Practice Test Questions

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What is a with-in subjects test design?
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When the dependent variables are measured repeatedly in the same subjects under different task conditions
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What piece of information is crucial to accurate speech diagnosis and decisions regarding management of a speech problem with a client who has has a CVA?
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Whether the dysfluencies began before or after the suspected CVA
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A weakness or damage in the brain stem would cause what?
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weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, and other described symptoms consistent with a lower motor neuron locus and suspected cranial nerve abnormalities (CN X and XII)
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What is special about CN X and XII?
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They emerge directly from the brain stem and help mediate the transfer of messages from the brain to the brain stem to the structures of the head and neck
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Which of the following constitutes the major component of an audiologic rehabilitation program for infants with a moderate sensorineural hearing loss?
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Parent- mediated Auditory stimulation: For an infant known to have a hearing loss, parents are in the best position to provide consistent auditory stimulation, which the infant needs in order to develop an awareness of sound.
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Hearing loss in infants who are born with a cleft palate is usually related to which of the following?
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Eustachian tube dysfunction, a major factor contributing to middle-ear disease and conductive hearing loss, is nearly universal in infants with cleft palate.
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Which of the following views make up a standard videofluoroscopic swallow study?
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Lateral and Anterior-Posterior
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Which of the following, if observed in the speech of an African American child, is most likely to represent a dialectical variation rather than an articulation error?
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/f/ for /θ/ in postvocalic position
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The major objective of auditory training in the treatment of a client with a hearing loss is to:
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Teach the client to make discriminations among speech sounds. Auditory training focuses on the interpretation of auditory input and would thus teach a client to discriminate speech sounds.
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A 70-year-old female has dysphagia characterized by poor posterior oral containment of the bolus during the oral preparatory stage, causing aspiration before the swallow. Cognition and the pharyngeal stage of the swallow are intact. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment approach for the client?
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Having the client flex her head forward (perform the chin-down posture) during oral preparation and transit stages of the swallow. This treatment alters oral configuration to place the base of the tongue superior to the bolus inside the oral cavity. Since liquid cannot flow uphill against gravity, this intervention compensates for impaired palatoglossus contraction, which is causing impaired posterior oral containment.
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Which of the following is most important for an SLP to do when assessing a child who has an acquired brain injury?
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Compare premorbid performance with present performance. An SLP needs to know what skills the child attained prior to the brain injury in order to select appropriate treatment goals.
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Which of the following is the most important acoustic cue that distinguishes between an unreleased final /p/ and an unreleased final /b/, as in “cap” versus “cab”?
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Duration of the preceding vowel. Research shows that vowel duration influences a listener’s perception of voicing. Vowels that precede unreleased voiced stop consonants are as much as 1.5 times as long as vowels that precede voiceless stops.
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A single exposure of several hours duration to continuous music with an overall level of 100 dB SPL will most likely produce:
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Tinnitus and a temporary threshold shift in high frequencies.
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According to research on the development of Brown’s morphemes in young children, which of the following is a determinant of acquisition order?
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Semantic and syntactic complexity. Brown’s morphemes are acquired by children in an order that is determined by semantic and syntactic complexity, with the simplest forms acquired first. The order of acquisition is typically followed by all children.
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After sustaining a CVA, Ms. Williams, age 75, was referred to an SLP for a speech and language evaluation. While Ms. Williams was describing the cookie-theft picture, the SLP observed that her grammatical structure appeared to be intact and her prosody was normal but that many of her sentences were meaningless, did not fit the context, and included nonsensical paraphasic errors. Additional testing also revealed that Ms. Williams exhibited poor repetition and naming skills, did not respond appropriately to many simple commands, and had difficulty reading. Ms. Williams appeared happy and talked excessively. She did not appear to be aware of her communication deficits. What is the most likely location of the lesion?
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Left posterior superior temporal gyrus.
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Before an SLP initiates voice intervention, it is most important that the SLP gather information about the:
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Cause of the client’s voice problem. It is essential to know the cause of a voice problem prior to commencing voice intervention, because some voice problems are symptoms of diseases/disorders (e.g., laryngeal cancer) that do not respond to the types of voice interventions that an SLP typically provides, and can only be treated through medical intervention.
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Which of the following best describes the rationale for using standardized, norm-referenced instruments to assess speech-language functioning?
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They enable the clinician to understand and make informed statements about how a client’s performance compares with the performance of other people.
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Immediately following removal of a benign tumor from the base of the brain, a 76-year-old client exhibits severe nasalization and a weak, breathy voice. A four-month postsurgical assessment reveals no improvement. At this time, the remediation strategy for this client should focus on:
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An evaluation for prosthetic or surgical intervention
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Which of the following procedures would be effective in remediating a falsetto voice for an adult male with a severe bilateral hearing loss?
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Manual depression of the larynx will serve to lengthen the vocal folds, allowing them to vibrate at a lower frequency.
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Which of the following should be the primary focus of early language intervention for at-risk infants?
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Training primary caregivers to facilitate language learning
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A prospective client is described as a man in his forties who is under chronic stress. He uses his voice extensively in daily life has a hard-driving personality, and exhibits glottal fry. The client has the classic profile of a person at high risk for:
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Contact Ulcers.
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Which of the following most accurately represents the etiology of cleft palate?
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The interaction of genetic factors and environmental influences represents the etiology of cleft palate.
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Which of the following best explains how it is possible for a child to exhibit an age‑appropriate phonetic inventory yet still be a candidate for speech intervention because of poor intelligibility?
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The child’s intelligibility could be related to an inadequate phonological system. The child may be able to produce sounds in certain positions in words yet demonstrate a phonological pattern that would lead to unintelligible speech (e.g., omitting word-final consonants).
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The utterances, “Book Read Me” and “Me TV See”, spoken by a 3-year-old monolingual English-speaking child, indicate that the child most likely has a problem with which of the following?
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Syntactic relationships
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Which of the following is a type of perturbation that can be measured to determine the amount of noise in the voice?
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F0 cycle-to-cycle variations in sound energy over time
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Naturalistic teaching chiefly involves which of the following?
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Establishing successful and useful communication
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A 67-year-old male patient with no history of swallowing problems has undergone a cardiothoracic surgical procedure. Postoperatively, he is found to be aspirating while swallowing and is diagnosed with a left vocal-fold paralysis and left pharyngeal paresis. Which of the following is the most likely etiology?
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Damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve courses under the aortic arch in its course back to innervate the left larynx and the inferior pharynx. The nerve can be damaged in cardiothoracic operations including aortic arch or valve repairs. Only the left (and not the right) recurrent laryngeal nerve has this course.
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Which of the following muscles produces the opposing action to those that produce velopharyngeal closure?
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Palatoglossus
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Speech behaviors typical of developmental apraxia of speech are:
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Articulation characterized by groping, inconsistency, and errors of sound and syllable sequencing
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A 9-month-old child was observed during a speech-language evaluation. To express herself, the child occasionally touched her mother, gained eye contact, and then gestured toward an object. If the child’s development is normal, within the next month or so the child will begin to:
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use consistent sound and intonation patterns as signals for specific intentions
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Compared with children who do not have language disorders, children with language disorders tend to:
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ask fewer open-ended questions
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Which of the following types of cerebral palsy is characterized by slow, arrhythmic writhing and involuntary movements of the extremities?
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Athetosis
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For a test of expressive morphology and syntax for speakers of African American Vernacular English (AAVE), the test item that would be considered LEAST biased against such speakers would be one requiring:
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agreement of personal pronouns with their antecedents in gender and number
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In the treatment of acute Wernicke’s aphasia, the initial focus should be on:
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encouraging self-monitoring of the adequacy of verbal output
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Research regarding the use of intensive phonemic-awareness treatment for children who have difficulty learning to read has demonstrated that the treatment:
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might have no direct relationship to improvement in reading abilities
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A child with discourse problems is most likely to need remediation directed at which of the following?
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Cohesive devices
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An SLP is planning treatment for a 5-year-old child with multiple speech-production errors. The most effective strategy the clinician can use to treat the child is to:
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delineate phonological processes in operation and address them through minimal-contrast pairs
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A correct-response rate of 51 percent on a two-choice picture-pointing task would most likely indicate which of the following?
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A random pointing response
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Which of the following areas needs to be evaluated first for a 5 year old who says [pun] for “spoon” and [top] for “soap”?
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Phonological system
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For which of the following conditions is it most appropriate for the SLP to recommend that the patient’s primary-care physician refer the patient to a prosthodontist for construction of a palatal-lift appliance?
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Flaccid paralysis of the soft palate
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Computer software that has been developed to facilitate speech and language treatment can best be used:
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by clients under the direction of SLPs
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Which of the following is a typical symptom of cerebellar involvement?
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Overshooting or undershooting an intended target
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Doing which of the following would likely yield the most useful information about the effectiveness of an intervention strategy?
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Utilizing a single-subject design (ABAB) or a reversal procedure (ABA)
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Individuals diagnosed as having hemifacial microsomia are also most likely to have:
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ear malformation
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The sensorimotor integration of the muscles of the lower face depends on which two of the cranial nerves?
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The trigeminal and facial
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Which of the following treatment goals related to pragmatics best addresses a young child’s use of language?
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In a play situation, the child will request a turn, either verbally or through gestures, 90 percent of the time.
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Which of the following communication disorders is most frequently associated with significant dysphagia?
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Flaccid dysarthria
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Language impairment in a child with Down syndrome is often determined by comparing performance on one or more standardized language tests with the child’s mental age, rather than with the child’s chronological age. Although mental age should not be used to specify the need for treatment, mental age can legitimately be used as a performance criterion because:
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using chronological age would overidentify language disorders
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Which of the following is the ratio of reinforcement that will most quickly cause a newly acquired behavior to be habituated?
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A random ratio of tokens to correct responses
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Mr. Charles, age 78, has had Alzheimer’s disease for the past nine years. A recent speech and language evaluation at his nursing home indicated severe deficits in verbal reasoning, memory, word finding, discourse, pragmatics, phonology, semantics, and syntax. Which of the following should the speech-language pathologist do next?
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Examine his living conditions and, if necessary, educate the nursing staff concerning ways to help him communicate more effectively
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A physician told the spouse of a client that melodic intonation therapy (MIT) would improve the client’s speech considerably. The most appropriate next action by the SLP would be to:
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consider the potential value of incorporating MIT into the client’s treatment
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If a child’s language exhibits the phonological process of gliding, the child might say [wɛd] for “red.” When asked, “Do you mean wed?” the child may respond, “No! [wɛd]!” Such a response demonstrates which of the following?
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Linguistic performance lags behind linguistic competence.
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Linguistic approaches to the treatment of sound-production errors in children are based on the notion that the errors are systematic and rule-based and that the goal of treatment is to modify a child’s rule system to approximate the rule system used by adults. Which of the following is a treatment objective that reflects a linguistic approach to treatment?
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The child will contrast alveolar stops with velar stops in meaningful word pairs.
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A 3-year-old child presents for an evaluation of communication skills. When the SLP says “Sit in your seat,” the child responds by saying [tɪ ɪ ti]. When the SLP asks the child to “put the big block in the box,” the child responds by saying [bɪ bɑ ɪ bɑ]. Based on the responses, the child’s primary problem with communication is most likely which of the following?
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A receptive and/or expressive language impairment
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Laborious, halting, telegraphic utterances are typical of clients with which of the following types of aphasia?
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Transcortical motor
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A third-party reimburser asks the speech-language pathologist to demonstrate in a diagnostic statement that a child’s communication problems have a physiological cause. Which of the following observations, if included in the statement, would best satisfy the request?
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The child demonstrates a motor-speech disorder and is unable to perform voluntarily the oral movements required for speech production.
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A videofluoroscopic study of a client with dysphagia revealed post-swallow vallecular residue occupying more than 50 percent vallecular height. Which of the following is the most likely overt symptom that the client will experience?
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Coughing after swallowing
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Establishment of which of the following is most important in ensuring that the results of any diagnostic test of speech or language are replicable?
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Interjudge reliability
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Following anoxic encephalopathy, clients are likely to experience the most significant long-term impairments in the area of:
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memory
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A child repeatedly inserts an inappropriate sound in certain environments; for example, [fpɪʃ] for [fɪʃ] . Which of the following would likely be most helpful for the child as a target for treatment?
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Words that contrast the child’s error pattern with the target pattern in the word
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Treatment for apraxia of speech most appropriately emphasizes:
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auditory-visual stimulation, oral-motor repetition, and phonetic placement
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The most serious limitation of employing imitation as an intervention strategy for children with a language impairment is that imitation:
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lacks communicative intention
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Which of the following errors is likely to persist the longest in the speech of children who are learning Standard American English (SAE) as a first language and are following the normal developmental course for speech and language acquisition?
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Consonant cluster reduction
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Control over the fundamental frequency of the laryngeal tone is most closely related to the activity of which of the following muscles?
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Cricothyroid
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Which of the following provides the most important diagnostic information to an SLP making a differential diagnosis between childhood apraxia of speech and flaccid dysarthria in a child?
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A history of the child’s development of chewing, eating, and swallowing
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In the treatment of voice disorders, the chewing technique is used to do which of the following?
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Reduce tension in the laryngeal area
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Which of the following would be most likely to help a client who has aphonia?
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Development of phonation through coughing or throat clearing
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about whispered speech?
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It is composed largely of aperiodic sounds.

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