According to Piaget, when an infant recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer in sight, the infant has understood the principle of:
Which age range below is INCORRECTLY labeled with its Piagetian stage?
12 years—adulthood; postoperational stage
Two children are participating in a memory research: Heather, a preschooler, and Illeana, a sixth-grader. When the children fail a recall task, the researcher asks each child what she might do to succeed at the task the next time. Heather suggests that she would simply try again; Illeana proposes that she might try to write the items down. The difference in the girls’ responses most clearly illustrates an increase in _____ during childhood.
Harry Harlow completed a number of studies in which baby rhesus monkeys were raised with two artificial mothers. One of the mothers was made of wire and delivered food; the other was made of cloth and provided no food. Harlow found that when the infant monkeys were startled or frightened, they:
preferred the cloth surrogate that did not provide food.
During the sensorimotor period:
understanding is based mainly on basic sensory and motor abilities.
Joan’s mom and dad believe that parents know best. They expect Joan to obey all parental rules without uttering a word, and they are quick to impose stern punishments if she does not comply. In Baumrind’s terms, Joan’s parents are:
Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, from birth through adolescence?
sensorimotor → preoperational → concrete operational → formal operational
Rebecca takes her 1-year-old son, Adam, to visit an infant-toddler program in which she hopes to enroll him. Adam appears very anxious and is unwilling to explore and play with the toys, even though Rebecca is close by. When Rebecca leaves the room to fill out some forms, Adam becomes extremely upset and remains inconsolable. When Rebecca returns, Adam stays close to her, holding onto her leg. However, Adam makes it very clear he does not want her to touch him or pick him up. In fact, he starts kicking and hitting her. In the context of the findings of Mary Ainsworth, which term best describes Adam’s attachment style?
The study of attachment style is associated with _____ and the study of parenting style is associated with _____.
At twelve months of age, Jordan is classified as a securely attached child by his pediatrician on the basis of the criteria set by Mary Ainsworth. Which of the following behaviors in the strange situation would be most consistent with this classification?
Jordan is moderately distressed when mother leaves him alone and pleased when she returns.
Mabel is thrilled to find out she has finally become pregnant. She wants to make sure that she does not jeopardize the health of her baby. She should avoid all of the following EXCEPT
prescription drugs of all types.
Authoritative parents are likely to have children who
are socially competent and self-reliant.
In Piaget’s cognitive development theory, the ___________ stage occurs during the period of infancy.
You give your younger brother Joe a big cookie. He accidently drops it, and it breaks into many smaller parts. Suddenly he gets very excited and says, “Joe, look how many cookies I have now!” He is most likely in which developmental stage?
The majority of children of divorced parents
do not have adjustment problems.
Richie’s parents place no demands on him, and they place no rules or restrictions on his behavior. They are exhibiting a(n) ___________ parenting style.
The ability to overcome hardship during childhood again and again is referred to as
A wise mother will give both her 3-year-old child and her 4-year-old child identically shaped glasses of soft drink to avoid conflict over who has the most. The mother is showing her awareness of her children’s difficulty with
Bob has an unknown liquid and must determine what it is. He decides to systematically use a number of tests to determine the correct answer. What stage of cognitive development has Bob reached?
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to
adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.
Hailey’s parents demand that she follow their instructions without asking any question. Isabella’s parents are firm as well, but are more likely to reason with her and explain the consequences of her behavior. In Baumrind’s terms, Hailey’s parents are _____; Isabella’s are _____.
Preschoolers can hold only two or three chunks of information in short-term memory, 5-year-olds can hold four, and 7-year-olds can hold _____.
Derwood is 8 years old and he likes to do art projects at school. However, the projects he has completed so far have not received good grades, and in several instances his friends have made fun of his work. Based on Erikson’s theory, Derwood is most likely to develop:
feelings of inferiority.
According to Mary Ainsworth, when a child with avoidant attachment style is exposed to the strange situation experiment, he/she will:
show no concern when the mother leaves the room.
A _____ reflex prompts babies to clear their throat.
Walter’s parents strongly believe that Walter should make his own decisions, so they set very few rules regarding homework, bedtime, and household chores. Since they believe that freedom and responsibility are important, they patiently tolerate all of Walter’s behavior, whether childish or mature. The parenting style adopted by Walter’s parents is called:
As psychologists use the term, habituation means:
decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
According to Piaget, mastery of the principle of conservation marks the beginning of the _____ stage of development.
You tried to play peek-a-boo with your 6-month-old infant, but whenever you hid your face, he would cry. You try it again three months later, and now he laughs and enjoys the game, trying to uncover your face with his hands. Your baby has now developed
Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ___________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ___________.
Jill’s parents set very few limits or boundaries for her. They use a(n) ___________ parenting style.
Erikson’s theory is based on the assumption that
each person faces a set of predictable life-changing challenges at various stages of life.
In Harry and Margaret Harlow’s classic attachment study, they found that monkeys
were more attached to the artificial mothers who were warm and soft.
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
the difficulty in perceiving things from another person’s point of view.
Between ages 7 and 11, children can think in sophisticated ways as long as what they are thinking about is tangibly represented. Piaget calls this stage
According to Erikson, the first stage of a child’s psychosocial development is the _____ stage.
For children from poor, disadvantaged homes, high-quality out-of-home child care is associated with:
long-term intellectual gains.
A child demonstrates that she understands the idea of object permanence and egocentrism, but fails to understand the concept of conservation. In the context of the Piagetian stages, she is most likely in the _____ stage.
The “strange situation” experiment is associated with _____; it helps classify the attachment behavior of _____.
Which of the following Swiss scholars had suggested in the 1970s that children around the world proceed through a series of four stages in a fixed order?
Which infant reflex is CORRECTLY matched with its description?
Babinski reflex; an infant’s toes fan out when the edge of the sole of the foot is stroked
You arrange two rows of pennies so they are equal in length. A child views the rows and states that they have the same amount of pennies. You spread out the pennies in the bottom row so that this row is longer than the top one. The child now states that the bottom row has more pennies. This child is in Piaget’s ___________ stage of development.
The nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate refers to
Which of the following is an accurate descriptor of an infant reflex?
All of these
The ability to use abstract concepts is a key component of the ___________ stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
A cross-sectional study is one in which
different age groups are tested at the same time.
Mazie’s mom is loving and nurturing, sets clear boundaries, and engages in a lot of verbal give and take. In terms of parenting styles, she would be described as
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a doll for Christmas. This best illustrates Piaget’s concept of
Which of the following most accurately describes Ainsworth’s strange situation?
Caregiver leaves infant with stranger and returns later.
As compared to Piaget, Vygotsky placed _____ emphasis on the _____ bases of cognitive development.
Elizabeth is five years old, and she likes to help her mother in preparing supper. However, at the end of the day, her mother often loses her temper easily, and ends up scolding Elizabeth. She tells Elizabeth to stay out of the kitchen as rather than helping her, she makes more of a mess. Based on Erikson’s theory, Elizabeth is most likely to develop:
feelings of guilt
Compared to authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be
Ian came home late for curfew. Without asking for an explanation, his parents sent him to his room and informed him that he was grounded for a month. What type of parenting did Ian’s parents demonstrate?
Dr. Edward is testing the same individuals repeatedly over time as part of a research study, while Dr. Janice is comparing the performance of different people of various ages at the same time. Dr. Irwin is using a _____ research design; Dr. Jenner is using a _____ design.
Which of the following primarily studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life?
The difference between cross-sectional research design and longitudinal research designs is that:
Longitudinal studies assess change in behavior over time, whereas cross-sectional studies assess differences among groups of people.
Dona is a graduate student investigating the development of fine motor skills. She selects a group of children and assesses their fine motor skills every six months over a two-year period. In this example, Dona is using a(n) _____ research design.
A teratogen is:
an environmental agent that can produce a birth defect.
A normal fertilized egg, or zygote, contains _____ pairs of chromosomes.
Two weeks after conception, the developing fertilized egg is called a(n) _____.
Sensitive or critical periods in development can occur:
either before or after birth.
Which alternative below best approximates the frequency of adolescent suicide?
It is among the top five leading causes of death among teenagers; every 90 minutes, a teenager commits suicide.
During the Vietnam War, Michael moved from the United States to Canada to avoid the draft. He didn’t want to go to war because he was afraid he might be killed or seriously injured. Michael’s reasons for not going to war reflect the _____ stage of moral reasoning established by Kohlberg.
According to Erikson, the psychosocial crisis of intimacy versus isolation occurs:
during the early adult years.
Which of the following statements reflects a genuine contribution of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development?
He recognized that psychosocial development is essentially a lifelong process.
Age-related declines are more apparent in _____ memory than in _____ memory.
From the late teens into the mid-20s, individuals are in a transitional phase that developmental psychologists call _____adulthood.
Which theory of aging suggests that human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction and that they are no longer able to divide after a certain time?
Genetic preprogramming theory
The time at which a woman’s menstrual cycle slows down and stops is called:
Erikson described early adulthood as a period during which the person is building a network of social relationships and making close contact with potential mates. The crisis experience at this time is known as
intimacy vs. isolation.
Puberty marks the onset of
According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, individuals who are willing to risk their lives and freedom for a belief operate on the ___________ level of moral development.
Recent research on prosocial behavior in children has found that
a supportive parenting style is related to more prosocial behavior in children.
Cross-sectional research designs provide information about age _____ in development between different age groups. Longitudinal research designs provide information concerning _____ in behavior over time.
Which of the following chromosomal combination is present in a typical female child?
Dennis’s mother had consumed a substantial amount of alcohol during her pregnancy; Dominic’s intelligence is below normal, his growth is slowed, and his facial features are slightly deformed. Ellis’s mother had also consumed a small amount of alcohol, and Ellis shows some but not all of the problems Dennis displays. Dennis suffers from _____; Ellis suffers from _____.
fetal alcohol syndrome; fetal alcohol effects
Clarissa’s mother was thirty-eight years old when she gave birth to her. Clarissa suffers from an intellectual disability and doctors have diagnosed that her condition was due to the extra chromosome that she had received at the moment of conception. Identify the condition afflicting Clarissa.
Girls typically experience the adolescent growth spurt _____ than do boys.
2 years earlier
Jacques is thirteen years old. On Monday, Jacques announces to his parents that he wants to be called “Jack.” On Wednesday, he says he wants to drop out of school. On Friday, he says he wants to get a tattoo and become an architect. In Erikson’s terms, Jacques is most likely experiencing the _____ crisis.
According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, which of the following is the stage in which a person aware of his impending death is likely to try to think of ways to postpone death and dedicate their lives to religion?
According to the _____ theory of aging, aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels.
Which of the following figures best approximates the percentage of married women with school-age children who work outside the home?
According to Kohlberg, which of the following phrases describes the basis of moral reasoning in early childhood?
Don’t get caught.
The Eisenbergs want to raise their children to be highly moral individuals. They should provide their children with
information on expected behaviors.
At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong based on
punishments or rewards.
Bea is 70 years old and works part-time at a discount store. She has kept herself busy by engaging in various activities she enjoyed during middle adulthood. She volunteers occasionally at a local food bank, and enjoys the company of her family and the members of her bridge club. According to the _____ theory of aging, Bea is aging successfully.
Which of the following statements CORRECTLY identifies an advantage or a disadvantage of the developmental researchers’ research designs?
Longitudinal – indicate changes in behavior over time
Jack registered as a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War. He believes that it is wrong to take human life. He is willing to serve time in jail, rather than take part in an armed conflict. Jack’s reasons for not going to war reflect the _____ stage of moral reasoning established by Kohlberg.
According to Erikson, people enter the generativity-versus-stagnation stage during _____.
The primary criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is:
its potential lack of generality across cultures.
The longest part of a pregnancy, from the 8th week through to birth, is the _____ period.