Practice socy final

Statuses that are ascribed to us may have an effect on statuses we are able to achieve.
true

According to Durkheim, suicides that occur when people’s lives are suddenly disrupted by major social events, such as wars and famine, are called:
anomic suicides

Continuous, large-scale, organized collective action motivated by the desire to enact, stop, or reverse change in some area of society is a…
social movement

The process by which we creatively shape our experience through interaction with others is referred to as:
Social construction of reality

Which theory argues that deviance occurs when people have inadequate opportunities to legitimately achieve success?
Strain theory

John is the leader of a street gang, and the gang’s other members obey his orders even when they would prefer not to. This is an example of which of the following?
power

Professor Cooley had not assigned seats in her introduction to sociology class, but after two weeks most people the class returned to the same seat each the class met. The emergent seating pattern in the class can be seen as being governed by which of the following?
formal norms

Racial inequality persists today because of:
1) a historical legacy of discrimination and prejudice
2) a subcultural negativity that discourages self-confidence and achievement
3) current instances of mostly subtle and covert racism

Why do females earn less than males?
1) discrimination prevents greater achievement by creating a “glass ceiling”
2) family responsibilities are seen largely as the women’s role
3) women are more likely to be found in lower-paying jobs

Which of the following concepts best describes the process whereby a particular racial, ethnic, or immigrant group is Americanized?
assimiltion

Racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination have decreased due to:
1) individuals taking action to change society
2) social values, norms, and laws changing to create a different climate
3) generational transition
4) demographic shifts over the decades

If we state that the United States resembles a “salad bowl” more than a “melting pot,” we are acknowledging what condition of our nation?
multiculturalism as a prominent feature of American life

Which type of poverty is based on comparisons of one’s position to a given society’s living standards?
relative poverty

In the United States, the increasing proportion of people who identify themselves as Catholics can be attributed largely to:
the growing Hispanic population

Gender refers to
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male.

There is a higher proportion of blacks than whites under the supervision of the US criminal justice system. This is because….
blacks are more likely to be arrested for and convicted of crimes than are whites

When married women work outside of the home, sociological research shows that:
Men still spend significantly less time on household chores than women

Which theoretical framework would emphasize that in family life women do a greater share of the housework, are subject to domestic violence, and are expected to make more personal sacrifices on behalf of the family?
conflict

A reason to study sexuality using the sociological perspective is
1) sexuality is both important and controversial.
2) many people do not understand sexuality very well.
3) sexuality plays a part in many areas of social life.

Which concept refers to genitals that distinguish females and males?
primary sex characteristics

Which concept refers to humans who have some combination of female and male sexual characteristics?
intersexual

Comparative research indicates that
although sex has a biological foundation, sexual practices vary from place to place as an element of the culture.

Sociologists offer several explanations why the incest taboo is found everywhere. Look at the statements below and identify the statement that is NOT a claim made by sociologists
The incest taboo helps clarify the kinship system.

Survey research on attitudes toward premarital sex tells us that
the public is more accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago.

Thinking about the Laumann study of sexual patterns among U.S. adults, which of the following statements is correct?
The frequency of sexual activity varies widely in the U.S. population.

Sarah feels little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex. Her sexual orientation is called
asexuality.

The concept “homophobia” refers to
fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

People who oppose pornography argue that
1) it may contribute to a breakdown in morals.
2) it may contribute to violence against women.
3) it unfairly depicts women as the playthings of men.

From a global perspective, prostitution is MOST common in
poor nations, where women have fewer economic opportunities

Prostitution is regarded by many people in the United States as a
victimless crime.

Which one of the following statements about rape is NOT true?
In most cases of rape, the victim does not know the attacker.

Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?
the structural-functional approach

Assume that you are investigating the consequences of the incest taboo for kinship organization in a number of societies. Which theoretical approach are you using?
the social-conflict approach

Based on what you know about the history of human sexuality, once a society gains birth control technology
social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive

Which theoretical approach points to the ways in which sexuality is linked to social inequality?
the social-conflict approach

Read the four statements below. Which statement is NOT consistent with the social-conflict approach?
The process of reality construction is highly variable, so that one group’s views of sexuality may well differ from another’s.

Which of the following concepts refers to stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as “queer”?
heterosexism

Criticism of the social-conflict approach’s view of sexuality would include the fact that
1) sexuality is not a power issue for everyone.
2) U.S. society has taken many steps to reduce gender inequality.
3) gay people have made significant strides toward greater opportunity and social acceptance.

The text suggests that the MOST widely divisive issue regarding sexuality in the United States in recent years has been
abortion.

The family is a social institution that is found in
every society

The U.S. Census Bureau defines the “family” as
people living together who are linked by birth, marriage, or adoption

A family that includes parents, children and other kin is called
an extended family

The incest taboo
is found in all societies

According to the structural-functional approach, the family
is important enough to be called the backbone of society

Social conflict and feminist theories explain that families perpetuate social inequality in the U.S. society through
1) inheritance of private property.
2) encouraging patriarchy.
3) passing on racial and ethnic inequality

A social-exchange analysis of family life is likely to consider
how individuals select partners who offer about as much as they do to the relationship

The concept “homogamy” means that
people marry others who are socially like themselves

What is the effect of industrialization on the number of children in a typical family?
Families have fewer children

In the United States, a recent trend involving parenting is that
more adults are delaying having children or choosing to remain childless

Describing the lives of working-class women, Lillian Rubin reported that the typical woman said she wanted a husband who
had a steady job and was not violent

Compared to what it was a century ago, the U.S. divorce rate is now
about three times higher

Religion is a social institution that is BEST defined as involving
beliefs and practices concerning what is sacred

Guided by the symbolic-interaction approach, sociologists examine
1) how various rituals sharpen the boundary between the sacred and profane.
2) how religion gives our existence a measure of security and meaning.
3) the use of ritual and religious meaning to strengthen social ties such as marriage

Which of the following concepts refers to the fusion of Christian principles with
liberation theology

A charismatic leader is most likely to be found in which of the following?
church

Secularization refers to which of the following?
the historical decline in the importance of the sacred

Which of the following is a correct example of civil religion?
singing patriotic song on the Fourth of July

The claim that the United States is a postdenominational society is based on a movement
supporting spiritualism, but away from formal denominations

Education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including
1) job skills.
2) basic facts and information.
3) cultural norms and values

In the United States today, what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a four-year college degree?
30 percent

Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
providing child care

Comparing school performance, researchers have found that the main cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is
differences in schools

Which of the following correctly states the effect of additional schooling on average lifetime income?
Earning a high school diploma and earning a college degree both raise lifetime income levels

Assume that you support the school choice movement. What are you likely to say is the reason that U.S. public schools perform poorly
Schools have no competition

Magnet schools encourage
students to specialize in specific areas of study

In 2009, men accounted for what share of all U.S. undergraduate college students
43 percent

In the film, “Declining by Degrees,” the narrator suggests which of the following?
We have rampant grade inflation and we don’t know what students are learning

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