Principles of Macroeconomics: TEST 1

REAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
Gross domestic product that has been adjusted to eliminate the impact of changes in the price level. A MACROECONOMIC MEASURE OF THE VALUE OF OUTPUT ECONOMY ADJUSTED FOR CHANGES. (LIKE INFLATION)

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
generating and experimenting with ideas related to new products, services, or processes

MARKET SHARE
a company’s percentage of the total industry sales for a specific product type

MACROECONOMICS
the study of economy-wide phenomena, including inflation, unemployment, and economic growth. The overall working of a national economy – performance structure, behavior, and decision making.

STANDARD OF LIVING
a measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy

MICROECONOMICS
the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms

CATERIS PARIBUS
“all else equal” a device used to analyze the relationship between two variables while the values of other variables are held unchanged

HUMAN CAPITAL
the knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education, training and experience

OPPORTUNITY COST
the cost of the next best use of time and money when choosing to do one thing or another. It is the sacrifice related to the second best choice available to someone or group.

SCARCITY
limited quantities of resources to meet unlimited wants. Fundamental economic problem of having humans who have wants and needs in a world of limited resources.

INCENTIVE
a positive motivational influence. Incentives aim to provide value for money and contribute to organizational success.

POLLUTION
undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities

FISCAL POLICY
The federal government efforts to keep the economy stable by increasing or decreasing taxes or government spending

MARKET FAILURE
a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently.

PRODUCTIVITY
the quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input

AGGREGATE SUPPLY
the total amount of goods and services in the economy available at all possible price levels

ECONOMIC HISTORY
the study of economic events and the collection of economic observations from the past. Analysis in Economic history is undertaken using a combination of historical methods.

economics- short
the study of how people seek to satisfy their needs and wants by making choices. PEOPLE MAKING RATIONAL DECISIONS.

ECONOMICS- long version
a social science that studies the allocation of resources to the production of goods and services used to satisfy the consumers unlimited wants needs.

POLICY
a line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government. A principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.

RECESSION
the state of the economy declines

PROGRESSIVE TAX SYSTEM
a tax whose average tax rate increases as the taxpayer’s income increases and decreases as the taxpayer’s income decreases. THE MORE YOU MAKE THE MORE YOU PAY!

JOHN KAY
Correalation does not imply causation

EFFICIENCY
using resources in such a way as to maximize the production of goods and services. – HOW WELL RESOURCES ARE USED AND ALLOCATED!

EQUITY
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.

PHILLIPS CURVE
A graph showing the relationship between inflation and unemployment . The theory states that unemployment can be reduced in the short run by increasing price level (inflation) at a faster rate. Conversely, inflation can be lowered at the cost of possibly increased unemployment and slower economic growth

BAR CHART
a chart with bars whose lengths are proportional to quantities

INFLATION
a general and progressive increase in prices

ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY
A state of the economy in which production is in accordance with consumer preferences; in particular, every good or service is produced up to the point where the last unit provides a marginal benefit to society equal to the marginal cost of producing it

ENTREPRENEUR
a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business

FULL EMPLOYMENT
the economic condition when everyone who wishes to work at the going wage-rate for their type of labor is employed

OPPORTUNITY COST
The most desirable alternative given up as the result of a decision

ECONOMIC GROWTH
steady growth in the productive capacity of the economy (and so a growth of national income)

FEDERATION
the act of constituting a political unity out of a number of separate states or colonies or provinces so that each member retains the management of its internal affairs

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
a positive or negative change in the ability of a firm to produce a given level of output with a given quantity of inputs

3 BASIC ECONOMIC QUESTIONS A COUTRY MUST MAKE?
What goods and services are to be produced?
How are they produced?
Who will receive these goods and services?

what to produce?
depends on what goods and services an economy wants .

what do Prices communicate?
they communicate information in the system and consumers decide how to use their resources and put their technology to use.

how does competition help?
Leads to highly efficient production of goods and services

main role of governments
Protect property rights
Enforce contracts between private parties
provide public goods like national defense
establish and ensure adequate operative environment for competitive markets.

Planned economies
Socialist and communist – systems where most of the productive resources are opened by the state and mst decisions made by central governments.

Socialist countries
these countries have a high degree of freedom with a big role for government services paid by high taxes, and highly regulated private business

PPF
PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES FRONTIER
Shows the combinations of two goods that are possible for a society to reduce at full employment.

inside and outside PPF?
Points inside PPF are feasible or can be accomplished. Those outside of the frontier are unattainable.

full employment
all the points along the PPF represent points of max output of our economy, where all resources are being used

absolute advantage
one country can produce more of a good than another country. one country has a comparative advantage over another if its opportunity cost to produce that good is lower than that of the other country.

THE GAINS FROM TRADE
Even with absolute advantage, both countries still benefit from trading with one another. As two economies become more equal in side, the benefits of their comparative advantages grow.

Limits on Trade and Globalization
Every transaction involves cost. Transportation, communication.

3: SUPPLY AND DEMAND ANALYSIS
To build a hoouse you need a foundation. Economic theory is based on this basic foundation.

what questions are answered by Supply and Demand?
why product sales rise and fall?
what direction prices move in?
how many goods will be offered for sale when certain events happen in the market place?
how personal income is distributed?

what is market ?
an institution that allows buyers and sellers to interact and transact with one another

the price system
when buyers and sellers exchange money for goods and services, accepting some offers and rejecting others .

Demand
the wants and desires people are willing and able to buy during a certain period of time at various prices, holding all other factors constant.

LAW OD DEMAND
buyers will demand more products when they can buy them at lower prices. Demand curve slopes down to the right.

CAPITALIST MARKET ECONOMIES
Private individuals and firms own most of the resources

competition between buyers and sellers leads to
highly efficient production of goods and services

ENTREPRENEURIAL ABILITY
the human resource that combines the other resources to produce a product, makes nonroutine decisions, innovates, and bears risks.

PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY
manufacture of the desired output with the minimum amount of effort, account of the costs and benefits associated with a particular choice of what outputs to produce and what inputs to use in producing them.

PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES
The alternative combinations of final goods and services that could be produced in a given time period with all available resources and technology

PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES FRONTIER
a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology

THE PPG MODEL INDICATES..
Economic growth can come from an expansion in resources or imp.rovements in technology. An outward shift in the PPF curve

DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND
Anything other than price of the current item that influences consumer buying decisions, including income, tastes and preferences, price of related items (substitutes and complements), number of consumers in the market, and expected future price.

CHANGES IN DEMAND
A new equilibrium point. Supply rises or lowers, demand rises or lowers. Rises goes right, lowers goes left.

SUPPLY
the amount of goods and services that producers are able and willing to sell at various prices during a specified time period

LAW OF SUPPLY
the principle that suppliers will normally offer more for sale at higher prices and less at lower prices

SUPPLY CURVE
a curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product supplied.
CHANGE TO RIGHT > ≡ INCREASE IN SUPPLY
CHAGE TO THE LEFT < ≡ DECREASE IN SUPPLY

MARKET EQULIBRIUM
a situation in which the quantity of a product demanded equals the quantity supplied

SURPLUS
A situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded

CHANGES IN SUPPLY
a shift in an entire supply curve such that the quantity supplied changes even though price customers are willing to pay remains constant. An increase in supply is represented by a rightward shift of the supply curve; a decrease in supply is illustrated by a leftward shift of the supply curve.

CHANGES IN DEMAND
Shifts of the demand curve due to changes in the determinants of demand, which change the relationship between price and quantity demanded

PRICE CEILINGS
Are maximum prices set by the government for particular goods and services that they believe are being sold at too high of a price and thus consumers need some help purchasing them.

PRICE FLOOR
a legally determined minimum price above the equilibrium price

PRICE FLOORS AND PRICE CEILINGS
They are used to intervene in markets.
PRICE CEILING – if set below equilibrium price results in shortages
PRICE FLOORS – ,in price that can be changed for a product- when set above equilibrium prices, it causes shortages.

JOHN MCMILLAN
5 MAJOR REQUIREMENTS IN MARKETS
Information must be widely available
Property rights are protected
Contracts are enforced
Externalities are minimized
Competition Prevails

CONSUMER SURPLUS
The difference between the maximum amount a person is willing to pay for a good and its current market price.

PUBLIC GOOD
a good that (1) may be enjoyed by anyone if it is provided and (2) may not be denied to anyone once it has been provided

PRIVATE GOODS
Goods that are both excludable and rival in consumption

COMMON RESOURCE
Resource that people normally are free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most are renewable and owned by no one. Examples are clean air, fish in parts of the ocean not under the control of a coastal country, migratory birds, gases of the lower atmosphere, and the ozone content of the upper atmosphere (stratosphere). See tragedy of the commons.

1929
UNEMPLOYMENT AT 2.99%

1933
Unemployment at 25%
markets grew much faster than GDP
the great depression
1400 markets closed their doors

GDP
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy

1945
WWII
wars help depression
presidents have blank checks to win the war
America came out of depression because of the war

1960-1980
Unemployment and inflation both rise
STAGFLATION

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out