PSY 213-Lifespan Ch. 4

question

Reciprocal, or synchronous
answer

the interaction between parents and infants when all is going well. Parents change their emotional expressions in response to those of their infants, but infants also modify their emotional expressions in response to those of their parents. The interactions are mutually regulated
question

Emotions that infants express in the first six months of life
answer

surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. Other emotions that appear in infancy include jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt; most of these occur for the first time at some point in the second half of the first year or during the second year.
question

self-conscious or other-conscious emotions
answer

The later developing emotions have been called self-conscious or other-conscious emotions because they involve the emotional reactions of others
question

Basic cry
answer

a rhythmic pattern that usually consist of a cry, followed by a briefer silence, then a shorter whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry, then another brief rest before the next cry. Believed to be caused by hunger
question

Anger cry
answer

variation of the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords
question

Pain cry
answer

a sudden long, initial loud cry followed by the holding of the breath
question

Reflexive smile
answer

a smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep
question

Social smile
answer

a smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of a young infant. Social smiling occurs as early as 4 weeks in response to a caregiver’s voice
question

From 2 to 6 months
answer

infants’ social smiling increases considerably, in both self-initiated smiles and smiles in response to other’s smiles in this time period
question

6 to 12 months
answer

In this time period smiles occur that couple what is called the Duchenne marker (eye constriction) and mouth-opening occur in the midst of highly enjoyable interactions and play with parents
question

2 years old
answer

At this age toddlers become increasingly aware of the social meaning of smiles, especially in their relationship with parents
question

Rouge Test:
answer

a self recognition test that identifies a human child’s ability to recognize a reflection in a mirror as his or her own. An experimenter places a dot on the nose and or face of the child. The child is then placed in front of a mirror and their reactions are monitored; depending on the child’s development, distinct categories of responses are demonstrated.
question

6 to 12 months
answer

age that the child simply sees a \”sociable playmate\” in the mirror’s reflection
question

12 months
answer

age of self-admiring and embarrassment
question

14 to 20 months
answer

most children demonstrate avoidance behavior at this age
question

18 months
answer

half of children recognize the reflection in the mirror as their own at their age
question

20 to 24 months
answer

self-recognition climbs to 65%. Children do so by evincing mark-directed behavior; they touch their own nose/and or try to wipe the mark off
question

Social Referencing
answer

\”reading\” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation.
question

Temperament
answer

an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding
question

Easy child
answer

this child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences
question

Difficult child
answer

This child reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change
question

Slow-to-warm-up child
answer

This child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity mood
question

Kagan
answer

Inhibition of the unfamiliar: a broad temperament category. Inhibited children react to many aspects of unfamiliarity with initial avoidance, distress, or subdued affect, beginning around 7 to 9 months.
question

Goodness of fit
answer

refers to the match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with
question

Attention to respect for individuality
answer

Parents need to be flexible and sensitive to the infant’s signals and needs
question

Structuring the child’s environment
answer

make sure to have the right environment for the temperament of different children
question

Avoid applying negative labels to the child
answer

acknowledging that some children are harder to parent than others is helpful, and advice on how to handle particular kinds of difficult circumstances can be helpful. Labeling a child as difficult is a self-fulfilling prophecy
question

Parental Behavior Determines Quality of Attachment
answer

– Should be available and responsive – Should intervene judiciously when child is heading for trouble – Inconsistent or unresponsive care leads to insecure attachment
question

John Bowlby’s (1969) Theory
answer

Attachment: enduring socioemotional relationship Goal = maintain emotional security The person you smile with and share good times with, when times are rough it’s the person you turn too
question

Harlow’s monkey studies
answer

Monkey doll fills needs for baby monkey; the need to cling to something soft Will eat food from the wire doll
question

The strange situation
answer

Baby and mom play; stranger enters room; stranger interacts with baby; mom leaves; mom returns and stranger leaves; mom and baby play; mom leaves; stranger enters; baby is flipping out and mom returns and baby calms down
question

Secure attachment (60-65%)
answer

– Engaged in play when caregiver present (secure base) – may or may not cry when caregiver leaves – not easily comforted by strangers – seek contact with caregiver immediately and readily comforted (Safe haven) – related to positive social, emotional, and cognitive outcomes
question

may or may not cry when caregiver leaves
answer

Secure attachment: 1. engaged in play when caregiver present 2. _____ 3. not easily comforted by strangers 4. seek contact with caregiver and comforted 5. related to positive social, emotional, and cognitive out comes
question

related to positive social, emotional, and cognitive out comes
answer

Secure attachment: 1. engaged in play when caregiver present 2. may or may not cry when caregiver leaves 3. not easily comforted by strangers 4. seek contact with caregiver and comforted 5._____
question

Insecure avoidant attachment (20%)
answer

-usually not distressed by separation -little interaction with caregiver -easily comforted by stranger -typically ignore/avoid caregiver at reunion
question

typically ignore/avoid caregiver at reunion
answer

Insecure avoidant attachment: 1. usually not distressed by separation 2. little interaction with caregiver 3. easily comforted by stranger 4. _______
question

Insecure resistant (Anxious-ambivalent) attachment (15%)
answer

– cling to caregiver but resist closeness – very upset when caregiver leaves – upset and angry when caregiver returns – not readily comforted by caregiver at reunion
question

Very upset when caregiver leaves
answer

Insecure resistant attachment: 1. cling to caregiver but resist closeness 2.____ 3 upset and angry when caregiver returns 4. not readily comforted by caregiver at reunion
question

Insecure disorganized attachment (5%)
answer

-confused when caregiver leaves and returns -unusual behaviors: dazed, hiding, cowering [from caregiver] -relatively new type, so not as well understood
question

confused when caregiver leaves and returns
answer

Insecure disorganize attachment: 1_____ 2. unusual behaviors: dazed, hiding, cowering 3. relatively new type, so not as well understood
question

Daycare
answer

has little to no affect on attachment
question

Insecure attachment is more likely under these conditions
answer

– Low quality or large amount of child care (>30 hrs/week) – less sensitive parenting (parental sensitivity is most important factor)
question

High quality child care
answer

– Low ration of children to caregivers – Well-trained, experienced staff – Ample opportunities for educational and social interaction – Effective communication between child care providers and parents – Sensitive, responsive care giving
question

ample opportunities for educational and social interaction
answer

High child care: 1. low ration of children to caregivers 2. well-trained, experienced staff 3. _______ 4. effective communication between child care providers and parents 5. sensitive, responsive care giving
question

Emotion
answer

Feeling or aspect that occurs when a person is in a state or interaction that is important to them. Characterized by behavior that reflects the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the state a person is in or the transactions being experienced
question

Display Rules
answer

rules governing when, where and how emotions should be expressed
question

Stranger Anxiety
answer

an infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; it tends to appear in the second half of the first year
question

separation protest
answer

an infant’s distressed crying when the caregiver leaves
question

social referencing
answer

\”reading\” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
question

Temperament
answer

an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding
question

Self-regulation (Rothbart and Bates)
answer

Infants who are high in effortful control show an ability to keep their arousal from getting too high and have strategies for soothing themselves.
question

Reciprocal socialization
answer

Socialization that is bidirectional; children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children
question

Scaffolding
answer

parents time interactions so that infants experience turn-taking with parents
question

____ spend more time care giving, and _____ tend to engage in more physical, playful interaction with infants
answer

Mothers…. Fathers

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member