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PSY 150 Chapter 13 Treatments Essay

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_____ are the most popular antidepressants today.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
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Which figure BEST approximates the proportion of inmates who suffer from some type of mental health problem?
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50%
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In mainstream American culture, a silence is awkward if it lasts _____ seconds. In Lakota culture, a silence may last up to _____ seconds without being awkward.
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5; 30
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_____ is used to treat phobias by presenting clients with the feared objects or situations in a no-risk context.
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Exposure
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Person-centered therapists use a type of empathetic listening called _____ listening.
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active
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According to some estimates, there are as many as _____ specific types of psychotherapy.
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500
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Vinnie suffers from schizophrenia. So far, his hallucinations have not responded to antipsychotic medication. His doctor might recommend:
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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Which statement is TRUE?
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Cognitive therapy is superior to rational-emotive behavior therapy in some instances.
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Which is the broadest category of therapy?
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biomedical therapy
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Which psychological disorder is correctly matched with its medication?
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schizophrenia — antipsychotics
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Tricyclic antidepressants affect the action of the neurotransmitters:
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serotonin and norepinephrine.
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During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates:
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resistance.
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The erroneous belief that self-contained events will have major repercussions in one’s life is called:
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overgeneralization.
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Clinical psychologists have earned:
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either PhDs or PsyDs.
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_____ was the first psychotropic prescription drug to be widely abused.
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Valium
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Up to _____ of therapists now use an integrative, eclectic approach to therapy.
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50%
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In an eating disorders clinic, the patients receive merits for appropriate behaviors on the unit and for good eating behaviors such as finishing their meals. This BEST illustrates an application of:
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a token economy.
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The text cites a Los Angeles county study in which Mexican Americans and Asian Americans were more likely to stick with and benefit from therapy when matched with a therapist of the same ethnicity and native language. The length of time the clients persisted in therapy was a(n) _____ variable in this study.
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dependent
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During the 1970s, _____ was nicknamed “Executive Excedrin” because of its abuse among white-collar businesspeople.
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Valium
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Ethnic minorities make up nearly _____ of the American population.
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35%
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Psychodynamic therapy is probably NOT an effective form of treatment for:
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schizophrenia
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Atypical antipsychotics reduce schizophrenic symptoms in approximately _____ of patients.
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60-85%
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Improving conflict management and communication skills is one of the main objectives of:
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couples therapy
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Compared with psychoanalysis, humanistic therapy is _____ likely to focus on the present rather than the past, and _____ likely to focus on the conscious rather than the unconscious mind.
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more; more
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Person-centered therapists are _____; that is, they follow the client’s lead during the session.
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nondirective
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In the United States, the deinstitutionalization of patients with psychological disorders began in the:
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1950s
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Marcel receives an 87 on the second midterm in his calculus course—the first time he has ever received anything less than an A in any course. Marcel now believes he will never succeed in math courses. Marcel is demonstrating:
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overgeneralization.
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To help Jacob overcome his smoking habit, a therapist has him smoke cigarettes laced with a chemical that induces nausea. In addition, she displays gruesome images of lung cancer on the walls while Jacob is smoking. This approach to treatment BEST illustrates:
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aversion therapy.
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Which class of antidepressant is correctly matched with a sample drug?
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tricyclics — Elavil
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Jenny has just finished describing one of her dreams to her therapist. Her therapist tells her to say anything and everything that comes to her mind. Jenny’s therapist is using the technique of:
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free association.
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Which is NOT one of the terms used to refer to groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Parents without Partners?
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therapeutic groups
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To control schizophrenic symptoms, Nicola has been taking an antipsychotic medication for approximately 18 months. Recently, she has developed such symptoms as shaking, restlessness, and facial tics. These side effects are sometimes seen with _____ antipsychotics, such as _____.
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traditional; Haldol
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Erin has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Her psychiatrist will MOST likely prescribe a:
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benzodiazepine.
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When working with families or groups, therapists generally use some type of _____ therapy.
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insight
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One disadvantage of psychodynamic therapy is that it:
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requires high verbal ability and self-awareness.
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If a client becomes unwilling to cooperate at key points during therapy, she is demonstrating:
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resistance
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Exposure + anxiety hierarchy = _____.
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systematic desensitization
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Which of these is NOT a classical conditioning technique?
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the token economy
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Which is NOT a type of medication used to treat psychological disorders?
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anticompulsives
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In recent years, neurosurgery has been used to treat a few people suffering from severe, intractable _____ disorder.
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obsessive-compulsive
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Dr. DeRouen is a psychodynamic therapist. Her colleague Dr. Ebrahim practices person-centered therapy. Both doctors, though, believe that the goal of therapy is to encourage awareness of inner conflicts, defenses, and motives. Both Dr. DeRouen and Dr. Ebrahim are therefore _____ therapists.
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insight
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Bipolar disorder is treated with _____ or _____.
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anticonvulsants; mood stabilizers
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______ is more colloquially known as “talk therapy.”
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Psychotherapy
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When a client begins relating to a therapist in the same way she might relate to parents or other important people in her life, she is demonstrating:
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transference.
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Behavior therapists often treat phobias by using:
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systematic desensitization.
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Which drug is correctly matched with the disorder for which it might be prescribed?
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Ativan — generalized anxiety disorder
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Coming to a conclusion when there is no evidence to support it is a cognitive distortion called:
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arbitrary inference.
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_____ sessions are often led by trained paraprofessionals rather than by mental health professionals.
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Self-help group
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Michaela’s therapist is an active listener who often paraphrases what she says. He does not judge her and is quite open to her exploration of her weaknesses. He gives her appropriate validation and encourages her to reflect on her feelings. He wants to deepen her self-understanding. Her therapy is MOST likely:
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person-centered therapy.
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Becca seems to see things in black-and-white extremes. A cognitive therapist would suspect that Becca is prone to:
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dichotomous thinking.
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After 42 psychotherapy sessions, _____ of clients show clinically significant improvement.
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75%
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In _____, legislation began requiring group insurance plans to provide mental health coverage.
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2010
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Biomedical therapies do NOT include:
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behavior therapy.
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Psychoanalysts attempt to access a client’s unconscious through each of these avenues, EXCEPT:
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aversion therapy.
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According to a behavior therapist, how are psychological disorders treated MOST effectively?
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The client must learn new responses.
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According to the textbook, “deinstitutionalization was made possible by the introduction of medications that reduced some symptoms of severe psychological disorders.” In other words, advances in _____ therapy paved the way for deinstitutionalization.
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biomedical
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Cognitive therapists believe that psychological disorders reflect:
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distortions in thinking.
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The textbook states that people often enter a psychiatric ward or hospital when they experience a psychotic episode. Based on this information, hospitalization is probably MOST likely for individuals suffering from:
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schizophrenia.
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People with bipolar disorder are ____ times as likely to take their own lives as are members of the general population.
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20
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The view that psychological normality and abnormality reflect a continuum rather than discrete categories took hold in the:
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first half of the 20th century.
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Noah dreams that he suddenly becomes paralyzed as he tries to cross a busy intersection. In Freudian terms, this is the _____ content of Noah’s dream. The underlying meaning of the dream is the _____ content.
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manifest; latent
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation involves:
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delivering an electrical current to the brain through coils outside the head
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Both cognitive therapy and rational-emotive behavior therapy are sometimes called _____ therapy.
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cognitive behavioral
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To help Alfredo reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to relax and imagine that he is walking toward a friendly, harmless little dog. The therapist’s technique BEST illustrates:
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systematic desensitization.
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Daniel has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Daniel’s psychiatrist might prescribe _____ to control his hallucinations and delusions.
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traditional or atypical antipsychotics
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Ms. Milner suffers from severe major depression. A physician implants an electrode to supply a weak electrical current to a specific portion of her brain. Ms. Milner is undergoing:
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deep brain stimulation.
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Recall the terminology of classical conditioning. In systematic desensitization, relaxation is BEST seen as a new:
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CR.
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Freud proposed that the ego defends the individual against anxiety by pushing sexual and aggressive urges out of consciousness. This defense mechanism is called:
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repression.
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Over the years, the proportion of hospital patients who receive electroconvulsive therapy has:
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declined dramatically.
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Which is the MOST specific category of therapy?
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psychodynamic therapy
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Which psychologist argued that depression results from irrational thoughts?
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Albert Ellis
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Which is NOT one of the three classes of antidepressants?
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beta blockers
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Ms. Murdoch is undergoing therapy for generalized anxiety disorder through a combination of online videoconferences and chat sessions with her therapist. Ms. Murdoch is receiving:
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e-therapy.
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Dopamine is to GABA as ______ is to _____.
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traditional antipsychotics; benzodiazepines
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Malika sees her therapist every other week. When she is at her therapist’s office, she feels accepted and can share anything. While her therapist listens to what Malika has to say without judgment, he also seeks understanding by paraphrasing as well as asking for clarification. Malika’s therapist is practicing:
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person-centered therapy
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Electroconvulsive therapy was most prevalent in the _____ century.
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mid-20th
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Group therapy is the preferred treatment approach for:
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interpersonal problems.
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In the late 1700s, _____ began reforming the conditions in asylums to make them more humane.
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Philippe Pinel
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To help Monica overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment BEST illustrates:
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aversion therapy.
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Religious groups began developing asylums in the _____ century.
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16th
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Compared with individual therapy, group therapy is _____ effective.
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just as
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Most often, group therapy sessions involve _____ members.
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3 to 10
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Selective serotonin uptake inhibitors were introduced in the:
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1980s
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Humanistic therapy began to take root in the:
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1950s
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Collectivist cultures include _____ cultures.
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American Indian and Latin American
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Humanistic therapy began as a reaction to:
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psychoanalysis
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In one application of aversive conditioning, alcohol is paired with a drug that induces vomiting. Which choice correctly applies classical conditioning terminology to this situation?
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Alcohol becomes a CS associated with vomiting.
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Which drug is correctly classified?
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Neither Haldol nor Risperdal is correctly classified.
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The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was published in the:
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1950s
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Which sequence correctly arranges types of therapy from broadest to most specific?
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psychological therapy > insight therapy > family therapy
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Which drug is correctly matched with its category?
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lithium — mood-stabilizer
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Beck argued that cognitive schemas underlie distorted thought patterns. Beck’s assertion reflects the intellectual legacy of the pioneering developmental psychologist:
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Jean Piaget
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Social phobia and panic disorder are treated using:
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bensodiazepines
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Dr. Perkins is a psychotherapist and has received an email request from one of his clients, asking if she can join his LinkedIn network. According to the textbook, Dr. Perkins’s response should be a:
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definite “no”
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Mood stabilizers are used to treat ______ disorder
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bipolar
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An anxiety hierarchy is used in:
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systematic desensetization
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Carl Rogers is to _____ therapy as _____ is to rational-emotive behavior therapy.
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person-centered; Albert Ellis
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Group therapy was first developed in the:
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1940s
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Which period is correctly matched with its development in the history of psychological treatment?
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19th century — mental hygiene movement
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In a residential treatment facility for troubled youth, adolescent children receive large colored buttons when they hang up their clothes, make their beds, and come to meals on time. The children return the buttons to staff members to receive bedtime snacks or for permission to watch television. This system of rewards BEST illustrates an application of:
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operant conditioning.
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Aaron Beck was originally trained in _____ therapy. He later went on to develop _____ therapy.
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psychoanalytic; cognitive
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Which behavior therapy technique is correctly matched with its description?
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systematic desensitization — Gradual exposure to an anxiety-provoking stimulus is paired with relaxation.
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Operant conditioning is to classical conditioning as _____ is to _____.
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the token economy; aversion therapy
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During his weekly therapy sessions, Colin finds it very difficult to talk about childhood memories. He often pauses before mentioning embarrassing moments or simply forgets important details. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates:
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resistance.
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During a session, Henry becomes agitated at his therapist, saying that she is controlling, domineering, and trying to ruin his life. A psychoanalyst would say that Henry’s behavior illustrates:
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transference.
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Which statement is TRUE?
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Group therapists may take any of the major theoretical approaches to therapy.
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_____ is the therapeutic technique developed by _____. The goal of this type of therapy is to help patients gain insight into repressed impulses and conflicts.
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Psychoanalysis; Sigmund Freud
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In _____, a pleasant relaxed state is associated with increasingly intense anxiety-provoking stimuli.
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systematic desensitization
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Cognitive therapy was initially advanced by:
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Aaron Beck.
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Mrs. Williams experiences periods of intense mania alternating with bouts of major depression. She will be BEST treated using:
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mood stabilizers.
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Dr. Alvarez is a strict Freudian psychoanalyst. Dr. Brown is a nondirective, client-centered, humanistic therapist. Dr. Charles is a behavior therapist. Which of these psychologists is an insight therapist?
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Only Dr. Alvarez and Dr. Brown are insight therapists.
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In _____, the goal is to replace a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative one.
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aversion therapy
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To help Tom reduce his fear of flying, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is taking off in an airplane. The therapist’s technique BEST illustrates the early stages of:
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systematic desensitization.
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The lack of nonverbal cues and the difficulty of establishing a therapeutic relationship are two shortcomings of _____, which uses the Internet to provide support and treatment.
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e-therapy
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_____ therapy encourages clients to challenge their irrational, unrealistic beliefs.
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Rational-emotive behavior
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_____ therapy is a type of insight therapy that emphasizes the positive aspects of people’s nature.
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Humanistic
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were developed in the:
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1950s
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Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy?
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Psychodynamic therapy is a contemporary version of psychoanalysis.
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Which approach to psychological therapy is correctly defined?
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humanistic therapy — emphasizes positive growth
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How does psychodynamic therapy differ from traditional psychoanalysis?
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Psychodynamic therapy is more narrowly focused, targeting specific, current problems.
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Person-centered therapy is one type of _____ therapy.
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Humanistic
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Roughly how many prison inmates in the United States suffer from mental health problems?
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3 million
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Today, the usual length of stay in a psychiatric hospital is:
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Less than 1 month
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Michelle is considering psychotherapy. She can expect to pay at least _____ for one 60-minute session.
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$80
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Dr. Jarreau is a psychotherapist. Her goal is to develop clients’ self-awareness. Dr. Jarreau is BEST described as a(n) _____ therapist.
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insight
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Aaron Beck is to Albert Ellis as _____ therapy is to _____ therapy.
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cognitive; rational-emotive behavior
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Chelsea’s therapist uses active listening in an empathetic environment. Her therapist is MOST likely using _____ therapy.
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person-centered
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Implanting an electrode that supplies a weak electrical current to specific brain areas is called _____. It is useful in the treatment of _____.
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deep brain stimulation; depression
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The neurotransmitters affected by monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) do NOT include:
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endorphins
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The token economy is a type of:
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behavior modification
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How should a psychoanalyst handle a patient’s transference?
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The therapist should encourage transference.
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One example of a benzodiazepine is:
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Valium
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Behavior therapy is a type of _____ therapy that _____.
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psychological; uses learning principles
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_____ and _____ therapies are both types of _____ therapy.
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Behavior; insight; psychological
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About _____ of the population experiences major depression in any given year.
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7%
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The therapist MOST closely associated with the humanistic movement is:
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Carl Rogers
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According to the text, couples therapy is MOST helpful for couples who:
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are committed to saving their relationship
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How does exposure differ from systematic desensitization?
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Exposure does not proceed through a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli; systematic desensitization does.
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In person-centered therapy, the therapist:
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clarifies and reflects back the client’s statements.
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The aim of _____ therapy is to replace maladaptive behaviors by applying learning principles.
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Behavior
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About _____ of all psychotherapy clients show clinically significant improvement after 21 sessions.
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Reinforcing desirable behaviors and punishing undesirable ones is known as:
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Family therapy was first developed in the:
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Today Benson started taking Prozac for severe major depression. He can expect to see improvement:
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A category of therapy that uses the Internet to provide support and treatment is known as:
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The targeted destruction of a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex is used to treat severe _____ disorder.
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Insight therapies do NOT include:
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Carl Rogers was a key figure in all of these, EXCEPT:
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_____ emphasized the importance of active listening during psychotherapy.
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A token economy applies _____ to modify behaviors by reinforcing desired behaviors with tokens that can be exchanged for various treats.
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Prefrontal lobotomies declined in popularity during the _____ with the introduction of _____.
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Dalton’s therapist takes careful notes of Dalton’s dreams, as well as his free association responses and his resistance to talk about certain issues. Dalton’s therapist is engaged in:
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Kelley is currently being treated for severe major depression. She is MOST likely to be prescribed a(n):
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Traditional and atypical antipsychotics are used to treat:
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Medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.
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Which term in Ellis’s ABC model is correctly illustrated with an example?
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A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist’s approach to helping Rebecca BEST illustrates:
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Which statement BEST expresses trends in the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) to treat depression?
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After telling his psychoanalyst about his relationship with his ex-wife for a few minutes, Jerome suddenly changes the subject. Jerome is exhibiting:
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Which is NOT a potential side effect of tricyclic antidepressants?
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