PSY 230 Final
Which of these 4-year-old children is MOST likely to be taken to the dentist?
Hailey, whose parents are middle class
Dendrite growth is the main reason that brain weight _____ from birth to the age of 2.
The frequency of low birthweight in the United States _____ throughout most of the twentieth century, and then _____ in the 1990s and early 2000s.
Jonah and Abigail have been married for 50 years. Jonah is healthy and active, and through his life’s work as the owner of a business—work he deeply loved—he saved well for retirement. Based on this, which of the following is most likely TRUE?
Abigail has a high level of well-being because her partner has a high level of well-being.
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for all citizens’ health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of _____
From birth until age 2, dendrites in the cortex increase
For boys, the first ejaculation of seminal fluid is
_____ is a discipline technique that involves the parent talking to the child and helping the child to understand what he or she did wrong.
Statistically, which person is MOST likely to have the greatest health problems due to iron deficiency
16-year-old Marilyn, who is menstruating
The theories that stress that human differences are less significant than shared characteristics are _____ theories.
When capable of concrete operational thought, children _____.
can apply their reasoning to real, tangible situations
With concrete operational thought, children can _____.
think logically about visible, tangible things
Upon the completion of the Human Genome Project several surprise findings were made, which include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
humans are extremely genetically different from each other
Approximately 12 percent of U.S. couples are _____.
According to Sternberg, creative intelligence requires _____ thinking.
The process by which a sequence of thoughts and action makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought, is referred to as _____.
The average baby will grow _____ inches in his or her first year
Because parents so often remind their children of their positive accomplishments, it is common for children to develop _____.
What is one effect of lower infant mortality rates?
Mothers have fewer babies.
The notion that DNA regulates the aging process is referred to as the
Approximately what percentage of 18 to 25-year-olds in the United States and Canada are of African, Latino, Asian, or Native American descent?
The measure of health MOST indicative of the quality of one’s daily life is
A child’s typical activity during the oral stage is
Sucking on a pacifier
When 9-year-old children were asked to choose between retribution and restitution for a punishment
About half chose restitution and half chose retribution
The field that uses insights into typical development to understand and remediate developmental disorders is developmental
A ______ is an average or usual event or experience
An individuals phenotype is dependent on ____
an individual’s genes and the environment
A child having an imaginary friend is an example of
Almost all social network engaged in by adolescents is between adolescents
Who are friends
Which of the following emotions is the last you develop in an infant
A study of 5-year-old children in Milwaukee showed that those who attended and Montessori preschool were more advanced in _____ skills than those who did not attend
Peak fertility occurs _____ years after activated gonads produce mature ova and sperm.
Laniya’s three grandchildren live with her because their mother is in jail. The term for the family structure that best describes the household of Laniya and her grandchildren is _____.
If he is typical, a 45-year-old man will probably state that he feels _____ his chronological age.
5 to 10 years younger than
Carlos attends a school where the teachers often work longer hours, and where students come from a wide geographical area. The class sizes are also small. He knows that the school sets its own standards and receives private money and sponsors. Carlos is attending a _____ school.
Freud would attribute an adult’s fingernail biting and overeating to problems during which childhood developmental stage?
Designing settings and equipment so that they can be used by everyone—able-bodied, sensory-acute, or not—is known as _____.
Which term is NOT associated with Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach?
The quality of resilience is dynamic, which means that it _____.
may change over time
Social networking may lead to _____, which happens when there are too many people available to meet and evaluate as potential life partners.
Helena is participating in a study in which she has to decide if she should cheat on a test. She is asked to rank-order possible solutions to cheating on the test. Helena is participating in a study that is using a _____ Test.
Callie called her friend Sue on Saturday to see if Sue wanted to go to the movies. Sue told Callie she was staying home to study for their upcoming history test. After the call, Callie decided to study instead of go to the movies. Callie was experiencing _____.
Tony is 8 months old, and he settles down quickly and listens raptly while his mom sings “The Itsy Bitsy Spider.” What factor best account for Tony’s interest in this nursery rhyme?
he loves the rhymes and repetition
Nine-month-old Taran explores new environments when his mother is present but shows distress when his mother leaves the room. Taran’s behavior illustrates a(n) _____ attachment.
A baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected given the time since conception is referred to as _____.
small for gestational age
One of the benefits of children having imaginary friends is _____.
the imaginary friend helps them to develop strategies for emotional control
Chanel has recently finished high school and is now attending college. After earning her undergraduate degree she plans to continue on to graduate school. In addition, Chanel is not seriously dating anyone and thinks marriage and parenthood are years away. Chanel is at which developmental stage?
Ami thinks that she may be negatively compared to another group. According to the theory of stereotype threat, her thinking is MOST apt to _____.
cause her to underperform
At what point in development is the sense of hearing already quite acute?
Bob has just been diagnosed with diabetes. His diagnosis will contribute to the _____ rate.
When children are involved in research participation, the ethical standard is for _____.
children to consent to the research participation (when they are able to consent)
When a baby acts upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting _____.
The process of aging by which the body becomes less strong and efficient is referred to as _____.
Four-year-old Davis believes that God gave his little brother to his mother because she stayed overnight at the hospital. Davis is at the _____ stage of religious faith.
Each human body cell contains _____.
Which of the following does NOT characterize self-actualization?
the longing for a secure and stable home
Crystal is 25 years old and lives in the United States. Statically, Crystal is most likely to be ____
During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically _____.
take on a temporary role and postpone identity-achievement decisions
Jeremy was reared in several foster homes and never knew his parents. When he started working with Kent, he became close to Kent’s family to the point where they fondly referred to him as “our newfound son.” The family has “adopted” Jeremy as _____.
Usually, stranger wariness is first noticeable at _____ months.
According to the New York Longitudinal Study, by approximately 3 months of age infants exhibit a wide enough variety of behaviors that they can be classified as one of _____ temperamental categories.
Research has found that between the ages of 20 and 60 _____.
metabolism slows down by about a third
Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _____ while very young also experienced early puberty.
Parkinson’s disease produces dementia as well as _____.
rigidity in the muscles
Increased levels of cortisol are associated with an infant experiencing _____.
James uses the word “more” to mean “I want another cookie.” In this case, “more” is a(n) _____.
The average age of menopause is about _____ years.
Which individual is least likely to smoke during adulthood?
Julian, from Canada
Which of the following happens to the brain during senescence?
neurotransmitter production decreases
Which is NOT an essential characteristic of high-quality day care?
a ratio of one adult to three infants
Statistically, which student is MOST likely to fall asleep during class?
Rose, age 14
If Alisha is like most prospective college students, she is going to select a college based on the _____.
location, preferring a college in her home state
The goal of most teacher-directed preschools is _____.
shaping student behavior
A female just gave birth to a baby who is preterm and low-birthweight. In addition, the female experienced high blood pressure throughout her pregnancy. This female is most likely _____ years old
Alex has decided to pursue a career in music, even though his parents want him to study medicine. Alex has decided not to share his future career plans with his parents. Alex is most likely from _____.
Individuals who may especially benefit from preconception, prenatal, or even prenuptial (before marriage) genetic counseling include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
women who are younger than 25 and men who are younger than 30
Over the past few decades, the rates of ADHD have _____ in the United States.
Ken is a highly skilled electrician and Gwen is his new apprentice. When unexpected problems occur as they work on complex wiring projects, the MOST critical difference between their approaches in successfully completing the job is _____.
Ken’s automatic processing
Payton has an IQ score of 135. According to the distribution of IQ scores, Payton’s IQ falls into what category?
The knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical order is the logical principle of _____.
While Bill’s wife was pregnant, he experienced weight gain and indigestion. When she gave birth, he felt sharp physical pain as well. Bill was experiencing _____.
A student believes that divorce is right if the marriage partners are no longer in love, even if the couple has children together. The student is reasoning from a morality of _____ orientation.
Companionate grandparents are _____.
happy to be independent of the daily demands of child rearing
The recommended daily dose of calcium is _____ milligrams; most teens consume less than _____ milligrams per day
The theory that is contrary to disengagement theory is _____ theory.
Transient exuberance is the _____
rapid growth of dendrites during the first few years of life
The four dimensions of a parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and _____.
expectations for maturity
Timur and Juan are playing basketball. Timur shoots the ball and Juan blocks the shot. Timur says, “Wow, I didn’t realize how tall you were until you did that!” Timur’s comment refers to Juan’s _____.
Benjy is a preschooler. He can put a dish into the microwave and press the “2” button to cook for 2 minutes. One day he sees his mother wipe the front of the microwave with a damp paper towel before she presses a number button. After that, Benjy rubs the front of the microwave with a napkin before he presses the number button. Why?
he is overimitating his mom
Within Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, the novice should do all of the following to guide and inspire the more skilled member of society EXCEPT _____.
urge a new competence
Knowing that nature and nurture affect every human trait and disorder means all of the following EXCEPT _____.
nurture can always override the potential influence of nature
Elderly people who are physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively disabled are referred to as the _____.
Levi, age 23, believes that same-sex marriage should be legal. Given what is known about emerging adults and their parents, it is likely that Levi and his parents _____ about that issue.
have similar attitudes
With respect to sociocultural context, children from the Varanasi region in India learn what specific ability from their culture?
Timo can detect the difference between displays of 8 and 16 dots, as revealed by a habituation test. Timo is at least how old?
Control processes depend on the _____, which shrinks with age
The medication that reduces hypertension in middle-aged adults can _____ for the oldest-old.
Dr. Wegman told her students that they could complete an assignment now and earn 10 points, or complete the assignment in a month and earn 15 points. The majority of students said they preferred to complete the assignment now, demonstrating _____.
Birth complications are likely EXCEPT when _____.
a mother is unmarried
The first visible signs of senescence are usually observed in a person’s _____.
According to the text, middle age, if it exists _____.
could begin at 35 or 50
Some children of every ethnicity are classified as _____, based on their proficiency in English.
Differential sensitivity means that certain people have genes that _____.
make them more vulnerable to particular experiences
Developmentalists who believe that children are born amoral and learn to adopt their community’s rules of morality subscribe to the belief that moral development predominantly comes from _____.
The desire to pursue a goal that comes from within a person is called _____.
Which psychologist proposed the existence of g?
In a Swedish study, centenarians were found to be less likely to _____ than octogenarians.
take antidepressant medication
According to a longitudinal study, 4-year-old children who were identified as being extremely shy were as emerging adults slower than average to _____.
choose a career
_____ is an example of an acute illness, and _____ is an example of a chronic illness.
Heart attack; heart disease
Adulthood covers the four decades of life between ages _____ and _____.
Research found that 3-year-olds _____ were better at recognizing differences in newborn faces.
with younger siblings
The difference between ADLs and IADLs is that _____.
IADLs require some intellectual competence
The new emotions that appear toward the end of a child’s second year are _____.
pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt
Which gland(s) receive(s) signals directly from the hypothalamus?
The final step in the five steps of the scientific method is to _____.
report the results
Secure bonds can develop between a child and an adoptive parent when the children are older (ages 4 to 7), especially if the mother had a(n) _____ attachment to her own mother.
Enid and Fred, married 52 years, have been living in the same home for the past 30 years. They have a comfortable retirement, and when they need help with something, they can rely on their middle-aged children or young adult grandchildren. However, Enid and Fred are fiercely independent, providing much more care than they receive. This couple’s experience is _____ among elders.
Dimitri, age 24, is studying to take the exam in order to become a certified public accountant. According to John Holland’s six categories of people, Dimitri is MOST likely in the _____ category.
Males have one X and one Y on _____.
the 23rd pair of chromosome
As infants acquire language, they say more _____ than any other parts of speech.
What is replication of a study?
the repetition of a study using different participants
The signs of REM sleep include flickering of the infant’s _____.
closed eyes and rapid brain waves
The _____ is the person’s appearance, behavior, and brain and body functions.
A woman in Honduras worked in a field treated with pesticides during her pregnancy. When her son was born, she was horrified to find that he had no limbs. Her pesticide exposure must have occurred during a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.
A person’s average body mass index (BMI) is the lowest at the ages of _____.
5 to 6
Which of the following factors does NOT facilitate increases in the knowledge base?
Peyton is a deaf baby whose parents have been communicating with him in American Sign Language. At about what age will Peyton express his first signs?
Preoperational intelligence _____.
allows children to think in symbols
During puberty, adolescents’ thoughts center on _____.
The part of the brain that seems to be devoted to perceiving faces is the _____.
fusiform face area
When it comes to the research on prenatal development and teratogens, scientists _____.
can disagree on the interpretation of research
Overall brain slowdown is evident in which of the following ways?
slower reaction time
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of typical elder volunteers?
During middle childhood, children themselves contribute to weight gain by getting adults to do what they want, such as buying them candy or junk food. The ability of children to get adults to do what they want has been referred to as _____ power.
Jack sees his friends Evan and Liam playing a quiet game of blocks. Jack wants to engage in some rough-and-tumble play, so he grabs one of the blocks and runs a few feet away, looking over his shoulder and displaying a play face. How are Evan and Liam likely to respond?
They will chase Jack and play wrestle
According to psychoanalytic theory, the child’s prime focus of pleasure in the first year of life is the _____.
The coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called _____.
The last developmental stage of the life span is _____.
Chris is high in extroversion and therefore will probably _____.
Which example best illustrates a sensitive period?
a child learning to speak a second language
Postconventional morality involves _____.
the careful consideration of all options
Sensorimotor stage four is the stage of _____.
new adaptation and anticipation
The most important buffer against the loss that comes from retirement and widowhood is having _____.
at least one close friend
Childhood obesity is usually defined as a BMI above the _____ percentile.
Dr. Marquette is a researcher who studies the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information throughout life. What approach to cognitive development does she take?
Which of the following is an example of a single-gene disorder that is dominant?
According to the text, the relatively low rate of interethnic marriages is attributable to _____.
the formation of romantic relationships of similar backgrounds
_____ is the thick, high-calorie fluid that is secreted by a new mother’s breasts in the days immediately following birth.
Control processes improve with _____.
age and experience
Becky is a 4-month-old infant whose mother uses a high-pitched voice, simple words or phrases, and lots of repetition when she speaks. Becky delights in her mother’s use of _____.
Ron thinks he is more unique and admired than other adolescents his age, and is certain that everyone is paying attention to his every action. It appears that he has started to experience adolescent _____.
All of the following are reasons why parents should not try to change their child’s handedness, EXCEPT _____.
it may create jealousy in siblings who do not need to change their handedness
One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes is called a(n) _____.
Christopher’s mother is considering different wallpapers for decorating Christopher’s room. She asks him, “Which one do you like better: the striped or the plaid?” Christopher’s vocabulary doesn’t include the word “plaid,” but he’s able to figure out what the word must mean based on the context. Christopher is using _____ to add a new word to his vocabulary.
About _____ percent of U.S. 18- to 29-year-olds use social networking sites to keep in contact.
Parents of newborn Renata are amazed at their daughter’s responsiveness and reflexes when a professional administers the _____.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
Johanna watches while her mother hides a toy under a blanket. Her mom asks, “Where is it?” Then Johanna jerks away the blanket to reveal the toy. Which of the following structures best explains Johanna’s sense of object permanence?
What proportion of adults over the age of 65 volunteer in formal settings?
Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which has caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving of the fight is known as _____.
By age 65, what percentage of adults are grandparents?
Which age group is most likely to be victims and perpetrators of domestic abuse?
In Schaie’s study, each successive cohort scored higher in adulthood than did the previous generations in _____ and _____.
verbal memory; inductive reasoning
To retain information in working memory, individuals must ____
process the information
In the United States, less than _____ percent of children under age 11 study a language other than English in school
With respect to test results, a false negative is the result of a laboratory test that reports something as _____.
false when in fact it is not false
Each molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is stored on a(n) _____
Over the past two decades, more than 50 nations have participated in at least one massive international test of educational achievement. Longitudinal data finds that _____.
if achievement rises, the national economy advances
Approximately what proportion of adults in North America become stepparents, foster parents, or adoptive parents?
Leon is asked whether a person should steal food if they are starving. Leon says no because it is against the law. Leon is in Kohlberg’s _____ moral reasoning level, in the stage called _____.
conventional; law and order
The third step in the scientific method involves _____.
Which hormone is associated with encouraging care giving behaviors?
Which factor helps a young child to demonstrate initiative as Erikson details it in his third stage of psychosocial development?
neurological maturity and a longer attention span
Erikson called the final crisis of development _____.
integrity versus despair
Synchrony depends on _____.
responsiveness and timing
According to a longitudinal study, 4-year-old children who were identified as being extremely shy were as emerging adults slower than average to _____.
choose a career
An expert internal medicine doctor may prefer a patient who _____.
has symptoms that do not match any diagnosable condition
In 1975 the Education of All Handicapped Children Act stipulated that children with special needs must be educated in the _____.
least restrictive environment
Jared, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing _____.
Gross motor skills are _____.
In a study of adolescent agreement and disagreement with policies to remedy racial discrimination (Hughes & Bigler, 2011), most adolescents believed that racism was the cause of disparities between African and European Americans, but adolescents’ ages influenced their ideas about solutions to the inequality. Those who were most likely to support systemic solutions (e.g., affirmative action and desegregation) were between the ages of _____.
16 and 17
All of the following beliefs reflect cognitive flexibility EXCEPT _____.
all life plans are static
On the 23rd pair of chromosomes, _____ have two X chromosomes.
Alisha took an overdose of prescription pills, but before she lost consciousness she called her mom for help. Alisha was rushed to the hospital for medical attention. Alisha’s behavior is defined as _____.
The presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person is referred to as _____.
When they practice walking, babies average between _____ steps per hour.
500 and 1,500
Abed is 12 months old, and his uncle Frank is visiting for the first time in 6 months. Frank is delighted to see his nephew, so as he enters the room, he booms, “There’s my little man!” Abed looks to his mother, who is smiling broadly at her brother Frank, and crawls to her to be picked up. Abed is demonstrating _____.
Overregularization in a child’s speech patterns indicates that _____.
the child can apply grammatical rules to vocalizations
When healthy babies are born, they usually _____.
breathe and cry on their own immediately
Susan Beal hypothesized that _____ played a role in SIDS deaths.
Early prenatal care can help decrease the risk of prenatal abnormalities; however, it CANNOT provide pregnant women with information about _____.
exact thresholds for teratogens
Diagnosis of _____ is most common from ages 18 to 24, with men more likely to develop the disorder than women.
In Erikson’s theory, the infant’s earliest task is described as that of _____.
learning trust or mistrust
According to Erikson, children have _____, and thus believe that they can achieve any goal.
an unrealistic self-concept
According to Erikson, who is likely to suffer from loneliness?
an emerging adult who recently got divorced
Grace is in her early 20s and exercises regularly. As she ages, what is likely going to encourage her to continue to exercise regularly?
having an active friend
Which individual would be at the greatest risk for diet deficiencies?
George, who was born in 1990 and is 18 years old
Researchers have discovered that _____ helps a child to develop theory of mind months ahead of a child who does not.
living with older siblings
_____ is one of the leading theorists of the information-processing perspective.
_____ are the sex hormones secreted in greater amounts by males than females.
Sensory memory improves until about age _____ and then remains adequate until late adulthood.
According to Erikson’s theory, children in middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either _____.
industrious or inferior
Dominique was an infant with very few toys, but she concocted things to play with out of what was available in her home in order to develop her brain. This is an example of _____.
The family stress model illustrates that _____.
the reaction to family poverty is crucial
_____ is a common condition because many elderly people take many different prescription drugs.
Janie is a 3-month-old infant participating in an experiment. She’s lying in her crib with one end of a ribbon tied to her foot and the other end tied to a mobile dangling over her crib. She quickly learns that she controls the movement of the mobile with her kicking. One week later, the researchers return, tie the ribbon to her foot and hang the mobile above her crib. Immediately, Janie starts vigorously kicking her leg. What does this experiment demonstrate?
Three-month-olds can remember things for at least a week.
Studies indicate that _____ may mitigate maternal depression.
All of Paulo and Geneva’s children have moved out, started families, and are working on their careers. According to the text, Paulo and Geneva’s home is now a(n) _____.
When children act as parents and try to take care of everyone, it is called _____.
Genevieve is about to complete her bachelor’s degree. If she is typical, once she is established in her career she will earn approximately _____ more per year than a peer without a college degree.
Pete has been shoplifting for the past year. Unless he experiences an intervention his shoplifting behavior is most likely to lead to _____.
People choose a particular lifestyle and social context, or _____, because it is compatible with their personality traits.
Pavlov’s experiments with dogs that salivated when they heard a specific noise without the presence of food provide an example of _____.
Since Carter’s mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, Carter is often neglected, but he has a supportive group of friends. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping Carter to maintain his positive attitude?
his circle of friends
Siegler has studied the day-by-day details of children’s cognition in math. He has found that children _____
gradually acquire math knowledge and strategies
By the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _____ words; by the age of 6, a child will typically have a vocabulary of _____ words.
Different theories and diverse parental practices are associated with toilet training. According to the text, what is the best method for toilet training?
There is no single best strategy for toilet training all children.
Fatal disease is _____ worldwide during emerging adulthood.
As more is understood about brain development after adolescence, it seems that the characteristics of postformal thought are evident as the brain and, in particular, as the _____, matures.
A person’s macrosystem includes _____.
As an individual ages, small sensory losses such as a decreased ability to hear nuances of emotion in speech _____.
Oliver has inherited genes that put him at risk for developing diabetes, but he never develops diabetes due to a healthy diet and exercise. This example demonstrates that human characteristics, including diabetes, are _____.
Avery is 50 years old and is experiencing vaginal dryness, hot flashes, hot flushes, and cold sweats. She is most likely entering _____.
Jessica is reading a story book aloud to her 3-year-old daughter, Abigail. Abigail’s father says, “Why are you bothering? It’s not like she’s going to learn to read from that.” What would you tell Abigail’s father about reading to preschoolers?
He’s wrong; children whose parents read to them as preschoolers tend to be better readers in elementary school.
With respect to families today worldwide, all of the following are true statements EXCEPT _____.
there are more children per family
Dashiel is 20 months old. His mother tells him that he must not touch the candle that she just lit, and then she turns her back to continue tidying the room. When she turns back around, she sees Dashiel trying to dip his finger in the melted wax under the flame. What best explains Dashiel’s behavior?
Dashiel’s actions were driven by curiosity.
In the United States, almost two-thirds of sexually active women over age _____ are sterilized.
Which example best illustrates a critical period?
a fetus developing fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days in utero
Cooper sees his mother come through the door after work. He squeals, “Mama!” Information-processing theorists would call this an example of _____.
What is a dependent variable?
It is the measured variable that may change depending on manipulation of an independent variable.
Expert thought is _____.
intuitive, automatic, strategic, and flexible
When a person adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values without questioning and exploring a personal identity, it is referred to as identity _____.
Jared, who speaks only English, has moved to Spain with his family. He attends a public school. All of his school subjects are taught in Spanish. Jared is learning Spanish through _____
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with anorexia nervosa?
With regard to paid work, older employees tend to have _____ compared to younger employees.
Which 4-month-old girl’s temperament is the MOST likely to change over time?
Michaela, who is inhibited and fearful
Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, “I’ve never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?” This is an example of what kind of thinking?