Principles of Project Management
Principles of Project Management

Principles of Project Management

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  • Pages: 6 (2706 words)
  • Published: October 16, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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The Commitment Principle

An just committedness between the undertaking patron and the undertaking bringing squad must be before a possible undertaking exists.

The Undertaking Sponsor is considered to be the Project Owner who provides resources such as financess. services and general way. The undertaking bringing squad is the 1 in charge for appropriate techniques. programs and controls for utilizing the accomplishments needed and work to change over those resources into the needed deliverables or merchandise. Covering with a Sponsor is a affair of developing a trust and apprehension between the Sponsor and the squad. Undertaking patrons should put clear boundaries for cost and clip. with which the director should work. If he/she can non supply the agreed deliverables within these restraints. concerns must be escalated to the patron for a determination.

Defined functions and duties: A undertaking squad in which ALL people understand their duties and unfeignedly believe they can accomplish them. Each individual must cognize how they can lend to project aims. Undertaking stakeholders must hold a clear apprehension of their functions and duties. to be able cognize precisely what he or she is supposed to be making. Undertaking environment is of critical importance and requires definition and apprehension.

The Success Principle

The steps of undertaking success. in footings of both procedure and merchandise. must be defined at the beginning of the undertaking as a footing for undertaking direction determination devising and post-project rating.

Success for a undertaking and how it will be measured after completion demands to be defined at the beginning of the undertaking. The most of import ground


is to supply an ongoing footing for direction determination doing during the class of the undertaking. The timing of the measuring of success itself may besides necessitate placing. It is non possible to mensurate its ultimate success without understanding on the project’s success standards

The Tetrad Trade-off Principle

The nucleus variables of the undertaking direction procedure — viz. . merchandise range. quality class. time-to-produce. and 4 entire cost-at-completion — must all be reciprocally compatible and decidedly come-at-able. The term “Tetrad trade-off” is rather an unfamiliar word. but perchance this is the value of the term to stressed that there are four separate but synergistic variables which are range. quality. clip and cost instead than merely three as in the old position of ‘Triple Constraint’ ( clip. cost and performance. ) The advantage of sing the four as a four instead than taking merely three to organize a trigon is that it gives more importance to quality. Of the four. the quality of the merchandise is seemingly. and in fact. the most stable.

The Strategy Principle

A scheme embracing foremost be aftering so making. in a focussed set of consecutive and progressive stages. must be in topographic point. Before the undertaking start. it is really of import that consumers think exhaustively about the merchandises. or deliverables they need. They must be precised and detailed about their demands to bring forth a executable program. This makes pull offing the undertaking much easier and less hazardous.

The direction rule

The Management Principle begins with “how it will be done and who will make it” . Policies and processs that are effectual and efficien

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must be in topographic point for the proper behavior and control of the undertaking committedness.

The Single-Point Responsibility Principle

This rule is an extension of the direction rule and is needed for effectual direction of the undertaking committedness. Clear communicating is really of import for the coordination of a complicated undertaking activity. A individual channel of communicating must be between the undertaking patron and the undertaking squad leader for all determinations impacting the merchandise range.

The Cultural Environment Principle

Management must supply an informed and supportive cultural environment to guarantee that the undertaking bringing squad are able to work to the bounds of their capacity. Whatever methodological analysis or model you prefer. it must be modified to accommodate the demands and demands of your undertaking. Rather than lodging to methodological analysis. the undertaking director must be able to acquire used to processs to run into the demands of the work in manus. the direction of the organisation in which the undertaking takes topographic point must be supportive and the environment free of obstructions in the manner of undertaking advancement. ( Wideman. Robert Max ; Bing. John A. ; Neal. Gerald ; . 2000 )

B. Appraise the viability of at least five ( 5 ) project’s success/ failure standards ( 1. 2 )

To be successful. a undertaking must hold:

  1. Agreement or agreement among the undertaking stakeholders – the undertaking squad. client. undertaking leader accomplishments and direction – on the aim of the undertaking.
  2. A undertaking program that shows what is capable. shows an overall way and clear undertakings. contains the facts and inside informations for ciphering the people. money. clip. equipment. and stuffs needed to acquire the occupation completed. and will be used to find development as the undertaking is taking its class.
  3. Continuous. effectual communicating among everyone that is concerned in the undertaking in order to pull off and form action. distinguish and acquire to the underside of jobs and react to alterations.
  4. A controlled range or “stakeholder outlooks management” . Everyone involved in the undertaking must cognize their portion of duties. To do certain that everyone concerned understands precisely what can be done within a specified clip frame and budget ; a systematic method for set uping practical ends for deliverables. cost. agenda. and quality. every bit good as techniques for keeping the ends dependable all through the undertaking.
  5. Upper direction support. “managing upward” . steering the upper directors toward appropriate determinations that maintains the undertaking traveling – to convey people and other resources. do guidelines. or take organisational obstructions.

The chief causes of undertaking failure that were identified were:

1. Lack of User Involvement

One of the grounds why undertakings fail is that users do non take part in the system development procedure to the extent that they should. the deficiency of engagement in the undertaking by those who will utilize the system has proved fatal for many undertakings. Without user engagement. it will do hold to Undertakings because the direction has non allocated people to make the work that users should be making. If a undertaking is to be a success direction and users need to be concerned from the start to stop of

the advancement. This requires clip and attempt.

2. Long or Unrealistic Time Scales

The cardinal advice is that undertaking timescales should be small. which means that better systems should be split into separate undertakings. There are ever jobs with this attack. but the net income of making so is important.

3. Poor or No Requirements

hapless demands are likely one of the most hard issue that can be faced by a undertaking. The incapacity to place good demands has besides led to other undertaking bringing jobs — such as the desire to contract the range of the undertaking so as to minimise the demands work load and hazard. Users should understand what it is they want. and be able to place it specifically. if you don’t acquire the concern demands right. nevertheless good you deliver the undertaking. the client/business will be dissatisfied.

4. Scope Creep

Scope weirdo is a hazard in most undertakings. it is the alteration or growing of undertaking range. Scope creep more often occurs during the ulterior phases of a undertaking. such as scheduling and proving. than during the earlier phases. such as design. This can happen when the range of a undertaking is non decently defined. documented. or controlled. This is a direction issue similar to alter control. Management should be able to calculate it all out at the start. A undertaking director frequently tries to pull off range weirdo. The end in pull offing range weirdo is to seek to minimise the impact of any alterations on the undertaking. such as on the timeline and cost.

5. No Change Control System

Business demands are altering even more quickly than of all time earlier. There may be ineluctable external demands over which you have no control. such as new ordinances for informations privateness. changed regulative coverage demands etc. So it is non sensible to expect no alteration in demands while a undertaking or system is being built. However uncontrolled alterations play pandemonium with a system under betterment and have caused many undertaking confusion and failures.

Other IT undertaking failure standards by the IT and undertaking directors were:

  • missed deadlines
  • exceeded budget
  • cost acquiring out of manus
  • many undertakings fail because they use new or unproved engineering.
  • hapless undertaking definition by the project’s proprietor. possibly because of deficient audience with stakeholders or their failure to be specific about demands and coveted results.
  • deficiency of ownership and personal answerability by senior direction.
  • inadequately skilled and experienced undertaking forces.
  • unequal coverage agreements and decision-making.
  • inconsistent apprehension of needed undertaking activities. functions and duties.

Other standards for undertaking success were:

  • run intoing the budget
  • meeting mileposts
  • a chiseled range and agreed apprehension of intended result.
  • active direction of hazards. issues and timely decision-making supported by clear and short lines of coverage.
  • on-going committedness and support from senior direction.
  • a senior person with personal answerability and overall duty for the successful result of the undertaking.
  • defined and visibly managed procedures that are appropriate or the graduated table and complexness of the undertaking.


The Calvert Social Index is a stock market index created by Calvert Investments as a benchmark of big companies that are considered socially responsible or ethical. It presently consists of

468 companies. weighted by market capitalisation. selected from about 1. 000 of the largest publically traded companies in the United States utilizing Calvert’s societal standards. These standards relate to the environment. workplace issues. merchandise safety. community dealingss. arms undertaking. international operations. and human rights.

This index was created following the success of the Domini 400 Social Index by KLD Research & A ; Analytics. Inc. The Calvert index is used by many alleged socially responsible common financess as a benchmark for their public presentation.

These standards helped the company better with their concern direction. They were able to market those specific merchandises that seem to be most wanted by their clients. With these standards. it helped them better their merchandise development that made them stand out from their rivals. It besides helped the company better concern direction in the country of finance and because of this. they have built a good concern repute.

The Project Management Process suggest three chief deliverables be defined before existent work on the undertaking begins. These are the Project Definition. Undertaking work program. and the Project Management Procedures. The Project Management Procedures explains how the undertaking will be managed. and are an effectual and efficient manner to pass on the procedures to the undertaking squad. clients. and stakeholders.

Although they may look clip devouring to develop. in most instances these processs merely need to be created one time. When you have a set of processs that allow you to be successful. you can recycle them on later undertakings. In fact. these processs can be written at the company or organisation degree. and so used as the starting point for all undertakings in the company.

These processs come from the procedure for big undertakings. They should be customized as appropriate for your undertaking. your squad. and your organisation. In most instances. the procedures should be simplified for smaller undertakings. Although this templet is called Project Management Procedures. this papers truly describes procedures. Procedures are at a higher degree than processs. You can turn them into processs by stipulating the peculiar functions. people. and dates that make sense.

The processs that will be used to pull off the undertaking will include parts on how the squad will pull off issues. range alteration. hazard. quality. communicating. etc. It is of import to be able to pull off the undertaking exhaustively and proactively and do certain the undertaking squad and all stakeholders have a common apprehension of how the undertaking will be managed. If common processs have already been recognized for your organisation. use them on your undertaking.

Every undertaking that involves more than one individual requires a undertaking squad to acquire the work done. Constructing a motivated undertaking squad will be your primary and most critical undertaking. because the success of the undertaking will trust to a great extent on taking the right squad members and deriving their committedness to the project’s aims. To use the abilities of for good assigned staff and to carry through these demands but if there are required accomplishments that are non available. so other beginnings must be identified and pursued. Books. educational plans. cyberspace and human engagement go manus

in manus to do the undertaking accomplished. With these aid. unanticipated mistakes and misreckoning will be lessened. Coordination will besides do clip required less for the undertaking to be successful. ( Wideman. 1991 )

IS Auditing Procedure: P6 Firewalls

An information security audit is an audit on the degree of information security in an organisation. Within the wide range of scrutinizing information security there are multiple types of audits. multiple aims for different audits. etc. Most normally the controls being audited can be categorized to proficient. physical and administrative. Auditing information security covers subjects from scrutinizing the physical security of information centres to the scrutinizing logical security of databases and high spots cardinal constituents to look for and different methods for scrutinizing these countries.

When centered on the IT aspects of information security. it can be seen as a portion of an information engineering audit. It is frequently so referred to as an information engineering security audit or a computing machine security audit. However. information security encompasses much more than IT.

By and big the two constructs of application security and segregation of responsibilities are both in many ways connected and they both have the same end. to protect the unity of the companies’ informations and to forestall fraud. For application security it has to make with forestalling unauthorised entree to hardware and package through holding proper security steps both physical and electronic in topographic point. With segregation of responsibilities it is chiefly a physical reappraisal of individuals’ entree to the systems and processing and guaranting that there are no convergences that could take to fraud. ( Isaca. 2003 )

Identify the cardinal elements involved in ending undertakings and carry oning station – undertaking assessments

  1. Termination activities should be identified in the baseline progra
  2. Verify that all agreed-on deliverables were provided.
  3. Form and register project-related certification.
  4. Assure that all payments have been collected from the client.
  5. Assure that all payments for stuffs and subcontractors have been paid.
  6. Fix a written public presentation rating of each member of the undertaking squad.

Ending a undertaking should ever undergo a procedure – resources used could be audited and work force could be evaluated decently.

1. Travel back to undertaking program to look into the appropriate balance between resource use and undertaking continuance that straight complies with undertaking aims. 2. Confirm or turn out that all deliverables that were agreed on were clearly fleshed out. 3. Document and form all files related to the undertaking. 4. All bills should hold been sent to the client. All collectables should be received before shuting the reappraisal. 5. Payments for stuffs and subcontractors should be fulfilled every bit good. 6. Measure the public presentation of the undertaking squad and decently papers it every bit good. 7. Conduct postmortem or –project rating meetings

Hiring a new chief research worker ( PI ) ( or an tantamount individual ) is the following best solution for undertakings that were terminated or put on clasp. In order to guarantee the smooth passage of paperss and procedures. the old PI should develop the new hire

Loss of human. support and other valuable resources. whether awaited or non. is the most common

job that may coerce an organisation to end or set a undertaking on clasp. In order to turn to this challenge. the affected organisation should be able to tap other available resources such as support vehicles and connexions or webs for new hires or experts.

If an internal appraisal or rating of the undertaking showed negative consequences. resources. procedures and even the undertaking itself can be adjusted or modified in order to accomplish or carry through set outlooks and aims.