Practice Questions (270)

According to APA guidelines, the Participants section is a subsection of the ____________ section.
A. Results
B. Reference
C. Method
D. Introduction
C. Method

A theory is
A. an explanation of a phenonema.
B. cannot be tested with the scientific method.
C. the same as a prediction.
D. all of the above.
A. an explanation of phenonema

Looking up records of behaviors that have already occurred uses the __________ observation technique.
A. survey
B. archival
C. systematic
D. naturalistic
B. archival

One reason that Freud’s theories of personality have not been more influential in the field of psychology is that

A. the theories are too unusual.
B. the theories do not specify causes for behavior.
C. the theories are not the simplest explanations for behavior.
D. the theories are difficult to falsify.

D. the theories are difficult to falsify.

______ research investigates fundamental aspects of behavior, whereas _______ research investigates solutions for real-world problems.
A. Applied; basic
B. External; internal
C. Internal; external
D. Basic; applied
D. Basic; applied

Suppose a psychologist developed a test to measure intelligence, but this test was poorly developed and really only measured how well people perform on standardized tests (in other words, it doesn’t actually measure intelligence). This test would lack
A. parsimony.
B. construct validity.
C. inter-rater reliability.
D. test-retest validity.
B. construct validity.

When different observers of behavior record the behavior in a similar way, the measure is said to have good
A. inter-rater reliability.
B. parsimony.
C. construct validity.
D. test-retest validity.
A. inter-rater reliability

Measuring intelligence using the score on an IQ test is an example of
A. reliability.
B. an independent variable.
C. maturation.
D. an operational definition.
D. an operational definition.

People in a grocery store are asked to sample three types of energy drinks and then indicate which one they liked best and which they liked least (i.e., they rank ordered the drinks). The dependent variable in this study is measured on a __________ scale.
A. nominal
B. ordinal
C. interval
D. ratio
B. ordinal

A quasi-independent variable is the same as
A. a dependent variable.
B. an independent variable.
C. a confounding variable.
D. a subject variable.
D. a subject variable

Which of the following sampling techniques is likely to create the largest amount of sampling error?
A. stratified random sample
B. simple random sample
C. volunteer sample
D. none of the above (all are equivalent in terms of sampling error)
C. volunteer sample

All studies, regardless of sampling technique are subject to sampling error.

True
False

TRUE

The _________ is a sampling technique which involves choosing individuals from the population at random where each individual has an equal chance of being selected.
simple random

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that exercise affects memory in the elderly. Subjects aged 60 and older were recruited for the study. All of the subjects were presented with the same study list. Then half of the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill for 20 min, while the other half of the subjects were asked to complete Sudoku puzzles for 20 min. Then all subjects were given a recognition test for the items in the study list. The treadmill exercise group scored significantly lower on the recognition test than the Sudoku puzzle group.

What scale of measurement is the independent variable?
A. ordinal
B. nominal
C. ratio
D. interval

B. nominal

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that exercise affects memory in the elderly. Subjects aged 60 and older were recruited for the study. All of the subjects were presented with the same study list. Then half of the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill for 20 min, while the other half of the subjects were asked to complete Sudoku puzzles for 20 min. Then all subjects were given a recognition test for the items in the study list. The treadmill exercise group scored significantly lower on the recognition test than the Sudoku puzzle group.

The independent variable in this study is _________, and the dependent variable is __________.
A. 20 min; the study list
B. activity group; memory
C. memory; activity group
D. the study list; 20 min

B. activity group; memory

In Milgram’s (1963) study of obedience, results showed that
A. none of the participants were willing to shock the confederate.
B. most participants quit the study before it concluded.
C. most of the participants were willing to “shock” the confederate at the highest level.
D. all of the participants were willing to “shock” the confederate at the highest level.
C. most of the participants were willing to “shock” the confederate at the highest level.

Researchers must fully inform participants about all aspects of a study before consent is given for participation.

True
False

false

Which of the following is an ethical guideline that must be followed when research with human participants is conducted?
A. All data must be collected anonymously (no identifying information is gathered).
B. The study must be designed to minimize harm to the participant.
C. The benefit of the research must outweigh the risks.
D. (b) and (c) only
E. all of the above
D. (b) and (c) only

Which of the following would be a violation of ethical guidelines for conducting research with animal subjects?
A. use of monkeys
B. use of untrained personnel
C. release of the animals into the wild at the completion of the study
D. both (b) and (c)
E. all of the above
D. both (b) and (c)

Adherence to ethical guidelines in psychological studies with humans is currently monitored by
A. a review board at each institution where research is conducted (IRB).
B. a committee that is part of the federal government.
C. a group of judges.
D. just the researchers themselves.
A. a review board at each institution where research is conducted (IRB).

All experiments contain at least one independent variable.

True
False

true

Simple effects tests are used to describe
A. main effects.
B. non-significant results.
C. interaction effects.
C. interaction effects

When the effect of one independent variable depends on the levels of another independent variable, this is called a(n)
A. ANOVA.
B. interaction effect.
C. main effect.
D. dependent variable.
B. interaction effect.

In a factorial design, there is/are at least ______ independent variable(s).
A. two
B. four
C. one
D. three
A. two

__________ of participants to levels will allow random distribution of participant differences.
random assignment

Correlational studies are not well-suited for answering _________ research questions.
A. predictive
B. descriptive
C. causal
C. causal

The difference between an interrupted time series design and an equivalent time series design is that the interrupted time series design includes a _______________ event, while a non-interrupted time series design includes a ________________ treatment.
A. non-psychological/psychological
B. “naturally”-occurring/researcher-implemented
C. psychological/non-psychological
D. researcher-implemented/”naturally”-occurring
B. “naturally”-occurring/researcher-implemented

Time-series designs are pretest-posttest designs that
A. include groups that do not take the pretest.
B. include a randomly assigned control group.
C. include groups that do not take the posttest.
D. compare a pattern of scores over time before and after the treatment.
D. compare a pattern of scores over time before and after the treatment.

Which of the following might be a reason a researcher would use a quasi-experiment?
A. Quasi-experiments are more internally valid than experiments.
B. Some independent variables cannot be manipulated due to ethical concerns.
C. Age is their variable of interest.
D. Both (a) and (b).
E. Both (b) and (c).
E. Both (b) and (c).

B. Some independent variables cannot be manipulated due to ethical concerns.
C. Age is their variable of interest.

Longitudinal designs allow researchers to examine age effects quickly by testing subjects at different ages all at once.

True
False

false

A ________ design is a developmental design that combines elements of the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs by treating age as both a between-subjects and within-subjects factor.
cohort-sequential

A developmental psychologist compares standardized math test scores for 2nd, 5th, and 10th graders. The subjects are all tested at the same time; thus, different groups of subjects are tested, each group at a different age. This study utilizes a(n) ___________ design.
A. cross-sectional
B. cohort-sequential
C. longitudinal
D. experimental
A. cross-sectional

Which of the following is a source of bias in survey data?
A. nonresponse error
B. coverage error
C. social desirability bias
D. testing effects
E. all of the above
E. all of the above

Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of the __________ of scores for a survey.
internal consistency|reliability

The empiricism canon of the scientific method states that new knowledge is gained from
A. intuition.
B. authority figures.
C. logic.
D. observations.
D. observations.

The difference between nominal and ordinal measurement scales is that
A. nominal scales have numerical response categories and ordinal scales do not.
B. responses on ordinal scales can be rank ordered and responses on nominal scales cannot be rank ordered.
C. nominal scales include zero as the lowest possible score and ordinal scales do not.
D. both (a) and (b).
B. responses on ordinal scales can be rank ordered and responses on nominal scales cannot be rank ordered.

For the table of condition means below, which effects appear to be present?

IV A Level 1 IV A Level 2
IV B Level 1 50 50
IV B Level 2 75 75
A. main effect of IV A only.
B. main effect of IV B only.
C. interaction effect only.
D. all of the above effects appear to be present.

B. main effect of IV B only.

The difference between an interrupted time series design and an equivalent time series design is that the interrupted time series design includes a _______________ event, while a non-interrupted time series design includes a ________________ treatment.
A. “naturally”-occurring/researcher-implemented
B. non-psychological/psychological
C. psychological/non-psychological
D. researcher-implemented/”naturally”-occurring
A. “naturally”-occurring/researcher-implemented

Correlational studies can answer _______ or ______ research questions.
descriptive|predictive

A study found a large negative correlation between fidgeting and obesity. The correlation of fidgeting and obesity, partialing out amount of exercise, was almost zero. Which of the following statements is appropriate?
A. Exercise mediates the relationship between fidgeting and obesity
B. Fidgeting and obesity mediate the effects of exercise
C. People who don’t exercise should try fidgeting to lose weight
A. Exercise mediates the relationship between fidgeting and obesity

The research approach that involves changing the level, intensity, frequency, or duration of an independent variable uses the _____ method.
A. case study
B. correlational
C. experimental
D. observational
C. experimental

A group of psychologists studying humor reaction studied participants’ enjoyment of jokes by recording how many times the participants grinned, smiled, and laughed. These measurements of grinning, smiling and laughing to represent enjoyment involve
A. correlational research.
B. manipulated variables.
C. main effects of humor enjoyment.
D. an operational definition of laughter.
D. an operational definition of laughter.

Budson et al. (2001) compared healthy adults and Alzheimer’s patients regarding their memory. The people in the study were tested on their memory for nonsense shapes of three types: shapes they had seen, shapes they had not seen, and shapes that were similar to ones they had seen. This design involved
A. multiple t-tests.
B. a single-factor design.
C. five conditions.
D. repeated measures.
D. repeated measures.

Goldenberg et al. (1999) discovered that highly neurotic people tend to associate sex with death. When they compared high and low neurotic people, they were using
A. a time series design.
B. a quasi-experimental variable.
C. a within-subjects design.
D. a cross-sectional design.
B. a quasi-experimental variable.

Construct validity refers to how well
A. your measurements correlate with one another.
B. your operational definitions relate to the underlying concepts you are trying to measure.
C. your statistical tests help you answer your research questionss.
D. your manipulation results in a change in the outcome.
B. your operational definitions relate to the underlying concepts you are trying to measure.

In an independent groups design, the F-ratio provides a test of the differences due to the treatment by comparing ____ and _____.
A. between-group variance … total variance
B. between subject variance … error effects
C. between group variance … within group variance
D. between subject variance … within subject variance
C. between group variance … within group variance

If you conducted research that relied on students from introductory psychology classes who volunteered to particpate, you would be using a
A. quota sample.
B. convenience sample
C. stratified sample.
D. systematic sample.
B. convenience sample

Because psychology involves trying to undertand complex and abstract concepts resarchers need to develop ___ in order to make useful measurements of those concepts.
A. literature searches
B. independent variables
C. hypothetical constructs
D. operational definitions
D. operational definitions

The enforceable rules of conduct associated with the ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association are
A. aspirational goals.
B. principles of responsiblity
C. ethical standards.
D. ethico-legal principles.
C. ethical standards.

In an independent groups design, the F-ratio provides a test of the differences due to the treatment by comparing ____ and _____.
A. between group variance … within group variance
B. between subject variance … error effects
C. between-group variance … total variance
D. between subject variance … within subject variance
A. between group variance … within group variance

Suppose you have conducted an analysis of variance in a design with multiple gruops and obtaiend evidence of a significant difference among means. If you decided to investigate which means differed significantly, you would use what test(s)?
A. post-hoc tests.
B. regression.
C. correlation.
D. multiple t-tests.
A. post-hoc tests.

If a person drew a conclusion about some topic based on opinion and prior beliefs, a researcher would claim that such a conclusion was not scientific because it was not
A. objective.
B. intuitive.
C. data driven.
D. predicted.
C. data driven.

A clinician might want to know whether a psychological inventory would predict future levels of depression in clients. Those future levels of depression would consititute a
A. manipulated variable.
B. criterion variable.
C. confirmatory varible.
D. predictor variable.
B. criterion variable.

Fiona studied recreational runners, and found a correlation of 0.5 between number of injuries and time spent stretching. Which of the following conclusions is appropriate?
A. Stretching prevents injuries
B. Stretching makes injuries worse
C. Having an injury makes people want to stretch more
D. Stretching can predict one quarter of the variance in running injuries
D. Stretching can predict one quarter of the variance in running injuries

When considering the ethics of survey research, an investigator should
A. ensure that all responses are anonymous and confidential.
B. let respondents know from the very beginning that once they begin their participation, they need to continue with the project.
C. remember that if the researcher makes a big point of assuring confidentiality and anonymity, it may needlessly arouse suspicious among resondents.
D. avoid asking questions of a sensitive nature.
C. remember that if the researcher makes a big point of assuring confidentiality and anonymity, it may needlessly arouse suspicious among resondents.

You could create a stratified random sample by
A. dividing the population into subgroups and randomly selecting from each subgroup.
B. randomly selecting participants from the names of everybody in your population.
C. creating clusters of people in the population and selecting everybody from randomly chosen clusters.
D. using chain-referral sampling.
A. dividing the population into subgroups and randomly selecting from each subgroup.

If you conducted research that relied on students from introductory psychology classes who volunteered to particpate, you would be using a
A. stratified sample.
B. convenience sample
C. quota sample.
D. systematic sample.
B. convenience sample

A researcher who wants to know if elderly people are more health conscious than younger people could study a group of elderly people and a group of young people to assess any differences. Such an approach would involve a
A. cross-sectional design.
B. cohort-sequential design.
C. multiple baseline design.
D. longitudinal design.
A. cross-sectional design.

On the U.S. census form, people identify their racial/ethnic status by selecting from among options provided on the form. This type of question is
A. a closed-ended question.
B. an open-ended question.
C. a ratio question.
D. a Likert question.
A. a closed-ended question.

If psychologists want to study the interactions among children on the playground, the are likely to choose
A. quasi-experiments.
B. experiments.
C. observational research.
D. correlational research.
C. observational research.

Because psychology involves trying to undertand complex and abstract concepts resarchers need to develop ___ in order to make useful measurements of those concepts.
A. hypothetical constructs
B. independent variables
C. literature searches
D. operational definitions
D. operational definitions

In study on the effects of running on stress levels, one group of participants is tested after running on a treadmill for 30 minutes. A week later, the same group of participants is tested after resting on a bed for 30 minutes. This is an example of a ___ design.
A. between-subjects
B. single-subjects
C. within-subjects
D. matched groups
C. within-subjects

In a within-subjects design, individual differences are a problem because
A. They can become confounding variables and they can increase the variability.
B. Individual differences are not a problem in a within-subjects design.
C. They can become confounding variables.
D. They can increase the variability.
B. Individual differences are not a problem in a within-subjects design.

If we want to conclude that a given variable has a causal relation with a second variable, we have to be able to rule out other possible causal variables. The specific principle of causation involved here is that we need to estabish___.
A. covariation
B. internal validity
C. temporal precedence
D. random assignment to groups
B. internal validity

internal validity is about the causal link. while all 3: temporal precedence, internal validity and covariation are all necessary for causation, this specific concern is internal validity.

In a double blind study, an experimenter cannot influence participants’ behaviors differently across groups. As such, we should expect that there will be little
A. placebo effect.
B. experimenter bias.
C. Hawthorne effect.
D. external invalidity.
B. experimenter bias

Orangejello would like to find out if one kind of music (rock, country, rap, etc) has more or less effect on exam performance if played while a student takes the exam. Different groups will hear different types of music. What would be the best matching variable to use if to increase the sensitivity of the experiment?
A. Students’ auditory sensitivity
B. Students’ GPA
C. Students’ music preferences
B. Students’ GPA

The disadvantage to counterbalancing in a within-subjects design is _____
A. order effects are not properly controlled
B. it’s hard to find a matching variable
C. less power than with simple random order
D. too many groups may be needed
D. too many groups may be needed

For which of the following designs should you be most concerned with order effects?
A. Matched subjects
B. Repeated measures
C. Independent groups
D. Ex post facto design
B. Repeated measures

Another name for a repeated measures design is a
A. between-groups design.
B. cross-sectional design.
C. within-subjects design.
D. nonequivalent groups design.
C. within-subjects design.

In studies with a group of individuals being tested in a series of treatment conditions, factors such as history, instrumentation, and maturation primarily threaten
A. internal validity.
B. external validity.
C. statistical validity.
A. internal validity.

Construct validity refers to how well
A. your operational definitions relate to the underlying concepts you are trying to measure.
B. your measurements correlate with one another.
C. your statistical tests help you answer your research questionss.
D. your manipulation results in a change in the outcome.
A. your operational definitions relate to the underlying concepts you are trying to measure.

The tendency for individuals who have extreme scores (high or low) on one measurement and to have less extreme scores on a second measurement is called
A. instrumentation
B. history
C. regression to the mean
D. maturation
C. regression to the mean

Ten patients are treated for anxiety using psycho-dynamic therapy (group 1). Another ten are treated using behavior therapy (group 2). A year later, five from group one are available for further testing, and all report feeling better. Eight from group two are available, and only six report feeling better. What’s the biggest problem here?
A. Diffusion of treatment
B. Different attrition rates
C. Possible regression effects
B. Different attrition rates

Why are testing effects, history effects, and instrumentation effects usually not a concern when you use a randomized pretest-posttest design ?
A. You don’t test subjects more than once
B. They can be eliminated statistically
C. There’s no opportunity for them to occur
D. The effects should be the same for all groups
D. The effects should be the same for all groups

Construct validity refers to how well
A. your statistical tests help you answer your research questionss.
B. your operational definitions relate to the underlying concepts you are trying to measure.
C. your measurements correlate with one another.
D. your manipulation results in a change in the outcome.
B. your operational definitions relate to the underlying concepts you are trying to measure.

Budson et al. (2001) compared healthy adults and Alzheimer’s patients regarding their memory. The people in the study were tested on their memory for nonsense shapes of three types: shapes they had seen, shapes they had not seen, and shapes that were similar to ones they had seen. This study involved ____ conditions.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 4
D. 5
E. 3
F. 6
F. 6

Which of the following is NOT an appropriate way to handle order effects?
A. random order
B. Latin square design
C. counterbalancing
D. switching to a between subjects design
E. increasing sample size
E. increasing sample size

Budson et al. (2001) compared healthy adults and Alzheimer’s patients regarding their memory. The people in the study were tested on their memory for nonsense shapes of three types: shapes they had seen, shapes they had not seen, and shapes that were similar to ones they had seen. How many factors were considered in this experiment?
A. 1
B. 6
C. 5
D. 3
E. 2
F. 4
E. 2

Budson et al. (2001) compared healthy adults and Alzheimer’s patients regarding their memory. The people in the study were tested on their memory for nonsense shapes of three types: shapes they had seen, shapes they had not seen, and shapes that were similar to ones they had seen. Suppose you wanted to have 10 participants in each condition. How many participants would you need total?
A. 10
B. 20
C. 30
D. 40
E. 50
F. 60
B. 20

A research study comparing problem solving scores obtained under three different levels of temperature could be called a ___.
A. single-factor design
B. two-factor design
C. three-factor design
D. factorial design
A. single-factor design

An independent variable
A. is never a manipulated variable.
B. can have any number of levels.
C. has at most two levels.
D. is a subject variable.
B. can have any number of levels.

When a researcher manipulates the environment to see if changes affect participants’ behaviors, the behaviors that are measured for change are considered
A. extraneous variables.
B. dependent variables.
C. manipulated variables.
D. factorial variables.
B. dependent variables.

The results section of an APA style report will contain
A. information about the statistical tests used to analyze the data.
B. a statement about the research hypotheses.
C. the number and types of participants.
D. an integration of the data with theory.
A. information about the statistical tests used to analyze the data.

A variable that cannot be truly manipulated by a researcher, like sex or age of the participant is called ______.
A. an extraneous variable
B. a dependent variable
C. a quasi-independent variable
D. a confounding variable
C. a quasi-independent variable

When psychologists such as yourself develop experiments, they will decide what they want to manipulate as part of their experimental procedure. This variable is referred to as the __ variable.
A. confounding
B. dependent
C. independent
D. extraneous
C. independent

Goldenberg et al. (1999) discovered that highly neurotic people tend to associate sex with death. When they compared high and low neurotic people, they were using
A. a time series design.
B. a quasi-experimental variable.
C. a within-subjects design.
D. a cross-sectional design.
B. a quasi-experimental variable.

If your research design involved collecting data on several different occasions before you applied your experimental treatment, followed by a series of additional measureents, you would be using
A. a correlational design.
B. a one-group pretest-posttest design.
C. a nonequivalent group control design.
D. a noninterrupted time series design
D. a noninterrupted time series design

Bell et al. (2000) found that people who are more phsycically fit suffer athletic injuries less often than people who are less fit. This threat to internal validity that keeps us from concluding that fitness is a causal variable is
A. selection.
B. history.
C. regression to the mean.
D. maturation.
A. selection.

1. Hypothesis: Students do better in class if they study with other people than if they study alone.
a. Identify the likely dependent variable, and a way of operationalizing that dependent variable. Be specific.
1. a. Dv: final grades, exam grade

1. Hypothesis: Students do better in class if they study with other people than if they study alone
b. Identify the independent variable and the most likely levels of that independent variable
b. IV: students are assigned to conditions: work in groups or work alone (2 levels), may have more if they are considering group size as a factor, but really the question has to do with groups or not

1. Hypothesis: Students do better in class if they study with other people than if they study alone
c. What kinds of variables are these (discrete vs. continuous, and scales of measurement)
c. IV: discrete, nominal; DV: continuous, depends (letter grade could be ordinal, number correct, ratio)

1. Hypothesis: Students do better in class if they study with other people than if they study alone
d. What kind of research methodology is this?
d. Experiment (may be quasi-experiment if you didn’t randomly assign people to conditions rather they just formed groups or not)

2. Identify the incorrect words in this statement and explain why it is incorrect:
A psychologist was interested in studying the effects of the dependent variable of caffeine on hours of sleep, and he used an interval scale to measure sleep.
DV should be IV, hours of sleep should be ratio

3. Topic: SAT scores and the different majors at the university. What is a possible hypothesis? What are possible archival databases that could be used?
Could hypothesize that more majors that are science-oriented draw students with higher gpa’s for example. You might be able to use data from the admissions office to look at students GPA and declared major. Perhaps student advising has this kind of data. Any reasonable answer that indicates that you are using some other source for data and not asking students to provide that data (as in a survey).

4. What kind of sampling strategy is used on ratemyprofessors.com? What are the implications of this sampling strategy? How can this sampling method be improved upon?
convenience sampling (non-probability sampling); implications are that there may be a response bias, basically not representative of students overall; to be improved there could be some form of probability sampling implemented (e.g. simple random sampling – obtaining roster of students for each class, and emailing sample of students to participate in the study, offering incentive)

5. Recall that I mentioned that we are not perfect observers and that there are some errors that we are prone to make (law of small numbers, illusory correlations, etc.) Describe how some of these errors might have contributed to this (incorrect, or at least debatable) conclusion: Flying in an airplane is more dangerous than driving in a car.
you should understand the concepts law of large numbers and illusory correlations, confirmation bias – we might hear more about plane crashes in the media than car crashes and draw the conclusion that it is more dangerous, when the opposite is true

6. Can you identify problems with the following items and correct them?
a. Do you believe that all students must complete two semesters of English composition, regardless of their writing skills?
b. How often do you get drunk?
a. leading question (must); b. vague

7. Design a study to examine bullying behavior. What kind of study is this? What kind of data would you collect? How could you reduce errors in your data collection?
could use a naturalistic observation study in playgrounds.

8. Suppose you conducted a study and you found a correlation of r = .10. This correlation is far lower than what you expected to find. Describe what could have caused this small correlation.
Low correlation could be any number of problems pointed out in text (things that affect a correlation); multiple populations, range restriction, non-linear relationship BUT NOT outliers, as that usually increases a correlation coefficient

9. Eric counted children’s use of pronouns in a classroom. He found that tenth graders use the word “We” a lot, fifth graders use it rarely. He concluded that between fifth and tenth grade children acquire an understanding of social groups. What kind of study is this? What conclusions can be drawn based on this design?
quasi-experimental; classification variable is grade – not causal

10. Why does correlation not equal causation? Come up with an example of 2 (or more) variables that are correlated and a correct interpretation of that relationship. Now try to state the relationship incorrectly by implying causality but do not use the word ’cause.’
third variable problem, directionality problem. Any reasonable example is good (we talked about several in class). We also went through an example of incorrectly stating the hypotheses in class. Anything implying causality – “leads to” “we should provide” “violence should be limited”

1. Charlie is studying social adjustment in young children. Which is the least like an operational definition of social adjustment?
(a) A child’s understanding of other children’s feelings
(b) Teachers’ ratings of a child’s social adjustment
(c) A child’s score on a test of social adjustment
1. A (operational def’s must be specific)

2. Fiona studied recreational runners, and found a correlation of 0.5 between number of injuries and time spent stretching. Which of the following conclusions is appropriate?
(a) Stretching prevents injuries
(b) Stretching makes injuries worse
(c) Having an injury makes people want to stretch more
(d) Stretching can predict one quarter of the variance in running injuries
2. D (other statements imply causality or are incorrect)

3. A study found a large negative correlation between fidgeting and obesity. The correlation of fidgeting and obesity, partialing out amount of exercise, was almost zero. Which of the following statements is appropriate?
(a) Exercise mediates the relationship between fidgeting and obesity
(b) Fidgeting and obesity mediate the effects of exercise
(c) People who don’t exercise should try fidgeting to lose weight
3. A (correct interpretation of mediation for these variables)

4. Dr. McKenzie surveyed alcohol use on campus and found that students with lower GPAs engage in more binge drinking than students with higher GPAs. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?
(a) Excessive binge drinking contributes to poorer academic performance
(b) Binge drinking is a common reaction to poor academic performance
(c) Both are OK
(d) Neither is OK
4. D (causality implied in A and B)

5. Dr. McKenzie surveyed alcohol use on campus and found that students with lower GPAs engage in more binge drinking than students with higher GPAs. Which (if any) of the following conclusions is reasonable?
(a) Better academic counseling would be an effective way to reduce binge drinking
(b) The students most likely to engage in binge drinking are those doing poorly in school
(c) Both are OK
(d) Neither is OK
5. B (prediction is ok, not causal)

1. Dr. Williams tested the hypothesis that simple patterns are more attractive than complex ones. Subjects chose which of two patterns they liked better. He calculated the percentage of times they chose the simpler pattern. He tested the null hypothesis that the percentage is _____.
(a) zero
(b) 50%
(c) 100%
(d) more than 50%
(b) 50%

2. Twenty rats were assigned randomly to two groups. One group was fed a diet of regular rat chow, the other group was fed nothing but french fries. The first group lived significantly longer. The investigator concluded that french fries are bad for you. What’s the major problem here?
(a) Statistical validity
(b) Internal validity
(c) External validity
(c) External validity

3. Ten patients are treated for anxiety using psycho-dynamic therapy (group 1). Another ten are treated using behavior therapy (group 2). A year later, five from group one are available for further testing, and all report feeling better. Eight from group two are available, and only six report feeling better. What’s the biggest problem here?
(a) Possible regression effects
(b) Diffusion of treatment
(c) Different attrition rates
(c) Different attrition rates

4. The tendency for individuals who have extreme scores (high or low) on one measurement and to have less extreme scores on a second measurement is called
(a) history
(b) maturation
(c) regression to the mean
(d) instrumentation
(c) regression to the mean

5. In studies with a group of individuals being tested in a series of treatment conditions, factors such as history, instrumentation, and maturation threaten
(a) internal validity.
(b) external validity.
(c) statistical validity.
(d) internal, external, and statistical validity
(a) internal validity.

6. Dr. Wells wants to ask participants in her research about their attitudes towards abortion. She includes three questions about abortion in a list of 15 other questions about a variety of current topics. The main reason for including the other questions is to _____.
(a) control for order effects
(b) control participants’ expectations
(c) increase the reliability of her attitude measurement
(b) control participants’ expectations

7. Dr. Fillpot believes that homeopathic therapy can cure depression. He assigned 20 depressed patients at random, 10 each to a homeopathic treatment group and a no-treatment group. Later he assessed the mental health of each patient. He found that the patients in the homeopathic group were less depressed than the others. What’s the biggest problem here?
(a) Possible subject and experimenter bias
(b) There was no control group
(c) The sample size was too small
(a) Possible subject and experimenter bias

8. Frank’s project was designed to find out if listening to music makes people less responsive to unexpected stimuli. He used other students in his own section as the group exposed to music, and students in another section as a control group. What was the most serious problem with his experiment?
(a) Use of an ad hoc sample
(b) Failure to use random selection
(c) Failure to use random assignment
(c) Failure to use random assignment

9. Frank would like to find out if one kind of music (rock, country, rap, etc) has more or less effect on exam performance if played while a student takes the exam. Different groups will hear different types of music. What would be the best matching variable to use if to increase the sensitivity of the experiment?
(a) Students’ GPA
(b) Students’ auditory sensitivity
(c) Students’ music preferences
(a) Students’ GPA

10. In an independent groups design, the F-ratio provides a test of the differences due to the treatment by comparing ____ and _____.
(a) between subject variance … within subject variance
(b) between subject variance … error effects
(c) between group variance … within group variance
(d) between-group variance … total variance
(c) between group variance … within group variance

11. For which of the following designs should you be most concerned with order effects?
(a) Independent groups
(b) Matched subjects
(c) Repeated measures
(d) Ex post facto design
(c) Repeated measures

12. Suppose you use a randomized pretest-posttest control-group design to evaluate a treatment for depression. Why would regression effects usually NOT be a problem
(a) It’s not a repeated measures design
(b) Regression effects are random error
(c) There would be no regression to the mean
(d) Randomization equates any regression effects
(d) Randomization equates any regression effects

13. In an experiment on the effects of running on stress levels, one group of participants is tested after running on a treadmill for 30 minutes. A week later, the same group of participants is tested after resting on a bed for 30 minutes. This is an example of a ___ design.
(a) single-subjects
(b) between-subjects
(c) within-subjects
(d) matched groups
(c) within-subjects

14. In a within-subjects design, individual differences (participant variables) are a problem because
(a) They can become confounding variables.
(b) They can increase the variability.
(c) They can become confounding variables and they can increase the variability.
(d) Individual differences are not a problem in a within-subjects design.
(d) Individual differences are not a problem in a within-subjects design.

15. The disadvantage to counterbalancing in a within-subjects design is _____
(a) less power than with simple randomizing
(b) it’s hard to find a matching variable
(c) order effects are not properly controlled
(d) too many groups may be needed
(d) too many groups may be needed

16. Why are testing effects, history effects, and instrumentation effects usually not a concern when you use a randomized pretest-posttest design ?
(a) They can be eliminated statistically
(b) There’s no opportunity for them to occur
(c) You don’t test subjects more than once
(d) The effects should be the same for all groups

17. A research study comparing problem solving scores obtained under three different levels of temperature could be called a ___.
(a) single-factor design
(b) two-factor design
(c) three-factor design
(d) factorial design
(a) single-factor design

18. Oscar compared two methods of studying, to find out if using imagery leads to improved memory for words. For one group the delay prior to testing was one day. For a second group the delay was one week. The results were:

< shape graph x-axis (1day/1week) y-axis (imagery/no-imagery) What effects did Oscar find in his analysis? (a) An interaction only (b) Two main effects only (c) Two main effects and an interaction

(c) Two main effects and an interaction

19. What effect do we not have here?

X shaped graph
x-axis (gender) y-axis (pol. party)

(a) A main effect for party
(b) A main effect for sex
(c) An interaction of sex and party

(a) A main effect for party

Attrition/Mortality
Occurs when participants choose not to complete a study

Coverage Error
A sampling error that occurs when the sample chosen to complete a survey does not provide a good representation of the population

Criterion-Related Validity
Determining the validity of the scores of a survey by examining the relationship between the survey scores and other established measures of the behavior of interest

Cronbach’s Alpha (a)
Method of testing scores’ internal consistency that indicates the average correlation between scores on all pairs of items on a survey

Internal Consistency
A form of reliability that tests relationships between scores on different items of a survey

Area of psychological research that involves the development, validation, and refinement of surveys and tests for measuring psychological constructs
Psychometrics

Nonresponse Error
A sampling error that occurs when individuals chosen for the sample do not respond to the survey, biasing the sample

Bias created in survey responses from respondents’ desire to be viewed more favorably by others, typically resulting in over reporting of “positive” behaviors and underreporting of “negative” behaviors
Social Desirability Bias

Split-Half Reliability
Method of testing scores’ internal consistency that indicates if the scores are similar on different sets of questions on a survey that address similar topics

Indicates that the scores on a survey will be similar when participants complete the survey more than once
Test-Retest Reliability

Descriptive Research Question
A research question that asks about the presence of behavior, how frequently it is exhibited, or whether there is a relationship between different behaviors

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of variance test used for designs with three or more sample means

An experiment or quasi-experiment that includes more than one independent variable
Factorial Design

Interaction Effect
Tests the effect of one independent variable at each level of another independent variable in an ANOVA

Partial counterbalancing technique where the number of orders of conditions used is equal to the number of conditions in the study
Latin Square

Main Effect
Test of the differences between all means for each level of an independent variable in an ANOVA

A between-subjects experiment that involves sets of participants matched on a specific characteristic with each member of the set randomly assigned to a different level of the independent variable
Matched Design

Order Effects
Occur when the order in which the participants experience conditions in an experiment affects the results of the study

Statistical tests conducted to characterize an interaction effect when one is found in an ANOVA
Simple Effects Tests

History Effect
Events that occur during the course of a study to all participants or to individual participants that can result in bias

A time series design where the “treatment” is an independent event, such as a historical event
Interrupted Time Series Design

Maturation
Natural changes that occur to the participants during the course of a study that can result in bias

Groups compared in a study where participants are not randomly assigned
Nonequivalent Groups

Noninterrupted Time Series Design
A time series design where the “treatment” is implemented by the researcher

Pretest-posttest design with two sets of nonequivalent groups, one set that takes the pretest and posttest and one set that takes only the posttest
Solomon Four-Group Design

Time Series Design
A research design where patterns of scores over time are compared from before a treatment is implemented and after a treatment is implemented

A-B-A/Reversal Design
A small-n, baseline design where the baseline behavior is measured, followed by implementation of a treatment, followed by another baseline measure after the treatment has ended

A small-n design that involves baseline measurements of behavior as compared with measures of behavior during the implementation of a treatment
Baseline Design

Baseline Measurement
Measurement of behavior without a treatment used as a comparison

Occur when participants’ experience in one condition affects their behavior in another condition of a study
Carryover Effects

Cohort-Sequential Design
A developmental design where multiple samples of participants of different ages are followed over time and tested at different ages

A developmental design where multiple samples of participants of different ages are tested once
Cross-Sectional Design

Discrete Trials Design
A small-n design that involves a large number of trials completed by one or a few individuals and conducted to describe basic behaviors

A confound that can occur in cross-sectional designs due to different experiences that different generations have
Generation/Cohort Effects

Longitudinal Design
A developmental design where a single sample of participants is followed over time and tested at different ages

Alpha Level
The probability level used by researchers to indicate the cutoff probability level (highest value) that allows them to reject the null hypothesis

A significance test used to determine if a relationship exists between two variables measured on nominal or ordinal scales
Chi-Square Test

Critical Region
The most extreme portion of a distribution of statistical values for the null hypothesis, determined by the alpha level (typically 5%)

On the surface, a study or scale appears to be intuitively valid
Face Validity

Linear Regression
A statistical technique that determines the best fit line to a set of data to allow prediction of the score on one variable from the score on another variable

A significance test used to determine if a linear relationship exists between two variables measured on interval or ratio scales
Pearson r Test

Post Hoc Tests
Additional significance tests conducted to determine which means are significantly different for a main effect

The p value is less than or equal to alpha in an inferential test, and the null hypothesis can be rejected
Significant Test

Sphericity Assumption
Assumption of the repeated measures (within-subjects) ANOVA that pairs of scores in the population have equal variance

Significance test used to compare means
t Test

Applied Research
Research conducted with the goal of solving everyday problems

Relying on a knowledgeable person or group as a means of knowing about the world
Authority

Basic Research
Research conducted with the goal of understanding fundamental processes of phenomena

Seeking only evidence that supports our beliefs and ignoring evidence that contradicts those beliefs
Confirmation Bias

Deduction
Using logical reasoning and current knowledge as a means of knowing about the world

The assumption that phenomena have identifiable causes
Determinism

Empiricism
Gaining knowledge through systematic observation of the world

The degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the study
External Validity

Intuition
Relying on common sense as a means of knowing about the world

Relying on what one observes as a means of knowing about the world
Observation

Parsimony
The assumption that the simplest explanation of a phenomenon is most likely to be correct

The assumption that explanations of behavior can be tested and falsified through observation
Testability

Abstract
A summary of an article that appears at the beginning of the article and in searchable databases of journal articles

A prediction about the results of a study that includes the causes of behavior
Casual Hypothesis

Data Driven Hypothesis
Hypothesis for a study that is based on the results of previous, related studiesv

Using general information to make a specific prediction
Deductive Reasoning

Descriptive Hypothesis
A prediction about the results of a study that describes the behavior or the relationship between behaviors

A research question that asks about the presence of behavior, how frequently it is exhibited, or whether there is a relationship between different behaviors
Descriptive Research Question

Discussion
Section of an APA-style article that compares the results of a study to the predictions and the results of previous studies

Prediction regarding the results of a research study
Hypothesis

Inductive Reasoning
Using specific information to make a more general prediction

A section of an APA-style article that introduces the topic of the study, reviews relevant background studies, and presents predictions for the data
Introduction

Literature Review
a process of searching for and reviewing previous studies related to study being developed to add to the knowledge in an area and make appropriate predictions about the data

Section of an APA-style article that describes the participants, design, stimuli, apparatus, and procedure used in the study
Method

Peer Review
A process that takes place prior to publication of an article in many journals where experts make suggestions for improving an article and make recommendations about whether an article should be published in a journal

Section of an APA-style article that presents a summary of the results and the statistical tests of the predictions
Results

Theory
An explanation of behavior that can be tested through research studies

Hypothesis for a study that is based on a theory about the behavior of interest
Theory Driven Hypothesis

Archival Data
A data collection technique that involves analysis of preexisting data

A research design that involves intensive study of particular individuals and their behaviors
Case study

Closed-Ended Response Scale
Participants respond to survey questions according to the response options provided by the researcher

An extraneous factor present in a study that may affect the results
Confounding Variable

Content Analysis
An archival data collection technique that involves analysis of the content of an individual’s spoken or written record

The group of participants in an experiment that do not experience the treatment level of the independent variable
Control Group

Correlational Study
A type of research design that examines the relationships between multiple dependent variables, without manipulating any of the variables

A variable that is measured or observed from an individual
Dependent/Response Variable

Experiment
A Type of research design that involves manipulation of an independent variable, allowing control of extraneous variables that could affect the results

The group of participants in an experiment that experience the treatment level of the independent variable
Experimental Group

Independent Variable
A variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the researcher such that the levels of the variable change across or within subjects in the experiment

The degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior
Internal Validity

Interrater Reliability
A measure of the degree to which different observers’ rate behaviors in similar ways

A data collection technique that involves direct questioning of individuals about their behaviors and attitudes
Interviews

Levels of the Independent Variable
Different situations or conditions that participants experience in an experiment because of the manipulation of the independent variable

A data collection technique involving noninvasive observation of individuals in their natural environments
Naturalistic Observation

Negative Relationship
A relationship between variables characterized by an increase in one variable that occurs with a decrease in the other variable

Participants respond to survey questions in any manner they feel is appropriate for the question
Open-Ended Response Scale

Operational Definition
The definition of an abstract concept used by a researcher to measure or manipulate the concept in a research study

The dependent variable in a correlational study that is being predicted by the predictor variable
Outcome Variable

Positive Relationship
A relationship between variables characterized by an increase in one variable that occurs with an increase in the other variable

The dependent variable in a correlational study that is used to predict the score on another variable
Predictor Variable

Pretest-Posttest Design
A type of research design (often a quasi-experiment) where behavior is measured both before and after a treatment or condition is implemented

nonnumerical participant responses
Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data
Numerical data

A type of research design where a comparison is made, as in an experiment, but no random assignment of participants to groups occurs
Quasi-Experiment

Random Assignment
Participants are randomly assigned to levels of the independent variable in an experiment to control for individual differences as an extraneous variable

The degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions
Reliability

Scatterplot
A graph showing the relationship between two dependent variables for a group of individuals

An experiment conducted with one or a few participants to better understand the behavior of those individuals
Small n Design

Survey Research
A research study that uses the survey observational technique to measure behavior

Data collection technique where control is exerted over the conditions under which the behavior is observed
Systematic Observation

Third-Variable Problem
The presence of extraneous factors in a study that affect the dependent variable and can decrease the internal validity of the study

An attribute that can vary across individuals
Variable

Amount Variable
A variable that includes levels with a different amount of the treatment changing from level to level

Each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable
Between-Subjects Variable

Bivalent Independent Variable
An independent variable with two levels—a design is considered bivalent if it contains only one bivalent independent variable

Indicates that a survey measures the behavior it is designed to measure
Construct Validity

Counterbalance
A control used in within-subjects experiments where different participants are assigned in equal numbers to the different orders of the conditions

A source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior based on their perception of the study and its purpose
Demand Characteristics

Double-Blind Design
Procedure used to control for experimenter bias by keeping the knowledge of the group assignments from both the participants and the researchers who interact with the participants

A source of bias in a study created when a researcher treats groups differently (often unknowingly) based on knowledge of the hypothesis
Experimenter Bias

Field Experiment
An experiment conducted in the participants’ natural environment

A source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior because they are aware that they are being observed
Hawthorne Effect

Interval Scale
A scale of data measurement that involves numerical responses that are equally spaced, but scores are not ratios of each other

A scale of responses that measures a participant’s agreement or disagreement with different types of statements, often with a rating from 1 to 5 or 1 to 7
Likert Scale

Nominal Scale
A scale of data measurement that involves nonordered categorical responses

Survey response scale that involves pictorial response categories for participants with low verbal skills (e.g., children)
Nonverbal Scale

Ordinal Scale
A scale of data measurement that involves ordered categorical responses

A sugar pill given to the control group in a drug study to allow all groups to believe that they are receiving a treatment
Placebo

Presence/Absence Variable
A variable that involves a manipulation with a level that involves the treatment and a level that does not involve the treatment

Variable that allows comparison of groups of participants without manipulation (i.e., no random assignment)
Quasi-Independent/Subject Variable

Reaction Time
Measurement of the length of time to complete a task

Can occur when participants score higher or lower than their personal average—the next time they are tested, they are more likely to score near their personal average, making scores unreliable
Regression toward the Mean

Single-Blind Design
Procedure used to hide the group assignment from the participants in a study to prevent their beliefs about the effectiveness of a treatment from affecting the results

Occur when participants are tested more than once in a study with early testing affecting later testing
Testing Effects

Within-Subjects
Variable each participant experiences all levels of the variable

Coercion
Forcing participants to participate in research without their consent

A person who is part of a research study but acts as though he or she is not, to deceive the participant about the study’s purpose
Confederate

Confidentiality
It is the researcher’s responsibility to protect the participants’ identity and right to privacy (including participant responses) during and after the research study

A form provided to the participants at the beginning of a research study to obtain their consent for the study and explain the study’s purpose and risks, and the participants’ rights as participants
Consent Form

Deception
Misleading participants about the purpose or procedures of a research study

Discussing the purpose and benefits of a research study with participants, often done at the end of the study
Debriefing

Demand Characteristics
A source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants’ changing their behavior based on their perception of the study and its purpose

Committee of knowledgeable individuals that oversees the ethics of research with nonhuman animal subjects at an institution
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

Informed Consent
Obtaining consent from participants for participation in research after the participants have been informed about the purpose, procedure, and risks of the research

A committee of knowledgeable individuals who oversee the ethics of research with human participants conducted at an institution
Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Nuremberg Code
Set of ethical guidelines developed for research with human participants based on information gained during the Nuremberg trials after World War II

Risk-Benefit Analysis
Weighing the risks against the benefits of a research study to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks

Cluster Sample
Sample chosen randomly from clusters identified in the population

Sample chosen such that the probability of an individual being chosen cannot be determined
Convenience/Purposive Sample

Sample chosen from the population such that available individuals are chosen
Haphazard/Volunteer Sample

Internet Sample
Sample chosen from the population by recruiting on the Internet

A group of individuals a researcher seeks to learn about from a research study
Population

Probability Sample
Sample chosen such that individuals are chosen with a specific probability

Sample chosen from the population such that available individuals are chosen with equivalent proportions of individuals for a specific characteristic in the population and sample
Quota Sample

Response Rate
The percentage of people out of the total number available who respond to a survey

The group of individuals chosen from the population to represent it in a research study
Sample

Sampling Error
The difference between the observations in a population and in the sample that represents that population in a study

Sample chosen randomly from the population such that each individual has an equal chance of being selected
Simple Random Sample

Stratified Random Sample
Sample chosen from the population such that the proportion of individuals with a particular characteristic is equivalent in the population and the sample

Central Tendency
Representation of a typical score in a distribution

A range of values that the populations mean likely falls into with a specific level of certainty
Confidence Interval

Degrees of Freedom
Number of scores that can vary in the calculation of a statistic

Measures that help us summarize data sets
Descriptive Statistics

Distribution
A set of scores

The distribution of all possible sample means for all possible samples from a population
Distribution of Sample Means

Casual Research Question
A Research Question that asks what causes specific behaviors to occur

A Research question that asks if one behavior can be predicted from another behavior to allow predictions of future behavior
Predictive Research Question

Sampling error is greater when a sample is more variable (t/f)
false, the more variable a sample is, the less sampling error

Which sample types obtain subjects based on demographics proportions that exist in the population?
stratified and quota

When groups or organizations are chosen to sample from, this is known as a ________________ sample
response rate

A sample drawn at random from the population such that subgroups are chosen in equal proportions to the population is called a _________ sample
QUOTA

A sample drawn from the population based on willingness of the individuals and equal proportions of subgroups to the population is called a ______ sample
STRATIFIED

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