Professional School Counselor PRAXIS II

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How do professional school counselors access research resources?
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Professional organizations (ASCA) Peer-reviewed journals Library or Internet (cautiously)
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What factors are important for school counselors to examine when interpreting research?
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Asks important questions Sound research design with clear goals Legal and ethical Instruments should be validated
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Good quantitative research methods allow for:
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Generalization Prediction Testing of hypothesis
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Good qualitative research methods can provide for:
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Understanding phenomena/processes that can serve exploratory purposes and provide deep knowledge
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Benefits of membership in professional organizations include:
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Advocacy Professional development Lobbying efforts Liability insurance Networking Accessibility to resources Professional learning communities
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The field of school counseling has gone through what three major periods?
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Formative Transitional Contemporary
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Benchmarks during the FORMATIVE period of the school counseling profession included:
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1900’s Frank Parson becomes proponent of guidance counseling Focus on growth and prevention Jessie B. Davis implements regular guidance, emphasis on vocational/career instruction 1930’s Personnel responsible for student services 1940’s Military uses psychologists and counselors to select and recruit
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Benchmarks during the TRANSITIONAL period of the school counseling profession included:
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1950’s Carl Rogers moves field away from educational guidance and toward client-centered counseling 1953 American School Counseling Association formed 1958 National Defense of Education Act passed allowing for more funding 1960’s Dinkmeyer, Myrick, and Gysbers focused on developmentally appropriate, evidence-based school counseling structure
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Benchmarks during the CONTEMPORARY period of the school counseling profession included:
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1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act increases services Leads to Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) 1997 ASCA National Standards developed with holistic point of view 2003 ASCA National Framework developed to provide guidelines on an effective school counseling program
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Trends in the educational system
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Positive behavior support Professional learning communities
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ASCA National Model ensures
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1. Equitable access to education 2. Specific knowledge and skills will be gained by K-12 students 3. School counseling services delivered to all systematically 4. School counseling services are data-driven 5. School counseling services are provided by state-credentialed counselor
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ASCA Recommendations
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Ratio 1:250 80% of time spent in direct or indirect services to students
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ASCA National Model is made of three parts:
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FOUNDATION- Component that drive school counseling program MANAGEMENT- Assessments and tools that manage a school counseling program DELIVERY- Method of delivering programming ACCOUNTABILITY- Helps professional school counselors analyze data
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ASCA National Model FOUNDATION
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Program focus- Mission statement and goals Student competencies- Academic, career, and personal/social development Professional competencies- Knowledge, attitudes, and skills of good counseling
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ASCA National Model MANAGEMENT
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School counselor competency/program assessment Use-of-time assessment Annual Agreements Advisory councils Curriculum, small group, close-the-gap action plans Annual and weekly calendars
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ASCA National Model DELIVERY
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Direct services School counseling core curriculum Individual student planning Responsive services Indirect services
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ASCA National Model ACCOUNTABILITY
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Using data to measure impact of services Guide new programming Judge performance
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ASCA National Model THEMES
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Leadership Advocacy Collaboration Effective relationships Systemic change
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ASCA National Standards
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Academic Career Personal/Social
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ASCA National Standards for ACADEMIC development
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A: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills that contribute to effective learning B: Complete school prepared for college C: Understand the relationship between education and work
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ASCA National Standards for CAREER development
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A: Skills to investigate the world of work B: Employ strategies to achieve occupational goals C: Understand the relationship between personal qualities, education, training, and work.
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ASCA National Standards for PERSONAL/SOCIAL development
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A: Knowledge, attitudes, and skills to understand self and others B: Make decisions, set goals, take action C: Safety and survival skills
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School counselor roles:
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Counselor Leader Advocate Collaborator Consultant Coordinator
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Elementary school counselors:
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Help students develop their academic self-concept Teach decision making, communication, and life skills Provide early education, prevention, and intervention services
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Middle school counselors:
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Help with transition from childhood to adolescence Help students establish identity Help students explore interests Make connections between school and work
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High school counselors:
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Help students transition to adulthood and its responsibilities Guide students toward graduation and post-secondary schooling Develop sense of self
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NON-counseling duties
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Discipline, substitute teaching, managing school functions
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Cognitive Development Theorists
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Piaget Vygotsky
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Piaget
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Driving force is our experiences with our environment Schemas- mental molds Assimilation- adding new experiences Accommodation- adjusting to fit new info
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Paiget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
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Sensorimotor (birth-2 years): Experience the world through senses Preoperational (2-7 years): Representing things with words and images, more intuition, less logic Concrete operational (7-11 years): Thinking logically about concrete events, math Formal operational (11- adulthood): Abstract reasoning
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Vygotsky
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Children construct their knowledge Development cannot be separated from social context Learning leads to development Language plays central role
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Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
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What is known- ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (Skills too difficult for a child to master on their own, needs guidance and encouragement from a knowledgeable person) What is unknown-
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Personality and emotional development theorists
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Erikson Skinner Rogers
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Erikson
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Conflicts Trust v. Mistrust: Feeding Autonomy v. Doubt: Toilet training Initiative v. Guilt: Exploration Industry v. Inferiority: School Identity v. Role Confusion: Social relationships Intimacy v. Isolation: Relationships Generativity v. Stagnation: Work and parenthood Ego Integrity v. Despair: Reflection on life
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Skinner
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Operant conditioning Behavior leads to consequence Positive consequence- Repeat behavior Negative consequence- Do not repeat behavior
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Rogers
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HUMAN NEED + OTHER’S RESPONSE = RESULT Self actualization + Unconditional pos regard= Self actualization Need for pos regard + conditional pos regard = Self discrepancies Self-actualization Self-esteem Love and belonging safety and security physiological needs
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Rogers Incongruent v. Congruent
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Incongruent: There is a large difference between self-image and ideal-self (difficult to self-actualize) Congruent: Self-image is similar to ideal-self (likely to self-actualize)
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Social and Character Development
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Adler Kohlberg Fromm
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Adler
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Socio Teleo Analytic Theory (social) (Goal) (Analyze) People need: To develop and work to achieve meaningful and rewarding goals A lifestyle that leads to a positive sense of ourselves Connectedness to community Satisfying work Emphasis on birth order
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Kohlberg
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Moral development Preconventional- Punishment/obedience and Intrumental relativism Conventional- Interpersonal concordance and Authority maintaining Postconventional- Social contract and Universal ethical principle
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Fromm
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Humans are lonely and have become separated from nature and one another. Freedom is important: embrace (psychological health) or escape (psychological issues)?
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Family Systems Theory
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Family is made up of independent individuals and subsystems. Whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Families have boundaries and are part of a larger social context. Systems are homeostatic and try to return to normalcy after stress.
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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
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1. You 2. Microsystem (family, school, peers, work, church) 3. Mesosystem (family, school, peers, work, church) 4. Exosystem (Economic, political, education, government) 5. Macrosystem (Overarching beliefs and values) 6. Chronosystem (Dimension of time)
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ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Students
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Responsibilities to students Confidentiality Academic, Career/College/Post-Secondary Access and Personal/Social Counseling Plans Dual Relationships Appropriate Referrals Group Work Danger to Self or Others Student Records Evaluation, Assessment and Interpretation Technology Student Peer Support Program
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ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Parents
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Parent Rights and Responsibilities Parents/Guardians and Confidentiality
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ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Colleagues and Professional Associates
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Professional Relationships Sharing Information with Other Professionals Collaborating and Educating Around the Role of the School Counselor
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ASCA Ethical Guidelines Responsibilities to Schools, Communities, and Families
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Responsibilities to the School Responsibility to the Community
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ASCA Ethical Responsibility to the Self
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Professional Competence Multicultural and Social Justice Advocacy and Leadership
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ASCA Ethical Responsibility to the Profession
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Professionalism Contribution to the Profession Supervision of School Counselor Candidates Pursuing Practicum and Internship Experiences Collaboration and Education about School Counselors and School Counseling Programs with other Professionals
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ASCA Ethical Responsibility to Maintenance of Standards
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Collegaues ethical behavior Forced to work in unethical situations Ethical dilemmas
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Ethical Decision Making Model
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1. Define the problem emotionally and intellectually 2. Apply the ASCA Ethical Standards and the law 3. Consider the students’ chronological and developmental levels 4. Consider the setting, parental rights and minors’ rights 5. Apply the moral principles 6. Determine Your potential courses of action and their consequences 7. Evaluate the selected action 8. Consult 9. Implement the course of action
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Section 504 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
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Civil rights statue Guarantees access to education for students with an identified physical or mental condition that substantially limits a major life activity. Ex: Student with diabetes permitted to use the bathroom at any time without asking permission.
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IDEA Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
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Federal programming statue Guarantees services for students with disabilities Must have comprehensive evaluation Requires informed consent Reevaluation if conditions warrant, request from parent/teacher, or every three years If parents disagree with first evaluation, district must pay for second opinion Must include: Referral, Assessment, Modifications, Accommodations Ex: Student with autism assigned an aide for classroom work, paid for by district
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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
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Intended to protect the privacy of a medical patient’s identifiable health records. Requires signed release for information to be shared.
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Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
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Protects a student’s educational records and is specific to educational institutions that receive federal funding.
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Title IX of the Education Amendments
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Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, or sex in programs or activities that receive federal funding. Cannot discriminate in the following ways: Appraisal and counseling materials Testing instruments Internal control Disproportionate classes
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Title II and Perkins Act
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Gives funding to post-secondary institutions for preparing students to be competitive in world economy. Ex: Tech programs
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Group Counseling Benefits
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Natural interpesonal context for students Creates safe context w/n which students can practice interpersonal skills and get feedback Allow students to hear form others with similar experiences Allow many more student to be served by counselor then in one-on-one activities
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Group Counseling Stages
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1. Orientation (forming) 2. Power struggle (storming) 3. Cooperation and integration (norming) 4. Synergy (performing) 5. Closure (adjourning)
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Group Counseling Facilitator’s Role
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Encourage group development of expression, exploration, and self-disclosure, to discourage dynamics that hinder expression and openness and to model healthy, appropriate interpersonal communication
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Career development theories
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Trait Factor Holland’s Career Typology Super Constructivist
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Trait Factor Theory
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Occupational decision making occurs when: A person has an accurate understanding of their traits (aptitudes, interests, personal abilities) A knowledge of jobs and the labor market An objective judgement about the relationship between their individual traits and the labor market. Ex: True Colors
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Holland’s Career Typology
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Personalities fall into 6 categories, certain careers suit certain personalities 1. Realistic 2. Investigative 3. Artistic 4. Social 5. Enterprising 6. Conventional Ex: Strong Interest Inventory
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Super
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Self-knowledge is important as we take on career to express and understand ourselves. Career development is cyclic 1. Growth 2. Exploration 3. Establishment 4. Maintenance 5. Disengagement
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Consultation
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Triadic process through which the consultant (counselor) assists the consultee in his relationship with someone else. Ex: Counselor helps a teacher with a student
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Behavioral Consultation Approach
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school counselor actively obtains and evaluates student data, which is used to advise other staff members (such as teachers) how to best help the student. With a behavioral consultation approach, it is a triadic consultation (among counselor, teacher and student), and is considered depended because the counselee (teacher) relies on the school counselor to collect and interpret the behavioral data.
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Collaboration
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Process that takes consultation a step further. The consultant (counselor) takes at least a partial responsibility for implementing the plan made through the consultation. Ex: The counselor who has consulted with a teacher about a student behavior might also work directly with the student.
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Consultation and Collaboration Roles
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Advisor- Offers suggestions and expertise Advocate- Provides support and acts on behalf of other party Collaborator- Participates as team member Facilitator- Leads group Mediator- Provides conflict resolution framework
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Consultation Types
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Triadic-Dependent Collaborative-Dependent Collaborative-Independent
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Triadic-Dependent
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3 person relationship with consultant (counselor) indirectly bringing about change in the student through direct services with the consultee, usually the parent or teacher. The consultant is contributing expertise.
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Collaborative-Dependent
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The constant (counselor) facilitates the problem-solving process while establishing mutual goals and agreed on interventions with the consultee who then delivers the intervention. BOTH the consultant and consultee are contributing expertise.
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Collaborative-Independent
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Team approach with consultant facilitating the process as well as contributing expertise as one of its members.
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Intervention Levels
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Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
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Primary Intervention
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Designed to keep problems from emerging. For students without serious behavior problems. Ex: Violence prevention program
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Secondary Intervention
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Designed to reverse or preclude harm from exposure to risk factors For students at risk for problems behaviors Ex: Adult mentors
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Tertiary Intervention
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Designed to reduce, rather than reverse, harm among the most severely involved individuals. For students with chronic/intense behavior problems Ex: Individual or family counseling services
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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
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Albert Ellis (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy technique) A= Activating Event B= Belief C= Conclusion Ex: Student doing poorly in math because he believes he is unable to understand it.
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Reality Therapy
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William Glasser Based on Choice Theory (the need to love and belong being most important) Help clients learn better ways to fulfill their needs Assumptions: 1. Present behavior is not getting them what they want. 2. Humans are motivated to change when they believe they can choose other behaviors that will get them closer to what they want. Counselor is positive and instills hope in client. W= Wants and needs D= Direction and doing E= Self-evaluation P= Planning
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Choice Theory
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All human need survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independence, and fun
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Counseling, collaborating, consulting
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Counseling= Direct service Consultation= Indirect service, systemic approach aimed at individuals or groups Collaboration= Indirect service, working as a team to solve problem
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4 Step Behavioral Model
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Used in triadic dependent consultation 1. Define (look at environmental conditions that maintain the problem) 2. Generate solutions for behavior change and social context change. 3. Implement the plan 4. Evaluate the plan.
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Crisis Incident Stress Management
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1) Introduction: discuss confidentiality, ground rules 2) Fact Phase: talk about known facts, dispel rumors 3) Thought Phase: reflect upon immediate thoughts 4) Reaction Phase: identify most traumatic aspect of event, discuss emotions, provide validation/support 5) Symptom Phase: return participants to cognitive processing of event, identify possible symptoms 6) Teaching Phase: relate symptoms to reactions, normalize reactions, emphasize symptoms should get better, look for positive reactions to event (e.g., “Is there anything positive that you think has come of this?”). 7) Closure/Re-Entry: final opportunity to summarize event and identify supports (peer, family, community).

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