PSY 201 – FINAL EXAM

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What is psychopathology?
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A pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts that lead to distress or inability to achieve goals.
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What is major depression?
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Clinically significant symptoms of depression (unipolar). -Emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and motivational symptoms -Increased risk of suicide
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What are delusions?
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Persistent false beliefs.
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What are hallucinations?
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False sensory experiences.
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What are affective disturbances?
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Any type of mood disorder that affects the individual’s daily life.
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What is the medical model?
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Psychological disorders are diseases that have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.
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What is the biological perspective?
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Genetic influences cause psychological disorders.
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What is the behavioral perspective?
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Abnormal behaviors can be acquired through behavioral learning.
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What is the cognitive perspective?
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Abnormal behaviors are influenced by mental processes.
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What is the social perspective?
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Social context plays a role in behaviors and cognitions.
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What is the developmental perspective?
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Studies changes from the expected pattern of biological and psychological development.
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What is the biopsychosocial model?
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Genetics, stress, learning, neurotransmitters, toxins, infections, and brain injuries all play a role in psychological disorders.
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What are the 5 indicators of abnormality?
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Distress, maladaptiveness, irrationality, unpredictability, and unconventionality.
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What is the DSM-5?
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Used to determine psychological disorders by mental and behavioral symptoms.
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What is neurosis?
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A psychological state of excessive anxiety or insecurity without evidence of a mental health disorder.
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What is psychosis?
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An impaired relationship with reality.
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What is rumination?
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It is the tendency to repetitively think about what causes negative emotion.
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What is learned helplessness?
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Mental state in which the organism bears painful stimuli even if it is escapable due to learning that it is “inescapable”.
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What is bipolar disorder?
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A mood disorder involving extreme mood swings between mania and depression.
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What is an anxiety disorder?
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Disorders characterized by the presence of anxiety that cause distress and functional impairment.
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What is generalized anxiety disorder?
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Persistent and pervasive experience of anxiety without any obvious cause.
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What is panic disorder?
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Defined by panic attacks that have no obvious connection to the individual’s present experience.
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What is agoraphobia?
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Fear of places where escape may be difficult or help is not available.
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What is a specific phobia?
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Disorder involving a pathological fear of a specific object, activity, or situation.
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What is the preparedness hypothesis?
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The notion that we all have an innate tendency to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that pose a threat.
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What is social anxiety disorder?
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Disorder in which social interactions cause irrational anxiety.
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What is obsessive compulsive disorder?
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Patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors followed by repetitive acts to reduce anxiety.
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What are somatic symptoms?
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Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints.
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What is conversion disorder?
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Paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation with no discernible cause.
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What is illness anxiety?
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Obsession with having a serious, but undiagnosed medical condition.
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What is dissociative amnesia?
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A disorder grouped with dissociative disorders. Involves disruptions of memory, consciousness, awareness, or identity.
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What is dissociative identity disorder?
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A disorder in which the individual loses his/her identity.
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What is schizophrenia?
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Psychotic disorder involving the distortion of thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions.
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What is the diathesis-stress hypothesis?
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A model that demonstrates how genetic traits and environment interact with each other to produce disorders.
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What are neurodevelopmental disorders?
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Disorders linked to disturbances in the CNS.
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What is autism spectrum disorder?
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Marked by disabilities in language, social interactions, and the ability to understand another person’s state of mind.
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What is ADHD?
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Disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and difficulty remaining inactive for any period.
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What is labeling?
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Attaching diagnoses of mental disorders to people and then using them as stereotypes.
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What is depersonalization?
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When diagnoses become labels that depersonalize the individual.
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What is the ecological view?
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A perspective on mental disorders that emphasize social and cultural context.
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What is a therapeutic relationship?
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A form of therapy focused on improving a person’s mental, behavioral, or social functioning.
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What is therapy?
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A general term for any treatment process.
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What is psychotherapy?
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Therapy that uses psychological techniques to focus on thoughts, feeling, and behaviors.
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What is biomedical therapies?
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Therapy that focuses on changing the chemistry of the brain through medicine.
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What is a paraprofessional?
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A person who is not licensed, but treats people as if they were licensed.
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What is insight therapy?
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Therapy that helps people understand their difficulties through internal experiences.
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What is psychoanalysis?
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Based on the assumption that psychological problems arise from tensions created in the unconscious mind.
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What is analysis of transference?
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The Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient’s relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient’s past.
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What is a neo-Freudian psychodynamic theory?
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Theories developed based on some, but not all of Freud’s psychodynamic ideas.
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What is humanistic therapy?
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Mental problems arise from low self-esteem, misguided goals, and unfulfilling relationships.
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What is client centered therapy?
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Therapy based solely on the client. Developed by Carl Rogers.
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What is reflection of feeling?
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Paraphrasing a client’s words to help them understand their emotions.
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What is cognitive therapy?
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Therapy that emphasizes erroneous thinking patterns as the cause of psychological problems.
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What is behavior therapy?
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Any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning.
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What is systematic desensitization?
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A behavioral technique used to to treat fear or anxiety disorders by exposing the individual to the imagined fear.
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What is exposure therapy?
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A therapy in which the individual is directly exposed to the anxiety provoking stimulus.
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What is aversion therapy?
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A form of psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while being subjected to some form of discomfort.
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What is contingency management?
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An approach to changing individual behavior by altering the consequences of behaviors; reward or punishment
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What is a token economy?
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A tactic applied to groups that involves the distribution of “tokens” for desired behaviors that can later be exchanged for goods.
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What is participant modeling?
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Tactic in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior.
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What is cognitive-behavioral therapy?
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Therapy based on cognition and behavior. It emphasizes irrational thinking patterns and undesirable behaviors as the primary cause of psychological disorders.
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What is rational-emotive behavior therapy?
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Therapy where self-defeating thought patters are challenged and then focuses on behavioral strategies as a substitute for irrational beliefs.
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What is positive psychotherapy?
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Therapy that is based on positive human conception.
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What is active listening?
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A tactic in which one listens and then repeats back to the speaker to show understanding.
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What are antipsychotics?
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Medications to treat mental health disorders, old name.
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What is tardive dyskenesia?
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A neurological syndrome related to long term drug use that results in repetitive, useless movements.
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What is a stressor?
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An external event that causes stress.
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What is stress?
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The physical and mental response to a stressor.
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What is cognitive appraisal?
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How a person views a situation
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What is PTSD?
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A severe stress reaction that can occur months or years after a traumatic event.
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What is a chronic stressor?
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Long lasting, stressful conditions with gradual onset and low intensity.
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What is a societal stressor?
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Pressures in our social, cultural, and economic environment.
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What is burnout?
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A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, feelings of cynicism, and detachment.
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What is work engagement?
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A positive, fulfilling, affective state of work.
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What is compassion fatigue?
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A state of exhaustion experienced by medical and psychological professionals.
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What is compassion satisfaction?
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A state of satisfaction experienced by medical and psychological professionals through work.
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What is the social readjustment rating scale?
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A scale/test used for rating major stressful life events.
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How can daily hassles contribute to chronic stress?
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They cause minor irritation or frustration.
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What is acute stress?
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Minor amounts of stress.
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What is general adaptation syndrome?
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The predictable way the body responds to a certain stressor.
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What are the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion phases?
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The three phases in which the body responds to stress.
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What does tend and befriend refer to?
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Evolved as the typical female response to stress.
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What is a locus of control?
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A relatively stable pattern that characterizes an individual’s expectations about their ability to influence the outcomes in their life.
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What is an internal locus of control?
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One’s actions are directly associated with outcomes.
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What is an external locus of control?
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An unpredictable relationship between actions and outcomes.
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What is hardiness?
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One’s ability to counter stress.
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What is optimism?
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Interpretation of stressors as: -Situational rather than personal -Temporary rather than permanent -Specific rather than global
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What is resilience?
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One’s ability to adapt to their environment and stressors.
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What is coping?
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Taking action to reduce or eliminate causes of stress, not just the symptoms.
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What is a positive lifestyle choice?
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Working out, eating healthy, hygiene, etc. to cope with stress.
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What is a type A personality?
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Characterized by intense, angry, competitive, or hostile responses to challenging situations.
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What is a type B personality?
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Characterized by a more relaxed approach to life.
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What is defending?
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Efforts focused on reducing solely symptoms of stress.
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What is a narrative?
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Having a patient write or tell, in extreme detail, what they can about a traumatic event to cope with the stress.
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What is vicarious traumatization?
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Trauma of the worker that helps relate to the clients trauma.
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What is problem focused coping?
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Responding to the stress by identifying, reducing, and eliminating the stressor.
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What is emotion focused coping?
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Responding to the stress by managing one’s emotional responses.
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What is cognitive restructuring?
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Recognizing thoughts about the stressor that is leading to the anxiety/depressions/frustration and challenging them.
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What is social comparison?
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Comparing oneself to others in similar situations.
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What is downward social comparison?
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Comparing one’s situation to others who are worse off.
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What is upward social comparison?
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Comparing one’s situation to others who are coping more effectively.
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What can positive emotions do?
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Increase longevity and induce health.
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What is finding meaning?
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Finding meaning for anything when in difficult situations. E.g. Victor Frankl – concentration camp survivor.
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What is psychological debriefing?
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Providing emotional and psychological support following a traumatic event.
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What is critical incident stress debriefing?
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Small group, supportive intervention process.
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What is subject well-being?
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Includes happiness, positive and negative affect, and life satisfaction.
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What are the steps of the scientific method?
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-Observation -Question -Hypothesis -Experiment -Analyze data -Form conclusion
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What is a true experiment?
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Experiment that allows for testing of cause and effect. They have an IV, DV, control group, and experimental group.
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What are the parts of a neuron?
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-Dendrites: receive messages -Cell body: maintains neuron. -Axon: passes the messages to other neurons. -Terminal branches: make connections with other cells. -Myelin sheath: insulates axon for proper transmission of impulses.
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What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
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Frontal, occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes.
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What does the frontal lobe function for?
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Higher thinking and reasoning.
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What does the temporal lobe function for?
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High level auditory processing.
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What does the occipital lobe function for?
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Visual processing.
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What does the parietal lobe function for?
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Interprets sensory and visual information.
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What is classical conditioning?
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A basic form of learning in which a stimulus produces and innate reflex and becomes associated with that stimulus.
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What is operant conditioning?
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Another form of learning in which the consequences of behavior, such a rewards and punishments, increase the probability that the behavior will occur again.
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What is positive reinforcement?
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The addition of a pleasant stimulus.
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What is negative reinforcement?
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The deduction of an unpleasant stimulus.
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What is positive punishment?
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The addition of an unpleasant stimulus.
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What is negative punishment?
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The deduction of a pleasant stimulus.
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What is working memory?
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Involved in control of attention. Attaches meaning to sensory information.
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What is long term memory?
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Used for long term storage of memory. Hold flashbulb (vivid) memories and schemas (clusters of knowledge that give context)
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What is procedural memory?
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The storage of memories for how things are done, including motor skills and habits.
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What is declarative memory?
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Stores explicit information.
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What are common strategies for problem solving?
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-Working backwards -Searching for analogies -Braking a big problem into smaller problems
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What is Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence.
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Three intelligences: practical, analytical, and creative intelligence.
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What is practical intelligence?
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Ability to cope with the environment (street smarts).
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What is analytical intelligence?
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Ability to analyze problems and find correct answers.
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What is creative intelligence?
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Form of intelligence that allows people to see new relationships among concepts; involves insight and creativity.
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What is the relationship between nature and nurture?
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Nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) interact with each other to influence behavior and mental processes.
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What is a key element in attachment?
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Contact comfort E.g. Harlow’s monkey study.
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What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
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Sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
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What are important features of the sensorimotor stage?
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Internally representing items in the outside world. Learning how items affect the world around them.
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What are important features of the pre-operational stage?
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Egocentrism and animistic thinking.
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What are important features of the concrete operational stage?
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Conservation and mental operations, no abstract thought.
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What are important features of the formal operational stage?
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Abstract thought.
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage from age 0-1.5 years?
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Trust v. mistrust.
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage from 1.5-3 years?
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Autonomy v. self-doubt/shame
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage from 3-6 years?
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Initiative v. guilt
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage from 6 years-puberty?
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Self-confidence v. inferiority
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage during adolescence?
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Identity v. role confusion
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage during early adulthood?
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Intimacy v. isolation
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage during middle adulthood?
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Generativity v. stagnation
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What is Erikson’s psychosocial stage during late adulthood?
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Ego-integrity v. despair
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What is Freud’s metaphor for the conscious/non-conscious?
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The iceberg: What is seen is the conscious, what is not seen is the unconscious.
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What is William James’ metaphor for the conscious?
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The flowing stream: ever changing sensations, perceptions, and emotions.
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What is the modern metaphor for the conscious/non-conscious?
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The computer: the screen is the conscious, the electronics is the non-conscious.
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What is intrinsic motivation?
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Engaging in an activity for its own sake.
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What is extrinsic motivation?
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Engaging in an activity for an external reward.
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What are the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?
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Transcendence Self-actualization Esteem/respect Love/affection Safety Immediate psychological needs
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What are the four components to emotion?
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Physiological arousal, cognitive interpretation, subjective feeling, and behavioral expression.
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What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?
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Stimulus -> Physiological response -> emotion.
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What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
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Stimulus -> Think -> Physiological response and emotion.
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What is the Schacter theory of emotion?
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Stimulus and physiological response -> think -> emotion.
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What is Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality?
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-Id: Unconscious personality -Superego: Values, morals, and conscience -Ego: rational part of personality
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What is situationism?
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Environmental conditions may influence people’s behavior.
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What is dispositionism?
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Tendency to attribute behavior to internal factors such as genes and personality traits.
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What factors impact conformity?
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-Unanimous majority -Large group -Task is difficult or ambiguous -Group is seen as important -Response is given publicly
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What key point did Milgram’s obedience study show us?
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Situational factors effect people’s level of obedience, not dispositional factors.
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What key point did Zimbardo’s prison experiment show us?
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Situations are created by systems.

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