Praxis PLT Early Childhood

Cognitivism
-Learners generate knowledge through sequential development of cognitive abilities
-focus on inner working of mind (learners as information processor-storage retrieval working memory, long term memory)

What is the learner’s role under cognitivism theory?
Learners need to develop prior knowledge and integrate knowledge (need scaffolding to develop schema)

What is the educators role under cognitivism theory?
Pedagogocial-instructor must develop conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning acticieis

Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory (cognitivism)
-social interaction precedes cognitive development
-zone of proximal development

zone of proximal development
the range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and the level at which a child can solve a problem with the assistance of adults or children with more skill

Piaget’s 4 Stages of Development
1. Sensimotor
2.preoperational
3. concrete operational
4. Formal Operational
-schema
-assimilation and accommodation (Piaget)

What is Schema?
Learners need to develop conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning activities

Sensimotor Stage
(Piaget 4 stages of development )
Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). In this period (which has 6 stages), intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbolic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.

Preoperational Stage
(Piaget 4 stages of development )
(Toddler and Early Childhood). In this period (which has two substages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversible manner. Egocentric thinking predominates

Concrete Operational
(Piaget 4 stages of development)
(Elementary and early adolescence). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.

Formal Operational
(Piaget 4 stages of development)
(Adolescence and adulthood). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.

Constructivism theory
-learners construct knowledge through experimental learning related to real life experience
-problem-based cooperation adaptive learning

What is the learners role under constructivism?
learnign as an active social process (social constructivism) Also individual constructivism

What is the educator’s role under constrcutivism?
faiclitator/mentor

Who were the key figure for constructivism?
Dewey, Montessori,Kolb,Brunner (Disvoery learning)

cognitive dissonance
there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.

Behavorism
Behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning)
importance of reinforcement

What is the learner’s role under behaviorism?
passive learning

Major theorist under behaviorism
Skinner (Operant Conditioning)
Pavlov (Classical Conditioning)
Watson
Thorndike (Connectionism, transfer of larning/practice)

classical conditioning
-focus in involuntary automatic behaviors
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response; aka Pavlovian conditioning

operant conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
-focus on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors
-skinner

social learning theory
– People learn from each other via observation, imitation, and modeling
– Bridge between behaviorist and cognitivist theories

What is the learner’s role under social learning theory?
learn by observing others
Bandura

What is the educators role under social learning theory?
modelings are an important source of learning new behaviors

Reciprocal Determinism
The world and a person’s behavior influence each other
-self efficacy-extent strength of ones belief in ones won ability to complete a task and reach goals
-high self efficacy leads people to try to master difficult task rather than avoid them

maturation theory
development is a biological process that occurs automatically in predictable,sequential stages over time

metacognitive learning theory
The study of how to help the learner gain understanding about how knowledge is constructed and about the conscious tools for constructing knowledge
-focus on process of learning
emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking

Metacognition
– “Knowing about knowing” – when and how to use particular strategies for leaning or problem solving
– 3 Parts:
1. Knowledge about cognition
2. Regulation of cognitive
3. Metacognitive experiences
– 3 types of knowledge: declarative, procedural, conditional
– 3 types of regulation: planning, monitoring, evaluating

Self -Determination Theory (SDT)
– Focuses on degree to which an individual’s behavior is self-motivated and self determined
– Evolved from studies on intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
– 3 innate needs as basis for self-motivation
– Competence
– Relatedness
– Autonomy
– Optimal development and actions are inherent in human beings but don’t happen automatically – they require nurturing from the social environment

Direct Instruction
-Bereiter/Engelmann Approach
-Explicit teaching of a skill set using lectures/demonstrations
-Students in face to face contact with teacher
-Teacher as main source of information

cooperative learning
Constructivist
-Small, heterogeneous groups of students work together to achieve a common goal. -Key aspects: positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, and simultaneous interaction. -Strategies include STAD, partner check -Students work together to learn and are responsible for their teammates learning as well as their own
-Teacher works to facilitate student learning

problem-based learning
Constructivist
-Student-centered, active learning. Learning occurs in small student groups.
Student learns via problem solving and self-directed learning (SDL)
-Teacher as facilitator (supports, guides, and monitors the learning process)

Project-Based Learning
Constructivist
(Dewey)
-In-depth investigation of a real-world, authentic topic or problem that is meaningful to students.
-Students work in small groups or pairs to solve a problem or learn more about the topic
-Teacher serves as a facilitator (supports the students’ projects and discoveries)

Discovery Learning / Inquiry Based Instruction
Constructivist (Piaget, Brunner)
Learners learn best when they discover facts and relationships for themselves. E.g. guided discover, problem based learning, case-based learning.
Students learn via problem-solving. Teacher as facilitator

Language Experience
-Helps support concept and vocab development through shared reading and writing.
-Students involved in planning, as well as responding to and reflecting on the experience

whole language
Mainly used in language arts. Teaches child to look for meaning rather than getting hung up on the individual components of language. Students learn language by using it – encourages to take risks and make mistakes
Teacher as facilitator

Integrated Curriculum / Thematic Teaching / Interdisciplinary Teaching
A curriculum in which lessons are taught in several different subject areas according to outcomes that deal with the same concepts.

scaffolding
Constructivist (Brunner):Changing the level of support to suit the cognitive potential of the child. Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky).
Teacher provides scaffolds

Shared Reading
Teacher explicitly models the strategies and skills of proficient readers Students gradually assume more responsibility for reading Teacher chooses text and explicitly models strategies and skills

Guided Reading
Reading Workshop model Teacher provides support for small groups of readers as they learn to use various reading strategies (e.g. context clues, word structure, letter/sound relationships) . Goal = independent reading. Small groups for differentiated instruction.

Reggio Emilia
Constructivist, Emergent Curriculum Built around natural development of children and the close relationships they share with their environment. Children must be able to learn through the experiences/senses. Focus on principles of respect, responsibility, and community. Self-guided curriculum driven by student interests. Children as social beings – emphasis on relationships. Teacher as co-learner and collaborator. Heavy parent and community involvement.

Montessori
Constructivist
-No textbooks, students rarely work on the same thing at the same time
-Students learn from the environment and from other students
-Teacher scientifically observes students and uses these observations to inform instruction

Emergent Curriculum
Emphasizes personalization of learning and community involvement. E.g. Reggio Emilia Student interests drive curriculum High value placed on family and community involvement in education

Anchored Instruction
Involves a concrete learning activity for students to tie information to

Bandura
Social learning theory Behavior can be learned through observation of others
Self efficacy – belief in ones own ability to complete tasks and reach goals (motivation, internal vs. external attribution)

Bloom
Bloom’s taxonomy
1. Knowledge (e.g. define, label, recall, memorize, list)
2. Understanding/comprehension (e.g. classify, explain, identify, locate, review)
3. Application (e.g. demonstrate, illustrate, solve, write, choose, dramatize)
4. Analysis (e.g. calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, examine, criticize)
5. Synthesis (e.g. collect, compose, design, manage, plan, organize, formulate)
6. Evaluation (e.g. assess, appraise, predict, rate, support, evaluate, judge, argue)

Bruner
Constructivist theory Individuals actively construct knowledge by comparing new ideas or concepts with their current knowledge (schema or mental models)

Dewey
Learning by doing (constructivism) Father of progressive education. Learning occurs through experience. Promoted individuality, project-based learning, and school as a social institution.

Erikson
Socioemotional development 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
1. Age 0-2, hopes, basic trust vs. mistrust, e.g. feeding, abandonment
2. Age 2-4, will, autonomy vs. shame & doubt, e.g. toilet training, dressing
3. Age 4-5, purpose, initiative vs. guilt, e.g. exploring, tools, art
4. Age 5-12, competence, industry vs. inferiority, e.g. school, sports
5. Age 13-19, fidelity, identity vs. role confusion, e.g. social relationships
6. Age 20-39, love, intimacy vs. isolation, e.g. romantic relationships
7 .Age 40-64, care, generativity vs. stagnation, e.g. work, parenthood
8. Age 65-death, wisdom, ego integrity vs. despair, e.g. reflection on life

Festinger
Cognitive dissonance
(constructivism) Inconsistencies between behaviors and beliefs motivate people to change. One basis for constructivism.
Effort justification paradigm – people put greater value on outcomes they had to work hard to achieve (link to student motivation for learning – internal vs. external)