Principles of management: Chapter 12 Motivating employees

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What is Motivation
-Indicates, directs, sustains, behavior, inferred, not observed
-may be defined as the psychological process that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior
Intrinsic Reward(Within self)
Satisfaction in performing the task itself, such as a feeling of accomplishment
Extrinsic Rewards(Outside pay, rate, promotion)
satisfaction in the payoff from others, such as money
Types of Content Perspectives of Motivation
1)Common Assumptions of Theories
2) Maslow’s Hierarchy
3)ERG Theory
4)McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
5)Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
6)Hygiene Factors vs Motivating Factors
Common Assumptions of Theories
internal “something” (need) that causes behavior
Maslow’s Hierarchy:
satisfied need doesn’t motivate employees
5 levels:
1)Physiological-most basic human needs
2)Safety
3) Love(Belongingness)
4)Esteem
5)Self-Actualization
ERG Theory
Existence, Relatedness, & Growth
Existence-
Relatedness-Desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are signifiant to us
Growth-Desire to grow as humans and use our abilities with people who are significant to us
McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
Achievement, Affiliation, & Power
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
From Dissatisfying Factors to Satisfying Factors

work satisfaction arises from motivating factors and work dissatisfaction arises from hygiene factors

Hygiene Factors
-Pay, working conditions, supervisors, company policies, fringe benefits

Help prevent dissatisfaction

Motivating Factors
Achievement, Responsibility, work itself, recognition, growth to advancement

motivators help promote satisfaction

Process Perspectives
concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act
Common assumptions of models within Process Perspectives
1)Equity Theory
2)Expectancy Theory
3)Goal setting Theory
4)Job Characteristic Model
Equity Theory
how fairly do you think you are being treated in relation to others?
Under rewarded and how it impacts motivation?
increase self inputs to decrease other inputs, decrease self outcomes to increase other outcomes, quit, change others, reevaluate ratios
What is Over reward? How will it impact motivation?
Outcomes:
money
self
benefits
co-worker
enjoy work

Inputs:
time
ideas
efforts
potential
expenses

Expectancy Theory
How much do you want & how likely are you to get it?
3 components of expectancy theory
Expectancy-
Belief effort–>Performance

Instrumentality-
Belief performance–>desired outcome

Valence-
Attractiveness of outcome- value a worker attaches to a possible outcome or reward

Goal Setting Theory
objectives should be specific & challenging, but achievable
4 elements of goal setting theory
1) specific
2)challenging
3)achievable
4) linked to action plan
Job characteristic model: 5 job characteristics for better outcomes
1)Skill Variety
2)Task Identity
3)Task Significance
4)Autonomy
5)Feedback from Job
Process Perspective:Job simplification
process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs
Process Perspective: Job Enlargement
add more tasks to job to increase variety and motivation
Process Perspective: job enrichment
add depth to job to increase motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement
Types of Reinforcement/Learning Perspectives
1)Positive
2)Avoidance
3)Punishment
4)Extinction
Using Compensation and Other Rewards to Motivate: incentive pay systems
-pay for performance
-bonuses
-profit sharing
-gain sharing
-stock options
-pay for knowledge/skills
Using Compensation and Other Rewards to Motivate: non-monetary rewards
-work/life balance
-help learn new skills(expand)
-feelings of importance(need to matter

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