Principles of Chemistry III: Nutrition and Metabolism

Flashcard maker : Mike Bryan
Conservation of Energy means:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can, however, be transformed from one form to another.
Energy is defined as:
the ability to do work.
Work is defined as:
a force applied multiplied by the distance moved.
Kinetic Energy is:
Energy in motion/Energy of motion
Potential Energy is:
Energy that has the potential to do work, such as a rock at the top of a hill.
What are some forms of energy?
Heat, mechanical, sound, chemical, electrical, etc.
How is electrical energy used in the body?
The transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscles requires electrical energy
How is chemical energy used in the body?
The breakdown of ATP and the chemical bonds in food provide energy
What are some examples of mechanical energy in the body?
The heart pumping, the churning of the stomach, walking, etc.
What is an example of sound energy in the body?
Hearing
How is heat energy used in the body?
The maintenance of body temperature, a fever, shivering.
What are the SI units for energy?
Joules (J), kilojoules (kJ), Calories (c)
What is a calorie of energy defined as?
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree.
What is the difference between an energy calorie and a dietary calorie?
A dietary calorie is equal to 1,000 energy calories.
What is the energy value for 1g of protein?
4 calories, or 17 kJ
What is the energy value for 1g of carbohydrate?
4 calories, or 16 kJ
What is the energy value for 1g of fat?
9 calories or 37 kJ
A ________ is the chemical composition in food
that is used by the body to provide energy and to
promote growth, and to repair and maintain cells.
nutrient
What are the six types of nutrients per your book?
Protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and
water
Why is it important to have a balanced diet of all six types of nutrients?
Each nutrient provides something unique to the body that the other nutrients cannot provide.
What does ADP stand for? Is it considered high or low energy?
Adenosine DiPhosphate – it is considered low energy
What does ATP stand for? Is it considered high or low energy?
Adenosine TriPhosphate – it is considered high energy
Is energy stored in the body as ATP or ADP?
ATP; it is higher in energy.
In each of our cells, glucose is broken down (oxidized-reacted with oxygen) by a complex set of multi-step
processes. Why? What does this produce?
To produce energy in the form of ATP
We know that the main product of glucose oxidation is ATP. What are the other two byproducts?
Water and Carbon Dioxide
The chemical reaction for the oxidation of glucose into ATP and its byproducts, which should be memorized is as follows: 1 C6H12O6 + O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + __ ATP.
38 ATP are produced. One molecule of Glucose and one molecule of Oxygen react together to form six molecules of water, six molecules of carbon dioxide, and 38 molecules of ATP.

This is known as the overall reaction equation.

By Le Chatelier’s Principle, more glucose and/or oxygen will favor the glucose oxidation reaction by moving to the right as will a ________ in a cells’ levels of water, carbon dioxide and/or energy (ATP).
decrease
Our bodies DIRECTLY utilize available _______ in our
blood and thus our cells FIRST towards producing ATP
glucose
If insufficient levels of blood glucose are available for
required body energy, additional energy reserves are
called forth and utilized (broken down for energy) in a
complex but understandable order with the ultimate
intent of PROTECTING OUR BRAINS by allowing the
rest of the body to degrade to feed the brain
tissue/organ. What are the second, third, and fourth additional energy reserves?
2. Glycogen breakdown
3. Lipid breakdown
4. Protein breakdown
What is glycolysis?
Breaking down of glucose
– Lysis of glucose
What is gluconeogenesis?
Formation of glucose from other molecules
What is glycogenolysis?
Breakdown of glycogen.
What is glycogenesis?
Formation of glycogen
_____________ are used directly (broken down
for energy) in the classical glycolysis process
Carbohydrates
If blood glucose levels dip too low, which hormones are releases?
Cortisol, Glucagon, and Epinephrine
What do Cortisol, Glucagon, and Epinephrine do in response to low blood glucose?
They work to break poly-saccharide
glycogen down into the mono-saccharide glucose
How does insulin affect blood glucose levels?
Insulin causes glucose to be absorbed from the blood into muscular and adipose (fat) tissue, causing the body to store fat rather than use it for energy. This results in lowered blood glucose levels.
We know that glucose and glycogen levels exist in an equilibrium within the body. When the blood glucose levels dip too low, what role does glycogen play?
Glycogen is the second energy reserve. When blood glucose levels dip too low, glycogen stored in the liver and skeletal muscle is used to create energy for the body.
The bodies most concentrated form of energy storage is:
Lipids
Lipids break down to form two things, what are they?
Fatty Acids and glycerol.
One type of lipid metabolism product is known as a fatty acid. This eventually leads to which part of the Krebs cycle?
Acetyl-Coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA)
One type of lipid metabolism product is called glycogen. What is glycogen used for?
It is used to feed into the glycolysis cycle directly
A C18 fatty acid yields ___ ATP molecules and a C16 one
___ ATP molecules.
146, 129
Lipid-based energy is used in every cell of the body but the
_____ tissue which uses glucose directly
brain
_______ __________ occurs when muscle tissue, proteins,
are broken down for energy. This only usually occurs when
the majority of the lipid reserves in the body are depleted
such as cases of severe starvation
Protein Metabolism
Amino acids are not/are normally stored in the body for energy
are not
If protein metabolism is needed, the amine is removed from
each amino acid molecule and sent to the _____ for disposal
as ____ and the remainder of the molecule is oxidized as if it
were a carbohydrate as part of the Kreb cycle
urine, urea
Protein metabolism mostly provide a small/large amount of
energy per amino acid molecule. This is reserved for
emergency cases of energy needs only
small
For optimal health, we need a
specific amount
[concentration] of glucose in
the blood that is
homeostatically-controlled in
or around __ – ___ mg/dL, as
measured before which meal?
70-100, breakfast
If this number gets as high as
___ – ___mg/dL after a meal
there is not a whole lot of
room for concern
130 – 140
Blood glucose levels below about 60-65mg/dL
hypoglycemia
Blood glucose levels above about 180-200 mg/dL
hyperglycemia
What are some symptoms of hypoglycemia?
hunger,
shakiness, racing of the heart
then loss of mental function
and unconsciousness
Which disease is characterized by an inability to control blood glucose levels?
Diabetes
_______ feeds infection, chronic inflammation, and promotes the
formation of blood clots which is why 80% of diabetes patients die
from cardiovascular disease
glucose
As many as __% of the over-40 crowd in the West possess blood sugar
imbalance that is the forerunner of type 2-diabetes (dysglycemia)
50%
Approximately what percentage of the population has diabetes?
7.8%
Diabetes is the ___ leading cause of death nationally – over 233,000
deaths per year
7th
This disease is a leading cause of
adult blindness, lower-limb amputation, kidney disease, and nerve
damage.
diabetes
Normally, our glucose concentration in our blood is
controlled by a set of hormones. Which hormone lowers blood sugar levels, and which 3 work together to raise blood sugar levels?
– Insulin lowers blood sugar
– Glucagon, Cortisol, and adrenalin raise blood sugar
When we eat, the simple carbohydrates like glucose
are absorbed in our intestines and enter our
bloodstream. __________ ____ _____ pump out insulin to
stash away this extra glucose in our muscles for instant
energy or in fat cells where it is stored.
Pancreatic Beta Cells
This organ is one of the main places for the storage and release of glucose:
Liver
One factor that is highly correlated with diabetes is
obesity. Approximately what percentage of people with diabetes are overweight?
about 80%
What are the two main causes of type 2 diabetes?
Poor diet and lack of exercise
What does BMI stand for?
Body Mass Index
A BMI of less than 18.5 is considered to be:
underweight
A BMI between 18.5 and 25 is considered to be:
normal
A BMI between 25 and 30 is considered to be:
over weight
A BMI of 30 or greater is considered to be:
obese

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