Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby

1. When does the first cell division occur after conception?
12- 24 hours

2. Name the three stages of prenatal development and when they occur.
Germinal Period (Conception- 2 weeks), Embryonic period (2-8 weeks), Fetal Period (9-38 weeks)

3. What is a blastocyst?
hollow ball of cells that impants in the uterus lining

4. What are the major developments that occur during the period of the zygote?
7th – 9th day: implantation into uterine lining
Woman’s immune system is weakened
Early miscarriage due to defective sperm
Amnion, umbilical cord, & placenta develop

5. What are the major developments during the period of the embryo?
Major organs begin to form and the heartbeat at the 18th day.

6. Name the three layers of the embryo and the body parts that develop from them.
Ectoderm: Develop skin, teeth, hair, nails, and nervous system.
Mesoderm: Muscles, skeleton, circulatory system.
Endoderm: digestive and respiratory system

7. What is vernix?
cottage cheese like substance that covers the skin to protect the skin from fluid

8. What is lanugo?
fine hairs that keep the vernix stuck to the body

9. What is meant by the term age of viability?
age the fetus can have a chance of surviving outside the womb.

10. What is a teratogen?
Any environmental factor that can get into a woman’s system and harm the baby

11. Teratogens pose the greatest risk during which period of prenatal development?
The embryo, that’s when the organs develop

12. What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
A series of characteristics in a child from whose mother drank during pregnancy. Ex. Mental retardation, down syndrome

13. What are fetal alcohol effects?
Show some facial features, and limited characterics as well. Ex. Flat face, thin lips

14. Name five other factors that influence prenatal development.
Diet: folic acid, prenatal vitamins,
Age: The older the mother the higher the risk of prematurity and baby’s weight, this also can happen when women are too young.
Stress: We produce hormones that can damage the baby’s body’s, when our bodies are stressed we send blood to different parts of the body that can take away from the baby’s supply
SES: (Socio economic status) those who have lower incomes my have more birth defects
Illness (e.g., Aids): chicken pox, measles, syphilis, aids

15. What was demonstrated using the DeCasper Paradigm and The Cat in the Hat Study?
DE Casper’s Paradigm: Had mothers talk to their babies or read to them while they were pregnant. A couple days after the babies birth the baby was given the option of sucking on two different nipples. On one nipple the baby could hear its mothers voice and on the other the baby would hear another womans voice. The baby almost always chose the nipple in which the could hear their mothers voice.
Cat in the Hat Study (DeCasper & Spence, 1986) Had the mother read the baby the cat in the hat while pregnant. Put in same sequence as above and babies preferred to suck on the nipple in which they heard the cat in the hat. This shows babies can remember things prenatally.

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