located right now is part of your cognition of the:
space of the body.
Tversky’s work suggests that people localize objects along which of these axes?
left-right, up-down, and front-back
The process of ______ occurs when we move through space and revise our mental representations of where things are in the environment.
spatial editing
Which of the following is/are generally agreed upon as necessary criteria/criterion for claiming that a communication system is a language?
both regularity and productivity
Infinite combinations of ideas can be expressed in language. In other words, language is:
productive.
Bird songs and bee dances are not considered to be languages because:
they cannot express infinite combinations of ideas.
The study of the ways in which sounds can be combined in any given language is called:
phonology.
Which of the following is an example of a phoneme?
z
The smallest unit of language that carries a consistent meaning is called a:
morpheme.
Which of the following is an example of a morpheme?
both “book” and “re-“
The branch of linguistics devoted to the study of meaning:
semantics
The underlying knowledge that allows people to produce and comprehend their language is called:
linguistic competence.
English speakers hear a distinction between “l” and “r” sounds; speakers of some Chinese dialects do not hear this distinction. This example illustrates a difference in the ______ aspects of the two languages.
phonetic
Some African languages allow two consonants to appear together at the beginning of a word (as in “Nkomo”); English does not allow this to occur unless the first consonant is an “S” (as in “skull”). This example illustrates a difference in the ________ of the two languages.
phonology
Preposing (moving a certain part of a sentence to the beginning of the sentence) is syntactically “legal” when:
the moved segment constitutes a complete constituent of a certain type.
Which of the following is NOT a kind of syntactic rule proposed by Chomsky?
illegal contraction rule
According to the study of semantics, understanding the meaning of a sentence requires which of the following conditions?
understanding of the meaning of the words, the syntax of the sentence, and the truth conditions of the sentence
Which of the following is an example of an anomaly?
“Chocolate frosting can ice skate.”
The sentence “A turkey sandwich can read a book” is an example of:
an anomaly.
Which of these is an example of self-contradiction?
My parrot is not a bird.
A statement like “This apple is not a fruit” is an example of:
a self-contradiction.
“Terry is a bachelor” implies that Terry is male, according to the principle of:
entailment.
“George is not tall enough to ride the roller coaster.” “George is too short to ride the roller coaster.” These sentences are related through:
synonymy.
“I saw a bat in the corner.” Does bat refer to a baseball bat, or a flying mammal? This confusion illustrates a problem of:
ambiguity.
A speech act such as “I promise to study my psychology textbook tonight” is called a(n):
commissive.
Which of the following is an example of an assertive speech act?
I’m a Democrat.
Which of the following is an example of a directive speech act?
Open the door.
Speech acts in which the utterance itself is the action—such as “You’re fired!”—are considered to be which type of speech act?
declaration
According to Miller, a fundamental problem of speech perception is:
speech is continuous rather than discrete.
A fundamental problem of speech perception, according to Miller, is that:
a single phoneme sounds different depending on its context.
Warren and Warren showed that when presented with a sentence where a sound was replaced by a cough (represented by * here), such as “It was found that the *eel was on the axle,”
people said that they heard the entire word “wheel” without being aware of anything odd in the sentence.
Studies of context and speech perception have shown all of the following phenomena EXCEPT:
Subjects notice a discrepancy when they hear the sound “ba” pronounced but the visual cue is consistent with a different phoneme (“da”).
Studies of speech errors suggest that:
choosing a word’s meaning and a word’s form appear to be separate processes that operate at different times in speech production.
Which of these speech errors is LEAST likely to occur in actual conversation?
saying “lobster” instead of “oyster”
Studies of sentence comprehension have shown all of the following EXCEPT:
We do not process exact wording in memory; we only process meaning.
Did she say “many” or “men knee”? This type of ambiguity is referred to as:
phonetic.
“I’m going to meet him at the bank.” At the First National Bank, or at the river bank? This type of ambiguity is referred to as:
lexical.
“Have the missionaries eaten?” Is this a question spoken by the bishop, or an order given by the cannibal chief? This type of ambiguity is referred to as:
syntactic.
We notice ambiguities in sentences:
in “garden path” sentences.
Swinney’s research suggests that when we encounter a lexically ambiguous word,
we process both meanings at first, then suppress the inappropriate meaning.
Which of the following does NOT make a passage of text easier to comprehend, according to research?
providing a relevant context after the passage has been read
The average eye fixation lasts about:
250 milliseconds
You are reading the sentence “Flywheels are one of the oldest mechanical devices known to man.” On which of the following words are you likely to spend the LEAST time fixating?
to
Kintsch and Keenan found that we spend more time reading sentences that have:
more propositions.
According to research, which of the following sets of sentences would take the longest amount of time to read and comprehend?
She wrapped the Christmas presents. The sweater needed a larger box.
In Bransford and Johnson’s experiment, people could recall an average of 8.0 out of 14 possible ideas when given a proper context before the passage. However, when the context was provided after the passage, people could recall an average of ______ out of 14 ideas.
3.6
Which of the following is NOT true of story grammars?
We typically have better recall of stories that do not conform to expected story grammars, because they warrant more attention.
Pragmatic rules of conversation lead us to expect our conversational partners to conform to all of the following EXCEPT:
grammatical correctness
“What’s for dinner?” “Food.” The second speaker is breaking Grice’s maxim of
quantity.
“Have you seen my cell phone?” “I watched a great movie tonight.” The second speaker is violating Grice’s maxim of:
relation.
Fodor’s modularity hypothesis proposes that:
certain language processes operate independently of other cognitive processes such as memory and attention.
Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis:
asserts that thought is dependent upon language, and is not supported by studies of color perception.
Damage to Broca’s area often leads to:
expressive aphasia.
_____ is defined as “going beyond the information given.”
Thinking
________ thinking begins with a clear starting point and has a specific goal.
Focused
Introspection is the _____ observation of your consciousness.
detailed
The detailed, concurrent, and nonjudgmental observation of the contents of your consciousness is called:
introspection.
A(n) _______ problem has a clear goal, a small set of starting information, and rules about how to attain the goal.
well-defined
Which of the following is the best example of a well-defined problem?
constructing a proof in algebra
Psychologists focus on well-defined problems because:
they are easy to present.
Think of 10 animal names that begin with the letter R. This problem would probably be solved using a ______ technique.
productive-thinking
You encounter the following problem during next term’s registration. One of the classes you planned to take is full, with no chance of your getting in. You need another class, and the only constraint it has to meet is that it must meet at either 10:00 or 11:00. So, you read systematically through the catalog, writing down the titles of any courses that sound interesting. When your list is complete, you look up meeting times, and cross out any courses that do not meet at 10:00 or 11:00. Next, you go to the registrar’s office and find that one of the remaining courses has open spaces, so you sign up for it. You can correctly be described as having used:
generate-and-test.
The problem-solving technique of ______ involves comparing the goal with the starting point, thinking of possible ways to overcome the distance between them, and choosing the best one.
means-end analysis
Earning a degree in psychology can be described as an exercise in problem solving. To finish your degree, you need to complete a number of upper-level courses. To enroll in those courses, you must have successfully completed a course in Research Methods. But before you can take Research Methods, you need to have passed Statistics. Your progress through this series of subgoals can be accomplished through:
means-end analysis.
The General Problem Solver (GPS) is a computer program that solves problems in crypt arithmetic and logic using:
means-end analysis.
The strategy of working backward is most effective when:
the backward path is unique.
______ is a very important technique for solving the Towers of Hanoi problem.
Working backward
You are attempting to find the home of a friend whom you have not visited in many years. When you arrive in her town, you remember to drive south on Main Street and turn left on Elm. Once on Elm, however, you become less certain. Driving farther, you reach the intersection of Elm and Sycamore. You remember this intersection, but you cannot remember whether you should turn here or go on a little farther. You temporarily assume that you should go on. However, about a block farther on, you reach a dead end. Retracing your route, you realize now that the correct option would have been to turn on Sycamore. You have used the technique of:
backtracking.
In working a logic problem, you often need to make certain provisional assumptions, but sometimes they turn out to be wrong and need to be “unmade.” The process of keeping track of assumptions so that you can back up to point of choice is called:
backtracking.
When one recalls the solution to an old problem and uses it to solve a new, similarly structured problem, one has reasoned by:
analogy.
The tumor problem and the story of the general were used in research on:
reasoning by analogy.
Gick and Holyoak’s work on reasoning by analogy showed that:
subjects could reason from analogy after either (1) being explicitly told to do so, or (2) having seen two analogous problems, but otherwise they did not spontaneously reason from analogy.
A tendency to adopt a certain framework, strategy, or procedure, which can become an obstacle to successful problem solving, is called:
mental set
When you adopt a certain framework or strategy for solving a series of problems, you may fail to see other, more efficient ways of solving some of the problems. This is referred to as:
mental set.
Mental set:
can lead us to make unwarranted assumptions about a problem.
Adoption of a rigid mental set toward an object is called:
functional fixedness.
The string problem often generates ______ when participants do not think to use the screwdriver as a pendulum.
functional fixedness
The domino and checkerboard problem is a good example of:
incomplete representation.
Study of chess masters indicate that masters:
extract more information from a brief exposure to a chess board.
Gobet and Simon’s study of the chess-playing abilities of champion Gary Kasparov indicated that:
Kasparov plays almost as well playing eight games simultaneously as he does playing a single game.
Experts in solving physics problems:
tend to organize problems in terms of physics principles.
Patient P.F., an architect who suffered stroke damage to his right prefrontal cortex, was later unable to:
move from problem structuring to a developed and detailed design.
In research on mental search of a “problem space,” a “path” is:
a sequence of moves beginning at the initial state and ending at the final goal state.
The problem space hypothesis helps us to understand how problem solving can be blocked by:
incomplete representations.
Expert systems typically contain all of the following EXCEPT:
an answer key.
Muckraker is an expert system designed to give advice to:
journalist.
________ involves appropriate novelty in generating solutions.
Creativity
When you walk away from a difficult problem and do something else for a while, then come back and solve the problem successfully, you have experienced the:
incubation effect.
Research on the incubation effect has shown that:
participants who take physical and mental breaks rarely show increased ability to solve problems.
According to Perkins, good critical thinking requires:
a large knowledge base and a willingness to raise objections to one’s own ideas.
Learning how to find the area of a parallelogram will be most effective when it involves:
grasping the essential structure of the problem.
Critical thinking involves all of the following EXCEPT:
criticizing the ideas of other people.