PSY 100 Ch 15

question

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects: a) Refused to shock the learner even once. b) Complied with the experiment until the \”learner\” first indicated pain. c) Complied with the experiment until the \”learner\” began screaming in agony. d) Complied with all the demands of the experiment
answer

d) Complied with all the demands of the experiment
question

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when: a) A person’s behavior is not based on strongly held attitudes b) Two people have conflicting attitudes and find themselves in disagreement c) An individual chooses to do something that is personally disagreeable d) An individual is coerced into doing something that he or she does not want to do
answer

c) An individual chooses to do something that is personally disagreeable
question

Which of the following statements is true? A)Groups are almost never swayed by minority opinions. B)Group polarization is most likely to occur when group members frequently disagree with one another. C)Groupthink provides the consensus needed for effective decision making. D)A group that is like-minded will probably not change its opinions through discussion. `
answer

D)A group that is like-minded will probably not change its opinions through discussion.
question

Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch’s studies of conformity? a) The group had three or more people. b) The group had high status. c) Individuals were made to feel insecure. d) All of the above increased conformity.
answer

d) All of the above increased conformity.
question

Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the ___________ of the brain, which plays an important role in _________. a. occipital lobes; aggression b. hypothalamus; hostility c. frontal lobes; controlling impulses d. temporal lobes; patience
answer

c. frontal lobes; controlling impulses
question

The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called: A)groupthink. B)cognitive dissonance. C)empathy. D)deindividuation.
answer

D)deindividuation.
question

Subjects in Asch’s line-judgment experiment conformed to the group standard when their judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendency to conform in public demonstrates: A)social facilitation. B)overjustification. C)informational social influence. D)normative social influence.
answer

D)normative social influence.
question

Based on findings from Milgram’s obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter’s orders when: A) they heard the \”learner\” cry out in pain. B) they merely administered the test while someone else delivered the shocks. C) the \”learner\” was an older person or mentioned having some physical problem. D) they saw another subject disobey instructions.
answer

D) they saw another subject disobey instructions.
question

Aggression is defined as behavior that: A)hurts another person. B)is intended to hurt another person. C)is hostile, passionate, and produces physical injury. D)has all of the above characteristics.
answer

B)is intended to hurt another person.
question

Which of the following is true about aggression? A)It varies too much to be instinctive in humans. B)It is just one instinct among many. C)It is instinctive but shaped by learning. D)It is the most important human instinct.
answer

A)It varies too much to be instinctive in humans.
question

Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in animals and levels of the hormone: A)estrogen. B)adrenaline. C)noradrenaline. D)testosterone. E)epinephrine.
answer

D)testosterone.
question

Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is: A)increased by exposure to pornography. B)not changed after exposure to pornography. C)decreased in men by exposure to pornography. D)decreased in both men and women by exposure to pornography.
answer

A)increased by exposure to pornography.
question

Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to: A)increase the likelihood that people will cooperate in rendering assistance. B)decrease the empathy that people feel for the victim. C)increase the role that social norms governing helping will play. D)decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.
answer

D)decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.
question

Which of the following was not mentioned in the text discussion of the roots of prejudice? A)people’s tendency to overestimate the similarity of people within groups B)people’s tendency to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are unlike the majority of members of a group C)people’s tendency to assume that the world is just and that people get what they deserve D)people’s tendency to discriminate against those they view as \”outsiders\”
answer

B)people’s tendency to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are unlike the majority of members of a group
question

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that: A)familiarity breeds contempt. B)opposites attract. C)birds of a feather flock together. D)familiarity breeds fondness.
answer

D)familiarity breeds fondness.
question

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared to men who had not been aroused, these men: A)reported more positive feelings toward the woman. B)reported more negative feelings toward the woman. C)were ambiguous about their feelings toward the woman. D)were more likely to feel that the woman was \”out of their league\” in terms of attractiveness. E)focused more on the woman’s attractiveness and less on her intelligence and personality.
answer

A)reported more positive feelings toward the woman.
question

The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________. A)passionate; there is equity between the partners B)passionate; traditional roles are maintained C)companionate; there is equity between the partners D)companionate; traditional roles are maintained
answer

C)companionate; there is equity between the partners
question

Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation? A)being in a good mood B)having recently needed help and not received it C)observing someone as he or she refuses to offer help D)being a female
answer

A)being in a good mood
question

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the: A)just-world phenomenon. B)phenomenon of ingroup bias. C)fundamental attribution error. D)mirror-image perception principle.
answer

A)just-world phenomenon.
question

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory? a. group polarization b. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon c. normative social influence d. informational social influence
answer

b. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
question

Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice? a. Jake, who is white, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by black students than to white-authored essays. b. Carol believes that white people are arrogant. c. Brad earns more than Jane, despite having the same job skills, performance level, and seniority .. d. In certain countries, women are not allowed to drive.
answer

a. Jake, who is white, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by black students than to white-authored essays.
question

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ______ and the members of an outgroup as ______. a. similar to one another; different from one another b. different from one another; similar to one another c. above average in ability; below average in ability d. below average in ability; above average in ability
answer

b. different from one another; similar to one another
question

Regarding the influence of alcohol. and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the following is true? a. Consumption of alcohol increases aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone reduce aggressive behavior. b. Consumption of alcohol reduces aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone increase aggressive behavior. c. Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior. d. Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both reduce aggressive behavior.
answer

c. Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior.
question

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by: a. the principle of equity. b. the principle of self-disclosure. c. the mere exposure effect. d. mirror-image perceptions.
answer

c. the mere exposure effect.
question

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films: a. makes a woman’s friendliness seem more sexual. b. diminishes the attitude that rape is a serious crime. c. may lead individuals to devalue their partners. d. may produce all of the above effects.
answer

d. may produce all of the above effects.
question

Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often: a. prevents people from even noticing the situation. b. prevents people from interpreting an unusual event as an emergency. c. prevents people from assuming responsibility for assisting. d. leads to all of the above.
answer

d. leads to all of the above.
question

Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor’s actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as selfdefense. Evidently, these nations are victims of: a. prejudice. b. groupthink. c. the self-serving bias. d. the fundamental attribution error.
answer

d. the fundamental attribution error.
question

Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship? a. similarity in age b. common racial and religious background c. similarity in physical attractiveness d. physical proximity
answer

d. physical proximity
question

Most researchers agree that: a. media violence is a factor in aggression. b. there is a negative correlation between me violence and aggressiveness. c. paradoxically, watching excessive pornog phy ultimately diminishes an individu, aggressive tendencies. d. media violence is too unreal to prom, aggression in viewers.
answer

a. media violence is a factor in aggression.
question

When male students in an experiment were to that a woman to whom they would be speakiJ had been instructed to act in a friendly unfriendly way, most of them subsequent attributed her behavior to: a. the situation. b. the situation and her personal disposition. c. her personal disposition. d. their own skill or lack of skill in a social situs tion.
answer

c. her personal disposition.
question

Which of the following is true? a. Attitudes and actions rarely correspond. b. Attitudes predict behavior about half the time c. Attitudes are excellent predictors of behavior. d. Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions.
answer

d. Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions.
question

People with power and status may become prejudiced because: a. they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others. b. those with less status and power tend to resent them. c. those with less status and power appear less capable. d. they feel proud and are boastful of their achievements.
answer

a. they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others.
question

The often overgeneralized belief about a group of people is referred to as _____; exhibiting unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group is called ______. a. social loafing; group polarization b. stereotyping; discrimination c. conformity; obedience d. normative social influence; informational social influence
answer

b. stereotyping; discrimination
question

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must: a. make up a sizable portion of the group. b. express its position as consistently as possible. c. express its position in the most extreme terms possible. d. be able to convince a key majority leader.
answer

b. express its position as consistently as possible.
question

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience? a. Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process. b. Most people are able, under the proper circumstances, to suppress their natural aggressiveness. c. The need to be accepted by others is a powerful motivating force. d. All of the above conclusions were reached.
answer

a. Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.
question

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and social control of our behavior? a. Situational influences on behavior generally are much greater than personal influences. b. Situational influences on behavior generally are slightly greater than personal influences. c. Personal influences on behavior generally are much greater than situational influences. d. Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior.
answer

d. Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior.
question

Which of the following best describes how GRIT works? a. The fact that two sides in a conflict have great respect for the other’s strengths prevents further escalation of the problem. b. The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts. c. The two sides agree to have their differences settled by a neutral, third-party mediator. d. The two sides engage in cooperation in those areas in which shared goals are possible.
answer

b. The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts.
question

Which of the following is important in promoting conformity in individuals? a. whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group b. whether the individual is male or female c. the size of the room in which a group is meeting d. whether the individual is of a higher status than other group members
answer

a. whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group
question

Which theory describes how we explain others’ behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations? a. social, exchange theory b. reward theory c. two-factor theory d. attribution theory
answer

d. attribution theory
question

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink? a. The group’s leader fails to take a firm stance on an issue. b. A minority faction holds to its position. c. The group consults with various experts. d. Group polarization is evident.
answer

d. Group polarization is evident.
question

performance is improved by an audience
answer

social facilitation
question

people work less hard in a group
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social loafing
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the tendency that a person is less likely to help someone in need when others are present
answer

bystander effect
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adjusting one’s behavior to coincide with a group standard
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conformity
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the tendency to favor one’s own group
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ingroup bias
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the effect of social approval or disapproval
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normative social influence
question

the effect of affecting others’ opinions about something
answer

informational social influence
question

group discussion enhances prevailing tendencies
answer

group polarization
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a generalizedbelief about a group of people
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stereotype
question

a casual explanation for someone’s behavior
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attribution
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unselfish regard for others
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altruism
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the increased liking of a stimulus that results from repeated exposure to it
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mere exposure effect
question

responding favorably to arguments as a result of systematic thinking about an issue
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central route to persuasion
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underestimate the influence of the situation on others actions
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fundamental attribution error
question

proposes behavior shapes attitudes because we feel discomfort when our actions and attitudes differ
answer

cognitive dissonance theory
question

becoming less self-awware and self-restrained in a group situation
answer

deindividuation
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tendency to suppress unwelcome information and make unrealistic decisions for the sake of group harmony
answer

groupthink
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mixture of beliefs, negative emotions, and predispositions to action
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prejudice
question

favored social groups often rationalalize their higher status
answer

just-world phenomenon
question

in processing information, we tend to recognize diversity in our own groups but to overestimate similarities in other groups
answer

other-race effect
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states that frusturation and other aversive events (such as heat, crowding, and provocation) can evoke hostility
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frusturation-aggression principle
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aroused state that we cognitively label as love
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passionate love
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costs and benefits of helping
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social exchange theory
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we help those who help us
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reciprocity norm
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we help those who need our help
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social-responsibility norm
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situations in which people perceive their actions, goals, or ideas to be incompatiable
answer

conflicts
question

two or more individuals engage in mutually destructive behavior by rationally pursuing their individual self-interests
answer

social traps

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