psy 201 test 1

(Close-Up) In order, the sequence of steps in the SQ3R method is
A.
survey, question, read, retrieve, review.
B.
question, review, survey, read, retrieve.
C.
review, question, survey, read, retrieve.
D.
survey, review, retrieve, question, read.
A. survey, question, read, retrieve, review.

William James was a prominent American
A.
behaviorist.
B.
psychoanalyst.
C.
functionalist.
D.
structuralist.
C. functionalist.

The first psychology laboratory was established by ________ in the year________.
A.
Freud; 1900
B.
Wundt; 1879
C.
Watson; 1913
D.
James; 1890
C. Wundt; 1879

Which psychologists are MOST likely to be involved in applied research?
A.
developmental psychologists
B.
biological psychologists
C.
industrial-organizational psychologists
D.
personality psychologists
B. industrial-organizational psychologists

Discerning the unstated assumptions and values that underlie conclusions best illustrates ________, which is an important learning tool.
A.
critical thinking
B.
introspection
C.
the testing effect
D.
SQ3R
B. introspection

Today, psychology is a discipline that
A.
is largely independent of other disciplines.
B.
is focused primarily on basic research.
C.
connects with a diversity of other fields.
D.
is focused primarily on applied research.
B. connects with a diversity of other fields.

Today, psychology is defined as the
A.
science of behavior and mental processes.
B.
science of behavior.
C.
science of mental phenomena.
D.
science of conscious and unconscious activity.
B. science of behavior and mental processes.

Which of the following individuals is also a physician?
A.
clinical psychologist
B.
experimental psychologist
C.
psychiatrist
D.
biological psychologist
C. psychiatrist

By suggesting that nurture works on what nature endows, psychologists highlight the fact that we are biologically endowed with a capacity for
A.
learning and adaptation.
B.
inborn ideas.
C.
introspection.
D.
natural selection.
B. learning and adaptation.

Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
A.
clinical
B.
industrial-organizational
C.
developmental
D.
personality
C. industrial-organizational

In defining psychology, the text notes that psychology is most accurately described as a
A.
way of asking and answering questions.
B.
nonscientific approach to the study of mental disorders.
C.
set of findings related to behavior and mental processes.
D.
field engaged in solving applied problems.
A. way of asking and answering questions.

Aristotle suggested that a meal makes us sleepy by causing heat to collect around the

A.
brain.

B.
throat.

C.
stomach.

D.
heart.

D. heart.

The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian
A.
chemist.
B.
politician.
C.
theologian.
D.
physician.
D. physician.

Which perspective would help us to understand the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
A.
evolutionary
B.
neuroscience
C.
behavioral
D.
psychodynamic
C. neuroscience

Professor Brody attempts to measure the relative contributions of inborn traits and social influences on sexual preferences and behavior patterns. Her research efforts best illustrate the interests of the ________ perspective.
A.
behavioral
B.
cognitive
C.
behavior genetics
D.
psychodynamic
C. behavior genetics

Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people’s inner sensations and mental images.
A.
B. F. Skinner
B.
Charles Darwin
C.
John B. Watson
D.
Edward Titchener
A. Edward Titchener

Which subfield is most directly concerned with studying human behavior in the workplace?
A.
personality psychology
B.
clinical psychology
C.
psychiatry
D.
industrial-organizational psychology
D. industrial-organizational psychology

The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of
A.
massed practice.
B.
retrieving information.
C.
introspection.
D.
role modeling.
B. retrieving information.

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
A.
behaviorism.
B.
cognitive neuroscience.
C.
positive psychology.
D.
humanistic psychology.
A. behaviorism.

Dr. Caleigh conducts research on the relationship between adults’ language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Caleigh is most likely a _________ psychologist.
A.
biological
B.
social
C.
cognitive
D.
clinical
B. cognitive

Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called
A.
basic researchers.
B.
applied psychologists.
C.
clinical psychologists.
D.
psychiatrists.
C. clinical psychologists.

The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
A.
humanistic psychology.
B.
multiple levels of analysis.
C.
introspection.
D.
SQ3R.
A. multiple levels of analysis.

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors’ genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.
A.
evolutionary
B.
social-cultural
C.
cognitive
D.
psychodynamic
B. evolutionary

William James was a prominent American
A.
psychoanalyst.
B.
behaviorist.
C.
functionalist.
D.
structuralist.
C. functionalist.

The Greek philosopher who believed that intelligence was inherited was
A.
Aristotle.
B.
Descartes.
C.
Plato.
D.
Simonides.
C. Plato.

Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna’s difficulties requires
A.
psychoanalysis.
B.
a biopsychosocial approach.
C.
massed practice.
D.
introspection.
A. a biopsychosocial approach.

A.
genes and experience
B.
unconscious and conscious motives
C.
behavior and mental processes
D.
massed practice and spaced practice
A. genes and experience

Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?
A.
social-cultural
B.
evolutionary
C.
behavioral
D.
cognitive
D. evolutionary

Different accounts of the same behavior that together give us a more complete understanding represent different
A.
natural selections.
B.
levels of analysis.
C.
unconscious motives.
D.
cognitive functions.
B. levels of analysis.

The first psychology laboratory was established by ________ in the year________.
A.
Watson; 1913
B.
Wundt; 1879
C.
James; 1890
D.
Freud; 1900
D. Wundt; 1879

Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?
A.
Aristotle
B.
John Locke
C.
Plato
D.
Charles Darwin
D. Charles Darwin

In the context of debates over the origins of psychological traits, nature is to nurture as
A.
Plato is to Aristotle.
B.
Skinner is to Watson.
C.
Watson is to Skinner.
D.
Aristotle is to Plato.
A. Plato is to Aristotle.

r. Robinson conducts research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson’s research best represent?
A.
biological psychology
B.
clinical psychology
C.
social psychology
D.
industrial-organizational psychology
A. biological psychology

The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
A.
introspection.
B.
humanistic psychology.
C.
multiple levels of analysis.
D.
SQ3R.
A. multiple levels of analysis.

Charles Darwin attempted to explain the ________ that he encountered.
A.
unconscious thought processes
B.
biopsychosocial approach
C.
SQ3R method
D.
species variation
C. species variation

William James was a prominent American
A.
structuralist.
B.
behaviorist.
C.
functionalist.
D.
psychoanalyst.
C. functionalist.

The seventeenth-century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience is
A.
René Descartes.
B.
Plato.
C.
John Locke.
D.
Aristotle.
B. John Locke.

Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
A.
neuroscience
B.
behavior genetics
C.
evolutionary
D.
social-cultural
A. social-cultural

Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to ________.
A.
humanistic psychology
B.
cognitive neuroscience
C.
behaviorism
D.
functionalism
D. functionalism

Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of
A.
physiology and chemistry.
B.
philosophy and physics.
C.
philosophy and chemistry.
D.
philosophy and biology.
A. philosophy and biology.

Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband’s angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband’s behavior from a(n) ________ perspective.
A. psychodynamic

Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.
A. neuroscience

Which psychological perspective emphasizes the interaction of the brain and body in behavior?
B. neuroscience

Who wrote the early textbook Principles of Psychology?
C. William James

Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
D. Mary Whiton Calkins

Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of
C. mental processes.

Which seventeenth-century European philosopher believed that some ideas are innate?
René Descartes

The nature-nurture issue refers to the debate over the relative contributions that ________ make to the development of psychological traits.
genes and experience

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions.

John B. Watson is to Edward Titchener as ________ is to ________.
observable behavior; inner sensations

Professor McClure believes that young children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethical principles. The professor’s belief is most consistent with the views of
Plato.

The way we encode, process, store, and retrieve information is the primary concern of the ________ perspective.
cognitive

birthdate of psychology
1879

birthplace of psychology
Germany

parents of psychology
biology & philosophy

structuralism
1. what person is associated with this?
2.what behavior is associated with this?
1. Titchener
2.introspection

Functionalism
1. what person is associated with this?
2.what behavior is associated with this?
1. james
2.function of behavior

1920’s psychology
mental life (things going on in your head)

1920’s-1960’s psychology
observable behavior (things you can see)

1960’s psychology
cognitive neuroscience (perceive, process, remember)

Today’s psychology
behavior and mental processes

behaviorism
1. what people are associated with this?
2.what behavior is associated with this?
1. WATSON, rainer, skinner, pavlov
2.observation (if you don’t see it, it doesn’t matter!) NO reference to mental processes.

humanism
1. what people are associated with this?
2. what behavior is associated with this?
1. Maslow & Rogers
2. healthy growth potential. “All ppl are grown good”. ” what you become is a result of what you experience in the world”.

who’s the father of psychology?
Wundt

who had the 1st labratory?
wundt

females in psychology
calkins & washburn

1st female president in APA in 1905
calkins

1st woman to be awarded a PHD, 2nd woman APA president (1921)
washburn

nature
your genetics/DNA.

nurture
your environment.

3 levels of biopsychosocial
1. biological: brain, genetics, hormones
2. psychological: emotional, cognitions (actions), learned behaviors.
3.social: others, models, peers

how many perspectives are in psychology?
7

perspective- could be a medical thing, seizures,etc…
neuroscience

perspective-trying to understand behavior w/ survival of the fittest “what purpose does this purpose serve?”
evolutionary

perspective- has a nurture component. considering genetics & the environment of the person.
behavioral genetics

perspective- dreams, questions, unconcious
psychodynamic: unconscious motives (freud)

perspective- what can be observed, focused on learning & learning theories
behavioral

perspective- how a person takes in info: encode, process, and store information.
cognitive

perspective- culture impacts behavior, also sub-culture (ex. family)
social-cultural

delinquent behaviors- pressure from peers
social-cultural perspective

delinquent behaviors- poor fit between genetics and environment
behavioral genetics

delinquent behaviors- survival behavior (natural selection)
evolutionary

What are the components of scientific attitude?
curiosity, skepticism, humility.

component of scientific attitude- evaluate, investigate, and explore.
curiosity

component of scientific attitude-ask questions, test ideas, accept the conclusions.
skepticism

component of scientific attitude-understanding you’re sometimes wrong and admitting to that.
humility

IRB
institutional review board

who has to approve experiments before they take place?
IRB/ Institutional Review Board

for experiments, APA requires use of: 1._____, 2._______, 3.__________
1. informed consent
2. confidentiality
3. debrief

what is the purpose of informed consent?
a document that gives enough info to the patient to see if they want to participate, the person signs that they are willing willing to take it. person can leave the study at anytime w/o explanation.

what is “debriefing” after an experiment?
giving the person as much info as you can w/o jeopardizing the experiment. making sure they are ok.

3 methods used in research:
1. descriptive 2. correlational 3. experimental

research method: descriptive: 1._______ 2._______ 3.______
1. case studies 2. surveys 3. naturalistic observation

research method: correlational: 1.______
association

research method: experimental: 1._________
manipulate factors to effect results

case study:
1 person studied in depth

positives of case studies:
lots of info

limitations of case studies:
completely JUST about this 1 person

surveys:
many cases, less depth, report

sureveys: wording effect:______________
when you write a survey, the different words you use effect the answer of the question.

naturalistic observation:__________
describes behavior when you go into their habitat.

random assignment
when ppl are randomly assigned for experiments.

random sample:____
subset of population (ex. 500 of 9,500)

operational definition in research:
specifically define what you are looking for

replication of research:
having someone else duplicate your study and they get the same results.

experimental group:
exposed to the treatment (they were given the lexipro)

control group
not exposed (comparison group) ( sugar pill)

independent variable:
manipulated factor (medication)

dependent variable:
outcome factor: effects as measured by the set questions everyone was given.

psychoanalysis (person )
freud

positive correlations
as one goes up the other goes up, as one goes down the other goes down.

negative correlations:
as one goes down, the other goes up, and vice versa.

only research method that allows for causation:
experimentation

random assignment
assignment by chance (minimizes group differences)

placebo
inert substance (ex. sugar pill) ( ppl getting better, but purely psychological)

placebo effect
results caused by expectations alone ( ex. gets better just because they know they have an appointment with a psychologist)

double-blind procedure
experimenter and experimentee don’t know if they are in controlled or experimental group.

basic research
knowledge based

developmental changes 1._______2.________3.________4.______
1.cognitive changes 2. physical changes 3. emotional changes 4. social changes

applied research
solving practical problems

industrial-organizational (I/O)
job satisfaction, productivity.

counseling psychology
dealing with less severe everyday stressers

clinical psychology
provides assessment and therapy. more severe things such as bipolar disorder.

psychiatrist
prescribes medication,

introspection
to self reflect, turn inward. idea of structuralism

functionalism
understanding purpose, understanding “why”, understanding purpose of the behavior.

total behavior
can control: thoughts and behaviors.
cannot directly control: feelings and biology