Praxis 5203: Teaching Reading: Elementary Education

B. F. Skinner
Behaviorist theorist who explained that students learn to read by learning a series of discrete skills and subskills. Teachers use explicit instruction to teach skills in a planned, sequential order. Information is presented in small steps and reinforced through practice activities until students master it because each step is built on the previous one.

Explicit instruction
An instructional strategy that is skill based, but students are active participants in the learning process.

Theorists focus on the OBSERVABLE and MEASURABLE aspects of students’ behavior. They believe that behavior can be learned or unlearned, and that learning is the result of stimulus-and-response actions. This theory is described as TEACHER CENTERED because it focuses on the teacher’s active role as a dispenser of knowledge.

Behavior modifications
The alteration of behavioral patterns through the use of such learning techniques as biofeedback and positive or negative reinforcement.

Jean Piaget
Constructivist theorist who explained that learning is the modification of students’ schemas as they actively interact with their environment.

Characteristics of Behaviorism
-Focuses on observable changes in behavior
-Views the teacher’s role as providing information and supervising practice
-Describes learning as the result of stimulus-response actions
-Uses incentives and rewards for motivation

Applications of Behavorism
-Basal readers
-Repeated readings

Characteristics of Constructivism
-Describes learning as the active construction of knowledge
-Recognizes the importance of background knowledge
-Views learners as innately curious
-Advocates collaboration, not competition
-Suggests ways to engage students so they can be successful

Applications of Constructivism
-Literature focus units
-K-W-L charts
-Reading logs
-Thematic units
-Word sorts

The action of working with someone to produce or create something.

Basal reading
Reading instruction that differs from a guided reading program in that it uses texts that are written to teach reading, as opposed to using written texts to teach reading. This type of program is sometimes referred to as a scientifically-based reading program.

Repeated readings
A strategic approach designed to increase reading fluency and comprehension… repeated reading, students read and re-read a selected short passage until they reach a satisfactory level of fluency.

Teacher-centered instruction
In this form of instruction, students put all of their focus on the teacher. The teacher talks, while the students exclusively listen. During activities, students work alone, and collaboration is discouraged.

Student-centered instruction
In this form of instruction, students and instructors share the focus. Instead of listening to the teacher exclusively, students and teachers interact equally. Group work is encouraged, and students learn to collaborate and communicate with one another.

Background knowledge
The knowledge students have, learned both formally in the classroom as well as informally through life experiences.

Literature focus unit
A multi-genre approach to teaching language arts, focusing on a theme, skill, or pedagogy as focus. It is a best practice in elementary education, as it introduces all the genres of literature (instead of just fiction): myth, romance, fiction, poetry, historical fiction, non-fiction, etc.

K-W-L Chart
A graphical organizer designed to help in learning. The letters KWL are an acronym, for what students, in the course of a lesson, already know, want to know, and ultimately learn. A KWL table is typically divided into three columns titled Know, Want and Learned.

Reading log
A journal where a person can record his/her reading activity.

Thematic unit
The organization of a curriculum around a central theme. In other words it’s a series of lessons that integrate subjects across the curriculum, such as math, reading, social studies, science, language arts, etc. that all tie into the main theme of the unit.

Closed word sort
The teacher defines the process for categorizing the words. This requires students to engage in critical thinking as they examine sight vocabulary, corresponding concepts, or word structure.

Open word sort
The students determine how to categorize the words, thereby becoming involved in an active manipulation of words.

Characteristics of Sociolinguistics
-Emphasizes the importance of language and social interaction on learning
-Views reading and writing as social and cultural activities
-Explains that students learn best through authentic activities
-Describes the teacher’s role as scaffolding students’ learning
-Advocates culturally responsive teaching
-Challenges students to confront injustices and inequities in society

Applications of Sociolinguistics
-Literature circles
-Shared reading
-Buddy reading
-Reading and writing workshop
-Author’s chair

Created by Vygotsky. The study of language in relation to social factors, including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, gender differences, and bilingualism.

Literature circles
Small groups of students who are reading, responding to and discussing the same book. They provide the opportunity for students to have some control over their learning, because students usually choose their own materials. The groups of students respond individually, then have open conversations about their book. The groups are also in charge of determining how many pages are to be read each night. The teacher is not part of the literature circle group, but serves as an outside observer.

Shared reading
An interactive reading experience that occurs when students join in or share the reading of a book or other text while guided and supported by a teacher. The teacher explicitly models the skills of proficient readers, including reading with fluency and expression.

Buddy reading
A program designed to help students improve their literacy skills by giving them the opportunity to read aloud to someone. Reading aloud is one of the most effective ways to improve a child’s reading accuracy and fluency.

Author’s chair
Traditionally the last step in the writing process, where students share their published work.

Cognitive/Information Processing Characteristics
-Compares the mind to a computer
-Recommends integrating reading and writing
-Views reading and writing as meaning-making processes
-Explains that readers’ interpretations are individualized
-Describes students as strategic readers and writers

Meaning-making process
The process of how individuals make sense of knowledge, experience, relationships, and the self

Strategic reading
A process of constructing meaning by interacting with text; as individuals read, they use their prior knowledge along with clues from the text to construct meaning. Research indicates that effective or expert readers are strategic.

Cognitive/Information Processing Applications
-Guided reading
-Graphic organizers
-Grand conversations
-Interactive writing
-Reciprocal questioning

Guided reading
An instructional approach that involves a teacher working with a small group of students who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can all read similar levels of texts. The text is easy enough for students to read with your skillful support. The text offers challenges and opportunities for problem solving, but is easy enough for students to read with some fluency. You choose selections that help students expand their strategies.

Graphic organizer
Also known as a knowledge map, concept map, story map, cognitive organizer, advance organizer, or concept diagram, is a communication tool that uses visual symbols to express knowledge, concepts, thoughts, or ideas, and the relationships between them.

Grand conversations
An authentic student led conversation about a story where students ask the questions, discuss their thoughts and feelings, and make meaning as they talk about the story. Conversations are characterized by spontaneity rather than predictable questions.

Interactive writing
A cooperative event in which text is jointly composed and written. The teacher uses the interactive writing session to model reading and writing strategies as he or she engages children in creating text.

Reciprocal questioning
A variation on the teaching strategy of the same name. Here, students take on the role of the teacher by formulating their own list of questions about a reading selection. The teacher then answers the students’ questions.

Lev Vygotsky
Sociolinguistic theorist who theorized that language helps to organize thought and that students use language to lean as well as to communicate and share experiences with others.

Story Schema
A mental construct of what comprises a story

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (DRTA)
According to Stauffer, this activity emphasizes reading as a process of thinking. During reading, the teacher pauses at strategic places and asks students to make predictions, possibly record predictions on a chart. Predictions, and text-supported reasons for predictions, are discussed.

Transactional Strategy Instruction (TSI)
According to Brown and Co-Ogan, this is an instructional procedure that teaches students to use effective comprehension strategies to construct meaning from the text by:
1. planning and setting goals
2. activating background knowledge and using textual cues to construct meaning
3. self-monitoring comprehension
4. solving problems that occurred while reading
5. self-evaluating progress

Students use following strategies in small groups to stimulate discussion:
*making predictions based on prior knowledge
*generating and asking questions
*clarifying, as needed
*visualizing the content they’re reading
*relating text to their own experiences
*summarizing what was read

Questioning the Author
According to Beck, et al., this procedure stimulates students to reflect on what an author is trying to say in expository text. Teachers collaborate with students to improve comprehension of difficult texts. Teachers model questioning, such as:
*What is the author trying to say?
*Why does the author say this?
*What did the author mean by this?

Information Genre
Four required elements of this genre are:
1. topic presentation
2. descriptive attributes
3. characteristic events, describing typical processs, events, or actions that the topic is engaged in or does
4. final summary

Eight additional, optional elements include:
1. prelude
2. comparisons of categories, types, or instances of the topic
3. historical vignettes
4. experimental ideas
5. afterword
6. addenda
7. a recapitulation
8. illustration extensions

Features of this genre include:
*table of contents
*pictures and photographs
*use of a technical vocabulary
*use of generic nouns
*use of timeless present tense
*glossary of terms
*an index

Combined Textbooks
Incorporate narrative and informational formats within same book. Often found in interdisciplinary units.

Experts recommend:
1. reading the illustrations by doing a picture walk before reading to stimulate student questions and comments – provides an opportunity to use a Pre-Reading Plan (PReP) and address prereading misconceptions
2. reading the the informational layer by using the “zoom in, zoom out” strategy to identify salient concepts
3. reading the narrative layer by interactive read-alouds and creating story maps
4. reading the additional details layer, e.g., sketches and page borders – supported by semantic maps and shared writing exercises

KidBiz Achieve 3000
a web-based individualized reading and writing instructional program

originally designed to aid the deaf, this is a tool that benefits ELL and LD students

The art or study of correct spelling according to established usage.

In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)

Morphemic Analysis
The study of the meaningful parts of a word including its prefix, root, and suffix

Interpretation of printed language and symbols to form words

the study of word structure as formed from the smallest units of meaning

Expository Text
Factual text written to explain and give information about a topic.

Narrative Text
A story about fictional or real events.

Reciprocal Teaching
A cooperative learning model used to improve reading, in which students play the teacher’s role

“Thinking about thinking” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task

Question Answer Relationship (QAR) Strategy
Giving students questions and/or helping students to formulate questions, to answer when they are reading provides students with purposes for their reading.

Questions to Increase Reading Comprehension
1. “Right there” questions that can be answered by one specific portion of text, such as, “Who was Frog’s friend?”
2. “Think and search” questions that can usually be answered in multiple places in the text, such as, “Why was Frog sad?”
3. “Author and you” questions require students to comprehend text and then relate it to their prior knowledge, such as, “What do you think Frog felt, seeing Toad again?”
4. “On you own” questions require students’ previous experiences and knowledge more than text, such as, “How would you feel if your best friend moved away?”

Verbal Rehearsal
In motor learning, characteristic of early stages, where individuals recite key points verbally.

Keyword Method
Strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items.

Creating a visual mental picture of a concept

Multipass Learning Strategy
According to Schumaker, this strategy was designed to help high students with learning disabilities to improve reading comprehension and includes three main parts:
1. The Survey Pass which is reading the chapter title, comparing it to the previous chapter, and predicting what will happen
2. The Size-up or Textual Cues Pass which is reading and considering the table of contents, chapter introduction, summary, etc.
3. The Sort-out Pass which is when students determine how the chapter is organized by reading subtitles and other organizational elements, and then write an outline in their own words based on the main headings in the chapter.

A word that imitates the sound it represents.

A reference to another work of literature, person, or event

figure of speech comparing two different things

A comparison using like or as

A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes

A contrast between expectation and reality

two words are homophones if they are pronounced the same way but differ in meaning or spelling or both (e.g. bare and bear)

A word spelled exactly like another word, but having a different meaning

Language of Power
words across content areas in speech and writing

Combined Text Genre
combines fact and fiction
Example: Magic School Bus series

Incidental Exposure of Vocabulary
incorporating less familiar words in discussions and providing contextual clues to their meanings

Embedded Instruction
when target vocabulary words are not central to the story, teachers give information about the words’ meanings via short definitions or synonyms, interrupting the reading-aloud flow as little as possible

Forced Instruction
when vocabulary words are essential to comprehending the story, and/or when students have trouble comprehending their meaning, teachers use a wide range of teacher-student interactions, from 4-25 instances, and frequently occurs before or after reading

Four Types of Vocabulary
oral, print, receptive, and productive

Conditions Required for Students to Learn to Read
1. phonological awareness
2. phonemic awareness
3. alphabetic principle
4. orthographic awareness
5. comprehensive monitoring strategies

Metalinguistic Awareness
an understanding of one’s own use of language

Basic Elements of Effective Teaching
Teachers must:
1. model new skills
2. provide multiple examples of new tasks they teach
3. avoid repetition
4. engage students during instructional activities
5. encourage students for their efforts
6. provide immediate feedback
7. use robust curricula

Four Levels of Student Achievement in Phonics Instruction
1. Intensive – students needing the most help
2. Strategic – students needing extra support
3. Benchmark – students achieving at expected levels
4. Advanced – students surpassing expected achievement

Academic Language
Language, often required in school settings, that focuses on things that are not immediately present, for instance descriptions, definitions and narratives.

Academic Talk
This instructional frame creates the space for students to articulate their thinking and strengthen their voice. As students become accustomed to talking in class, the teacher serves as a facilitator to engage students in higher levels of discourse.

Grammatical Competence
The ability to use the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a language .

Sentence structure

Metacognitive Strategies
Any strategies that involve rising above the thought process to think about one’s own cognitive precesses

Talking to the Text
conducting an internal dialogue with the text and its author while reading

Word Families
groups of words all formed from the same root

Contextual Clues
Readers may comprehend more thoroughly if they know the position of words in a sentence, punctuation, and word relationships with sentences. They can make predictions.

Contextual Analysis
infer or predict meaning of words from context in which they appear

Comprehension strategies:

Three Levels of Reading Comprehension
1. Literal Comprehension
2. Inferential Comprehension
3. Evaluative Comprehension

Literal Comprehension
The lowest level of understanding. It involves reading the lines and understanding exactly what is on the page. Students can repeat or paraphrase what they have read.

Inferential Comprehension
using background knowledge and determining relationships between objects and events in a text to draw conclusions not explicitly stated in the text

Evaluative Comprehension
ablility to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate a text.

Scope Processing
defined along a continuum of local to global

Local Processing
comprehension at the phrase and sentence level

Global Processing
deeper comprehension abilities such as used while reading a murder mystery

Mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information.

Mental Constructs
What influences perceptions?

Appropriate expression when reading. Includes pitch/intonation, loudness, stressing phrases, etc.

tone of voice

/t/ Sound for Suffix “-ed”

Sentence Stem
A scaffolding technique in which the teacher provides the student with a open ended prompt to help students get started in speaking or writing without the added pressure of thinking about how to correctly formulate the response

Cut Score
the score a student needs to achieve in order to pass a standardized criterion-referenced test

Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings

Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure

Double-Entry Journal
It enables students to record their responses to text as they read. Students write down phrases or sentences from their assigned reading and then write their own reaction to that passage. The purpose of this strategy is to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts and become actively involved with the material they read.

Bound morphemes at the beginning or end of free morphemes. They carry meaning. Some change the part of speech, others do not. Examples: prefixes and suffixes

referring to the sound relationships between the orthography, AKA spelling and phonology AKA sounds of language

rapidly covering a large amount of text for the purpose of locating a specific fact

Looking over a document to get a general idea of its contents.

a procedure where a word or words has/have been removed and the student must fill them in based on context clues

Emergent Reader
Child on the path to fluent literacy, before conventional reading and writing skills emerge. Child can demonstrate alphabet knowledge; a concept of what a word is; a sense of story as in beginning, middle, and end; listening and retelling skills; phonemic awareness, and verbal expression.

Derivational Relation
The corpus of words derived from a common root word (friend, friendless, befriend) share this.

Derived words are created by attaching morphemes, both prefixes and suffixes to root words to yield polysyllabic words.

Language Experience Approach
focuses on language as a bridge between oral and written language — in other words, the child’s ability to produce language is the bridge between spoken and written language

Process of Language Acquisition Fact
young children infer the the underlying rules of language to which they are exposed and begin to acquire the ability to communicate through testing what they have learned – hypothesis testing

Auditory Discrimination
The ability to hear differences in sounds

Semantic Feature Analysis
A strategy that helps teachers focus students’ attention on vocabulary and increase their sensitivity to language, technique that can help children understand the uniqueness of a word as well as its relationship to other words.

teacher supplies stimulus topic, students provide related vocabulary and then are challenged to categorize and label groups of these words

Running Record
An assessment method that documents a child’s reading as he or she reads aloud and allows the teacher to evaluate the reading level as well as to not explicit types of miscues. Specific marks are made to indicate the types of errors. Training is required, but once trained, it is quick and easy to do.

A meaning-extending vocabulary strategy that stands for OPINION and also plays on the term cloze