PSY 101

In the context of debates over the origins of psychological traits, nature is to nurture as
Plato is to Aristotle
To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)
To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her school, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the registrar’s alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana is ensuring that her survey results are accurate by using
Random sampling
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
unconscious conflicts
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are
negatively correlated
To assess the effectiveness of flu vaccine for county residents, Mr. Carlson wants to administer vaccine injections to all county residents rather than give half of them a placebo injection. Mr. Carlson is most clearly underestimating the importance of
Creating a control group
Exploring how we humans are alike because of our common biology and evolutionary history is the focus of
Evolutionary psychology
Different accounts of the same behavior that together give us a more complete understanding represent different
Level of analysis
Charles Darwin attempted to explain the __________ that he encountered
Species variation
A descriptive technique of monitoring and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation is called
Naturalistic observation
The early school of thought that used introspection to reveal the mind’s makeup was called
Behaviorists dismissed the value of
The birth of psychology is often attributed to Wilhelm Wundt because he pioneered the investigation of mental processes using
Scientific methods
For no apparent reason, Adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he frequently stays home from work. It would be best for Adam to contact a _____ psychologist
The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of
Retrieving information
Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely an ______ psychologist.
Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opionons of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent
Social psychology
The most reliable way of testing whether a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is truly effective is to use
experimental research
Six of the children in Mr. Myers’ class were born exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that
random sequences of events often don’t look random
Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)
Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors’ genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the _______ perspective.
Dr. Caleigh conducts research on the relationship between adults’ language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Caliegh is most likely a ________ psychologist
Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion?
the survey
Which psychologists are MOST likely to be involved in applied research?
industrial-organizational psychologists
Little Hans’ extreme fear of horses was observed as part of a(n)
case study
Early behavioralists such as John B. Watson would have considered the introspective study of self-esteem to be
an unscientific method
The tendency to perceive order in random events often leads to overestimating the value of
Sherry is often overly generous in sacrificing her time to help others. Her friend suggests that by keeping busy in this way Sherry avoids confronting her own unconscious conflicts. Her friend’s suggestion illustrates the type of explanation that is most typical of
Freudian psychology
The birth of psychology is often attributed to Wilhelm Wundt because he pioneered the investigation of mental processes using
scientific methods
if the correlation between children’s body weight and their reading ability is -1.00, this would indicate that
among children, better reading ability is associated with lower body weight.
The ethics codes of the American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society urge researchers to
explain the research to the participants after the the study has been completed.
To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use
correlational measures
The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by
hindsight bias
in a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of reelection. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of
random sampling
The biopsychosocial approach incorporates different levels of analysis, which
complement one another
replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions
the personality theorist Sigmund Freud was an Austrian
John B. Watson is to Edward Titchener as ______ is to _______
observable behavior; inner sensations
to compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measures the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. Which research method did this illustrate?
naturalistic observation
a researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
intelligence and academic success
a questioning attitude regarding psychologists’ assumptions and hidden values best illustrates
critical thinking
Early psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James focused on the study of
mental processes
in a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the _______ variable
Melinda expressed concerns as to whether the wording of the questions in a life satisfaction survey may have encouraged respondents to convey unusually positive levels of well-being. Melinda’s concerns best illustrated
critical thinking
which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?
random sampling
Professor McClure believes that young children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethic principles. The professor’s belief is most consistent with the views of
A descriptive technique of monitoring and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation is called
naturalistic observation
which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?
the experiment
The young science of psychology developed from more established fields of philosophy and
Rodesia insists that Dr. Phillips’ theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of
Exploring how we humans are diverse because of our differing genes and environments is the focus of
behavior genetics
An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a
The simplified reality of laboratory experiments is most helpful in enabling psychologists to
develop general principles that help explain behavior.
if psychologists discovered that more intelligent parents have smarter children than less intelligent parents, this would demonstrate that
the intelligence of parents and children is positively correlated.
A descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a representative sample of a population is known as
a survey
Formulating testable predictions before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as
hindsight bias.
The nature-nurture issue refers to the debate over the relative contributions that ________ make to the development of psychological traits.
genes and experience
The case study is a research method in which
a single individual or group is studied in great depth.
Clinical psychologists specialize in
providing therapy to troubled people.
Random assignment minimizes ________ between experimental and control groups. Random sampling minimizes ________ between a sample and a population.
differences; differences
Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?
A statement describing the exact procedures for measuring an anticipated experimental outcome is known as a(n)
operational definition.
In the 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
mental processes.
Natural selection refers to the principle that variations in _________ that contribute to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
inherited traits
The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to
recognize the errors in our own ideas.
Psychologists’ personal values and goals
can bias their observations and interpretations.
Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.
in an experimental study of the impact of exposure to criticism on self-esteem, exposure to criticism would be the ________ variable.
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors
vary together.
Repeating the essence of a previous research study to verify whether its findings extend to a new group of research participants and to different circumstances is called
Participants who are exposed to the treatment being tested in an experiment are said to be assigned to the
experimental group.
Psychologists study animals because
similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior.
Suppose you want to find out which candidate college students will vote for in an upcoming national election. To be sure the sample of college students you survey is representative of the college student population, you should
survey a large representative sample of the college student population.
Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful in getting a job. The professor’s prediction regarding employment success is an example of
a hypothesis.
A major issue that has emerged from debates over the use of animals in psychological research centers on
what safeguards should protect the well-being of animals used in research.
Dr. Roberts studies how best to assess individual differences in traits such as impulsiveness and sociability. Which specialty area does her research best represent?
personality psychology
People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ________ cases.
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate
causes from effects.
Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are
curiosity, skepticism, and humility.
In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an example of
an experiment.
After an experiment, research participants are told its purpose and about any deception they may have experienced. This is called
New technologies such as smart-phone apps and body-worn sensors have enabled the collection of “big data” by means of
naturalistic observation.
One research team studied the ups and downs of human moods by counting positive and negative words in 504 million Twitter messages from 84 countries. The researchers’ method best illustrates the use of
naturalistic observation.
Surveys indicate that people are less likely to support “welfare” than “aid to the needy.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of
wording effects.
Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of
hindsight bias.
The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
multiple levels of analysis.
Professor Brody attempts to measure the relative contributions of inborn traits and social influences on sexual preferences and behavior patterns. Her research efforts best illustrate the interests of the ________ perspective.
behavior genetics
The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by
blood chemistry
After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin’s conclusion best illustrates the danger of
generalizing from vivid cases.
Mark meets briefly with applicants for positions in his company and relies on his immediate gut-level first impressions in deciding whether to offer them a job. Mark’s employment decisions are most clearly guided by
Plato’s assumption that we inherit character traits and intelligence is most directly relevant to the controversy regarding
nature and nurture.
Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna’s difficulties requires
a biopsychosocial approach.
In a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a
By suggesting that nurture works on what nature endows, psychologists highlight the fact that we are biologically endowed with a capacity for
learning and adaptation.
Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of the findings?
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a
confounding variable
The scientific study of mental activities associated with perceiving, processing, and remembering information is most central to
cognitive psychology.
The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by
hindsight bias.
One of the last century’s most influential observers of children was the Swiss biologist
Jean Piaget.
A drug molecule that increases a neurotransmitter’s action is called a(n)
A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.
DNA is a complex
Magnetic resonance imaging uses magnetic fields and ________ to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue.
radio waves
Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart
An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.
Juan and Alonzo are fraternal twin brothers, whereas Jake and Alex are identical twin brothers. The similarities between Jake and Alex with respect to ________ are likely to be greater than the similarities between Juan and Alonzo.
all of these characteristics
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that
triggers muscle contractions.
The axon of a sending neuron is separated from the dendrite of a receiving neuron by a
synaptic gap.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n)
Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called
motor neurons
Addictive disorders may stem from malfunctioning reward centers in the
limbic system.
Our shared human genome is the complete
genetic profile common to all humanity.
The strengthening of the brain’s synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
neural networks.
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is located nearest the top of the head just behind the frontal lobes?
parietal lobes
The genome refers to an organism’s complete set of
genetic material
There is some hope that ________ discovered in the human embryo can someday be used to generate replacements for damaged neurons in the brain.
stem cells
Dr. Wolski conducts research on the relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski’s research focus is most characteristic of
biological psychology.
An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. This best illustrates that genes are
Madison is experiencing symptoms of paralysis after eating food contaminated by botulin. Her paralysis is most likely to be relieved by a drug that functions as a(n)
ACh agonist.
The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is
selectively permeable.
Which neurotransmitter plays the most direct role in learning and memory?
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
A neural system at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the
limbic system.
The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the right ________ lobe.
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
The depolarization of a neural membrane creates a(n)
action potential.
After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph’s blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
parasympathetic nervous system.
When a person speaks, brain waves and bloodflow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the
left hemisphere
Characteristics that are genetically transferred from parents to their offspring are said to be a product of
James Olds and Peter Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in
multiple sclerosis
During open-brain surgery, Adam’s left ankle twitched whenever the surgeon electrically stimulated a specific area within Adam’s
right frontal lobe
The process of forming new neurons within the brain is called
Endorphin agonists are likely to ________ one’s immediate pain, and endorphin antagonists are likely to ________ one’s immediate pain.
decrease; increase
Motor neurons transmit signals to
An action potential involves the temporary ________ through an axon membrane.
inflow of positively charged ions
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
natural selection
Excitatory signals to a neuron must exceed inhibitory signals by a minimum intensity in order to trigger
an action potential.
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?
Which of the following is a bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime.
When asked to watch a video and press a key each time a black-shirted player passed a basketball, most research participants remaining unaware of an umbrella-toting woman strolling across the video screen. This llustrated
inattention blindness
The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of
NREM-1 sleep.
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state are called
alpha waves
Kevin is preoccupied with gambling, and his persistent urges to gamble are so strong that he continues even after losing large sums of money. Kevin most clearly shows signs of
Sensory experiences that occur without an external sensory stimulus are called
Some neuroscientists believe that conscious experience arises from
synchronized activity across the brain.
Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________.
REM sleep; NREM-3 sleep
Stimulants ________ appetite and ________ self-confidence.
decrease; increase
Which theory emphasizes that dreams simulate reality by drawing on our current understandings or reality?
cognitive development theory
During REM sleep, your skeletal muscles are relaxed because messages from the motor cortex are blocked by the
At 1:00 A.M., Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of
delta waves.
Research indicates that total time spent in REM sleep is especially high in
Crashes and near-crashes have been observed to ________ when teen drivers are reaching for a cell phone and to ________ when they are dialing a cell phone.
increase; increase
Regular users of ________ may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than occasional users.
The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep are called
sleep spindles.
Which synthetic opiate is sometimes prescribed as a substitute for heroin?
Compared with evening-loving “night owls,” those who are morning types tend to perform ________ in school and tend to be ________ vulnerable to depression.
better; less
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark, and handsome gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge’s account represents the ________ content of her dream.
Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be
Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be
In large amounts, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a _______.
depressant; depressant
Boys who tend to be fearless and impulsive at age 6 are
more likely to smoke and more likely to drink alcohol as teens.
Particularly among men, sleep apnea is linked with
The increased risk of car accidents for drivers talking on a cell phone
is equally great for those using handheld and those using hands-free phones.
Cognitive neuroscience is most directly concerned with studying
brain activity and thought processes.
When working an occasional night shift, people often feel groggiest in the middle of the night but experience new energy around the time they normally would wake up. This best illustrates the impact of
the circadian rhythm.
With the approach of night, our body temperature begins to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the
circadian rhythm.
During the course of a full night’s sleep, young adults are most likely to spend more time in
REM sleep than in NREM-1 sleep.
A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it is known as
A recurring difficulty in falling or stay asleep is called
Brain regions that are active as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are especially likely to be active again later as they experience
REM sleep.
Drug use is considered a substance use disorder when a person
experiences all of these conditions.
Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive men and women. This best illustrates
dual processing.
Under the influence of alcohol, angered people are ________ likely to be aggressive than they would otherwise be and restaurant patrons are ________ likely to tip generously than they otherwise would.
more; more
Fantastic images resembling hallucinations occur with the onset of
NREM-1 sleep.
Research on sleep and dreaming confirms that
the brain’s auditory cortex responds to sound stimuli even during sleep.
When cocaine is snorted, injected, or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria by
blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters.
An air pump that keeps the sleeper’s airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of
sleep apnea.
The school of thought in psychology that turned away from the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was
Compared with young adults, older adults are especially likely to
spend less time in deep sleep.
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
June’s correct solution to a novel arithmetic problem was simultaneously facilitated by unconscious inferences and the conscious application of mathematical principles. This best illustrates the value of
dual processing
The greatest danger of viewing a behavior addiction as a disease is that this may lead those with addictive behaviors to
feel powerless to overcome the addiction.
A minute of two after falling asleep, Luke felt like he was being tossed up and down as if on a boat in rough seas. His experience best illustrates
hypnagogic sensations.
People who regularly sleep less than normal experience a(n) ________ risk of depression and a(n) ________ risk of gaining weight.
increased; increased
Sixteen-year-old Bethany is becoming increasing concerned about her use of marijuana on weekends. To reduce her use of this drug Bethany should
stop associating with friends who use marijuana.
In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust the production of
Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?
Unlike alcohol, the THC in marijuana
lingers in the body for more than a week.
Recurring symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal are an indication of
substance use disorder.
REM sleep is
reduced by alcohol and reduced by sleeping pills.
Which of the following animals tend to sleep the least?
When cocaine is injected or smoked, it produces a rush of euphoria that lasts 15 to 30 minutes. But the stimulant drug ________ can trigger 8 hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria.
Depressants are drugs such as
barbiturates and opiates.
Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ________ the activity of neurotransmitters.
After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur’s heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember
the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking.
After receiving a placebo said to reduce the pain in her sprained ankle, Suzie is most likely to respond with a(n) ____ in her brain’s release of _______
increase; endorphins
The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the
absolute threshold
Damage to the fovea would probably have the LEAST effect on the visual sensitivity to ______ stimuli
dimly illuminated
The sense of smell is known as
The process of transforming air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain interprets as meaningful sound is known as
telepathy refers to the
extrasensory transmission of thoughts from one mind to another
During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time, your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates the importance of
sensory interaction
Although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, after a short practice time Lars was still able to play tennis very effectively. This best illustrates the value of
perceptual adaptation.
The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Wiesel consist of
nerve cells in the brain.
Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a
perceptual set
An area of the brain dedicated to the specialized task of recognizing faces is located in the right ________ lobe.
Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand
the Moon illusion
The greatest difficulty facing contemporary parapsychology is the
a lack of reproducible ESP phenomenon
As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the importance of
size constancy
A sensual leg caress evokes a different somatosensory cortex response when a heterosexual man believes it comes from an attractive woman rather than a man. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on our brain’s sensory response.
After losing his left hand in an accident, Jack continued to experience pain in his nonexistent hand. His experience illustrates
phantom limb sensations.
A gestalt is best described as a(n)
organized whole
Lonely, anxious people at speed-dating events respond with a ________ threshold, and thus tend to be ________ in reaching out to potential dates.
low; unselective
The influence of our physical gestures on our psychological preferences is said to be an indication of
embodied cognition
The principles of continuity and closure best illustrate that
sensations are organized into meaningful patterns
The human ability to speedily recognize familiar objects best illustrates the value of
parallel processing
The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone’s message.
bipolar cell
Opponent-process cells have been located in the
retina and the thalamus
The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called
When Kristy saw her mother and sister running toward her, she quickly recognized that her sister was running ahead of her mother. This best illustrates Kristy’s capacity for
depth perception
Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother’s face. Berdine most clearly is deficient in
bottom-up processing
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time is called
the just noticeable difference
Three steps that are basic to all sensory systems include the ________ of information to the brain.
receiving, transforming, and delivering
During the mid-1980s, pockets of Australian keyboard operators suffered outbreaks of severe pain while typing. Their pain could not be attributed to any discernible physical abnormalities. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the perception of pain.
social-cultural influences
Margo insists that her dreams frequently enable her to perceive and predict future events. Margo is claiming to possess the power of
According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see
Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff
refused to cross the glass over the cliff to their mothers
Our shifting perceptions of a Necker cube best illustrate the importance of
top-down processing
Hypnosis involves a state of
heightened openness to suggestion
When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears
Our sense of hearing is known as
People’s response to subliminal priming indicates that
they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.
Walter Mischel gave preschoolers a choice between one marshmallow now and two marshmallows when he returns a few minutes later. Children who chose to wait for two marshmallows demonstrated
delay of gratification
Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a
face-like image
At 15 months of age, Justin already strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. According to Erikson, this most clearly contributes to
basic trust
As people progress into late adulthood, they increasingly use words that convey ________ emotions, and the amygdala shows diminishing activity in response to ________ events.
positive; negative
Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.
assimilation; accommodation
Lawrence Kohlberg focused on the development of
moral reasoning
A shortening of telomeres is accelerated by
As men advance through middle adulthood, they experience a gradual decline in
all of these things
(testosterone level, sperm count, ejaculation speed)
Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that
person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between cultural groups
If children cannot grasp the principle of conversation, they are unable to
recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape
Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita is demonstrating Kohlberg’s ________ level of morality.
From 1960 to 2010, the number of children in the United States living apart from their fathers ________. Among couples cohabiting when their first child is born, the odds of their relationship ending during the child’s first years are ________ the odds of parental breakup among those married when their first baby is born.
increased; greater than
The brain’s development of new neural connections in response to experience is said to demonstrate what is known as
older people are NOT increasingly susceptible to
common cold viruses
An integrated understanding of successful aging in terms of appropriate nutrition, family support, and an optimistic outlook is most clearly provided by
a biopsychosocial approach
Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism spectrum disorder is indicative of an inborn
male systemizing tendency
At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean’s parents are
At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean’s parents are
Marie feels socially useful in her careers a financial investment adviser. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of
According to Piaget, a person develops an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived during the ________ stage.
Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants’ demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be fearful or relaxed adults most directly highlight the issue of
stability and change.
A rite of passage is defined as a(n)
initiation ceremony.
According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.
concrete operational
Compared with teens and young adults, older adults have ________ friendships and experience ________ attachment anxiety.
fewer; less
In service-learning programs where teens have tutored children or assisted older adults, the teens have experienced
an increased willingness to serve
Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants’ demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant
Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. To avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teen’s smoking habits, it would make most sense to consider the importance of
a selection effect.
Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of
insecure attachment.
Menarche is a maturational milestone most directly associate with
A child’s temperament is likely to be
stable over time.
Sedentary older adults randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs exhibit
reduced risk of significant cognitive decline.
A critical period is a period of time during which
exposure to certain experiences is needed for normal development.
A strong sense of family self is likely to be characteristic of those who grow up in cultures that value
emotional closeness.
Research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also tend to
have the most intimate relationships with girlfriends.
Professor Polinski suggested that humans pair-bond because this practice encouraged the cooperative nature and survival of children. The professor’s suggestion best illustrated a(n) ________ perspective.
Learning to delay gratification promotes
impulse control.
Just after birth, the cries of newborns typically bear the intonation of
their mother’s native language.
Compared with their counterparts in more collectivist countries, 17-year-olds in North America are more likely to experience
romantic relationships.
If a pregnant woman experiences extreme stress, the stress hormones flooding her body may threaten survival of the fetus and trigger a premature birth. In this situation, the mother’s stress hormones are most clearly
When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half-century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were in their
teens or twenties
Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget
underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.
Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children’s
According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about evens first develops during the ________ stage.
concrete operational
The “we” aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group membership is our
social identity.
Habituation refers to the
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
Cognition refers to
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
If a pregnant woman experiences extreme stress, the stress hormones flooding her body may threaten survival of the fetus and trigger a premature birth. In this situation, the mother’s stress hormones are most clearly
Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of
insecure attachment.
A reflex refers to
an automatic response to sensory stimulation.
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
A failure to practice important motor skills can result in a loss of agility because unused neural connections
are pruned.
Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.
the sequence but not the age-related timing
The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immortality often results from
social influence.
If Piaget pictured the developing child as a young ________, Vygotsky pictured the developing child as a young ________.
scientist; apprentice
Which psychologist most clearly emphasized that adolescents often explore different roles in different situations as part of the process of forming an identity?
Erik Erikson
Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne has also just
developed a sense of object permanence.
The brain’s development of increasingly complex neural networks during infancy is made possible by the formation of billions of new
Distinguishing between very gradual and very abrupt developmental changes over the life span is most central to the major issue of
continuity and stages.
As compared with the production of egg cells, sperm cell production
begins later in life.
When a placenta is first developed, it transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to
Preschoolers are not completely egocentric, and they can exhibit some understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the
continuity of cognitive development.
Infant visual preferences have been discovered by assessing infants’
As teens mature, the growth of myelin facilitates
communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions.
The McDougals use harsh disciple on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as ________ parents.
Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants’ demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant
Dr. Birkin’s major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist.
Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to
parental influences.
In late adulthood, Mr. Klondike has become increasingly likely to make socially impolite remarks about other people’s appearance or mannerisms. His blunt comments are most likely to indicated late life shrinkage of the ________ lobes.
On which of the following tasks is a 20-year-old most likely to outperform a 70-year-old?
recalling previously presented nonsense syllables
Kohlberg emphasized that human behavior becomes less selfish as we mature because of our
cognitive development
Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared with previous centuries?
It begins earlier in life and ends later in life.
Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita is demonstrating Kohlberg’s ________ level of morality.
From 1960 to 2010, the number of children in the United States living apart from their fathers ________. Among couples cohabiting when their first child is born, the odds of their relationship ending during the child’s first years are ________ the odds of parental breakup among those married when their first baby is born.
increased; greater than
When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in
brain chemistry.