PR Final

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
PR/Publicity vs. Advertising
PR gained through direct dealing with media

3rd party endorsement: primary reason PR valued; the support given a product by an “objective” 3rd party — a blog, newspaper, magazine, or broadcaster — who mentions the product as news
When an org’s publicity is reported by a news source, it instantly becomes more credible, believable, and valuable news

Advertising is expensive
– perceived as self-serving

Media Relations
Print: #1 Medium – hit hard by Recession; many out of business; circulation has dropped; still nation’s largest papers remain powerful

News value: key challenge for PR writers is to ensure that their news releases reflect news and must be of interest to an editor and readers

What’s newsworthy
impact: a major announcement that affects an org, its community, or even society
oddity: an unusual occurrence or milestone
conflict: significant dispute or controversy
known principal: the greater the title = pres vs. vp
proximity: how localized or timely is the release, relative to the news of the day
human interest: touch an emotional experience

Online Publicity
still a relationship business; knowledge of web hosting, web casting, blogs, chat rooms, discussion groups, investor threads and SEO critical for modern PR pros
Online Publicity vehicles
News releases: delivered by email; shorter; often an editorial advisory to interest journalist; key words for SEO
Headlines: use in subject line of email; Internet readers in hurry; Google recommends between 2 and 22 words; Google results display only the first 63 characters of each hl; keep it short
Announcements: posted on online discussion groups, newsgroups, Internet mailing lists, forums on commercial online services, and discussion threads built into Web sites; short (a few paragraphs); designed to encourage web visits or request for further info; used to promote online events, chats, or sites
On-line Publicity
Links: immediately and automatically deliver audience to a Web site being promoted
Newsletters: e-newsletters used to keep audiences updated on news products, services, issues, or events. Easy and cheap; continuing point of contact to key publics; shorter; one paragraph items are standard
Events: staging events to draw reporters; movie sneak previews, candidate debates, etc. Must be really “big” to attract publicity
Libraries: online news releases or announcements backed up with unlimited supporting data at a website. (brochures, backgrounders, press kits, FAQs, newsletters, videos, audio sound bites, press clips, news releases, etc)
On-line Publicity cont.
Public appearances: online chat sessions = offline press conferences or public forums. Real-time chats to answer questions; cyber-media tour, links the spokesperson with TV, radio, website, and print journalists via satellite, the Web, and telephone simultaneously (uses streaming video and audio)

Promotions: giveaways, sweepstakes, coupons, quizzes, surveys; often tied into launch of new website or a major Web event

News wires: most important releases are those carried on free wires Associated Press (AP), Dow Jones, Reuters, Bloomberg, and others outside the U.S. Choose news on the basis of merit

Paid wires e.g., PR Newswire, Business Wire, Internet Wire. Send full text releases to media, investors, and online databases. News rooms check paid wires for news; Enhance web use, including SEO and social “tags” to encourage online sharing and a longer life on the Internet

Best PR practices
Business, govt, or nonprofit should substantiate the official view and demonstrate merit
Build relationships with the media
Never lie
Be a credible source
Provide the facts and resources (customer, industry analyst or spokesperson) for a balanced story
Make it easy for them on deadline
Fairness – deal with them fairly and they will reciprocate in kind
Pitching the media
pitching is the activity of trying to place positive publicity in a periodical, on a news site, or in the electronic media

1) Know deadlines (dailies, weeklies, monthlies)
2) Generally email first, then call (headline in subject line)
3) Direct release to a specific person or editor (know who covers beats)
4) Determine how the reporter wants to be contacted (email, fax)
5) Don’t badger (journalists fiercely independent about copy they use or don’t use)
6) Use exclusives, but be careful and use sparingly
7) When you call, do your own calling
8) Don’t send clips of other stories about your client
9) Develop a relationship – the name of the game
10) Never lie: this is the cardinal rule

Media Interviews
Do’s and Don’t’s for Media Interviews:
1) Prepare (strategy brief; know the reporters point-of-view, interests, articles)
2) Know your lines (know 3-4 key messages and hammer away at them)
3) Relax (try to build rapport)
4) Speak in personal terms (use “I” as much as possible; personalize; speak as individual vs. mouthpiece for impersonal bureaucracy)
5) Welcome the naïve question
6) Answer questions briefly and directly; especially for TV (top down/sound bite)
7) Don’t bluff (if don’t know answer, admit it; say will get info and get back to reporter)
8) State facts and back up generalities (have specific data that supports general statements)
9) There is no such thing as “off the record”– expect to see whatever you say in print
10) Don’t say, “No comment.” – suggests you’re hiding something or guilty; if can’t answer questions for proprietary reasons, say why
11) Tell the truth — if decline specific answers, tell why; once
credibility lost, you’ve lost everything
Employee Communications
value employees
improve morale and trust
increase productivity
increased revenues

Research: Internal Comm Audit — will tell mgmt and communicators:
how do int comm support the mission of the org?
do internal comm have mgmt support?
do int comm justify the expense?
how responsive to emp needs and concerns are the
int comm?
Research will also tell what types of tactics make most sense

On-line communications: instant messaging, email, voicemail, Intranets (one stop shop for emp comm), employee and CEO blogs, e-newsletters, podcasts (audio or video), wikis (dynamic website to which any user can add pages, modify content, and comment on existing content), social media

Bulletin boards: in cafeterias, meeting areas, keep current; also electronic bulletin boards

Suggestion boxes: if implemented employees rewarded

Town Hall meetings: 2-way comm bet mgmt and staff
follow-up critical to showing sincerity

Internal videos
web video by exec
streaming video to all employees
Face-to-face communications with supervisors
Emp comm plans must be consistent and measurable like external PR plans
All must be empowered by sr mgmt to be effective

Non-Profit PR
Non-profit Public Relations:
Non-profit orgs serve the social, educational, religious, and cultural needs of the community
Primary source of employment for PR grads; fundraising, development
Comprised of hospitals, schools, trade orgs, labor unions, chambers of commerce, social welfare agencies, religious institutions, cultural orgs, charities, etc.
Seek public support of their mission and programs, donations, volunteers, legislation
Raise public awareness through media advocacy
Media advocacy = PR without resources; protests, marches, demos, media photo opps, Internet
Non-Profit PR Campaigns
Cause-related quotient — what do we stand for? — around which your marketing campaign is based
PR Pro must:
Define issues
Build strategies
Frame issues
Develop talking points
Choose appropriate spokesperson(s)
Develop communications materials
Target messages
Non-Profit Tactics
Media Relations – use free media resources; talk radio, cable tv, op eds, community cable channels, Internet
Special Events with local/national celebrities
Fundraising — depend on donors for support — often becomes the job for PR pros
Media Advocacy (protests/marches) for causes, influence legislation
Community Relations
In the 21st Century, giving back to the community is an obligation for most orgs — companies, hospitals, schools, sports teams, etc.; including supporting nonprofits
Org must be a citizen of the community and accept its role as an agent for social change
Serving one’s community also makes good business sense
Diverse, multi-cultural communities — PR
pros need to be sensitive to society’s
new multicultural realities

Both profit and non-profit orgs learning to communicate with those who differ in work bkgd, education, age/senior citizens, gender, race, ethnic origin, religious beliefs, sexual orientation
(as well as lucrative market opportunities; increase in media outlets to reach)
Orgs acknowledge responsibilities to the community = Corporate Social Responsibility = CSR = how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society

Corporate Social Responsibility
CSR examples:
Companies donate a percentage of profits to nonprofit orgs i.e, schools, hospitals, charities, social welfare orgs, foundations, etc.
Protecting the environment
Maintain clean air/water
Provide jobs for minorities
Donate food/water to the poor
Community Relations Objectives
Create awareness for the firm’s products, goals, jobs, support of community projects
Correct misunderstandings, reply to criticism
Gain favorable opinion
Inform local govt to obtain support for legislation that will favorably effect the business climate
Establish personal relationships bet mgmt and community leaders
Cooperate with other local businesses in advancing economic development and social welfare through joint community relations programs
Sponsoring local teams and sports events
PR Writing
Rudolf Flesch Readability Formula —
(Flesch was Austrian-born naturalized American author (noted for his book Why Johnny Can’t Read), and also a readability expert and writing consultant who was a vigorous proponent of plain English)
Suggested people who write the way they talk write better
In writing for the Internet, straightforward and concise writing is the only approach
— “We are endeavoring to construct a more inclusive society”
— “We’re going to make a country in which no one is left
out” (FDR)
Flesch’s 7 suggestions for more readable writing:
1) Use contractions such as it’s and doesn’t
2) Leave out the word that whenever possible
3) Use pronouns such as I, we, they, and you
4) When referring back to a noun, repeat the noun or use a pronoun. Don’t create eloquent substitutions
5) Use brief, clear sentences
6) Cover only one item per paragraph
7) Use language the reader understands
Inverted Pyramid
Inverted Pyramid
Inverted Pyramid: critical facts in a story appear at the start
Standard news release writing style
The first tier or lead of a story is the first 1-2 paragraphs (5W’s= who, what, why, when, where; how)
then written in descending order of importance
News Releases
Who? Chief Justice John Roberts
What? A major address on capital punishment
Where? Kohl Field House
When? Tomorrow at 8 p.m.
Why? American Bar Assoc is holding a convention
News Release Essentials to Maximize Pick Up
Rationale: well defined reasons for sending release; What’s New? What’s the “so what?”
must be relevant to the readers; find an angle
Focus: speak about one central subject
Facts: most important to the journalist; the 5 W’s = the who, what, where, when, why and sometimes how
No puffery: Bill O’Reilly says should be “puffery-free zones” ; no hyperbole
Nourishing quotes: make them count/add value
“We think this is the best product of its type” vs. “This product will help prevent heart attacks in women by 30%”
Headlines: summarize quickly to busy reporters what release is about
Limit jargon: every industry has own jargon; don’t use much
Company description: position firm in boilerplate
Spelling, grammar, punctuation: 100% correct!, your credibility, importance of announcement on the line
Brevity: short and concise; for tweets, emails, articles; one-sentence paragraphs, words/sentences short; avg runs about 500 words — no more than 2.5 pages double-spaced
Clarity, concise, commitment:
best releases straightforward, understated, confident
reveal a lot about org and person releasing it
Internet News Releases
Vast majority (if not all) of NRs today are emailed
Brevity and succinctness are paramount
Must conform to the following:
One reporter per “To” line
delivers personalization reporters prefer

Limit subject line headers — reporters
are swamped/on deadline
entice with subject line; headers 4-6 words

Boldface “FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE”— right above date and dateline, reporters know news can be used right away (blogger told us not to use for bloggers)
Hammer home the headline: very important; BF uc and lc, and limited in length
Limit length: email versions shorter than print versions
Observe 5W format: get to the point immediately in the first paragraph
No attachments: won’t have time to download or risk virus
Link to the url: photos, bios, backgrounders, should be linked in the email to org’s url (same as blogger)
Remember readability: balance info with readability = short paragraphs, varied paragraph length, bullets, numbers, lists

Media Kits
The Media Kit: several communications vehicles used to introduce the org to the media; can be hard copy for meetings; mostly online today
Consists of:
News Release(s): what’s being announced
Biography(ies): a straightforward chronology of subjects’
work history and accomplishments
Narrative bio — more informal style; tells story; can be used as an intro when individual serves as a featured speaker
The Backgrounder: provides additional info to
complement the news release; embellishes the
announcement, discusses the org making the ann;
Purpose: to assist the journalist in writing the story and provide accurate facts
Fact Sheets, Q&As, Photos: all to help busy journalists on deadline write their stories
Fact Sheets compile the most relevant facts concerning the
product, issue, org, or candidate
Q&As — the most probable q’s with a’s to help the
Photos — illustrate the NR subject; online color media kits are
a necessity for editors to download
Other possible materials: CDs, DVDs, speeches, list of links
The Pitch Letter
Used to interest an editor, reporter, blogger in a possible story, interview, announcement or event;
Mostly sent via email
Media Advisory aka Media Alert
Related to the pitch letter
Straightforward listing of the facts to interest an editor or news director, usually into attending an event
Short, bulleted items highlighting the 5Ws
The Roundup Article
Reporters get rewarded for two things: scoops and trends
Scoop = breaking a story first
Trends = breaking a story that speaks to an emerging trend that is relevant to an industry
Roundup = Article that summarizes or “rounds up” the experiences of several companies within an industry
Teradata example (story on relational database industry)
Excellent way for a small org to take advantage of national publicity;benefits by inclusion with larger players with name recognition; how can make the front page of WSJ or NYT
These trend articles may be initiated by the publications themselves or at the suggestions of PR pros
Case History aka Case Study
Another way to obtain coverage
Tells a customer’s favorable use of a company’s product or service; a before and after story
Follows five-part formula:
Present a problem experienced by one company but applicable to other firms (relevance)
Indicates how the dimensions of the problem were defined by the company using the product
Indicate the solution adopted
Explain the advantages of the adopted solution
Detail the user company’s experience after adopting the solution (quantifiable benefits)
Very powerful third-party endorsement!
The Byliner aka Bylined Article
Byline says story authored by an officer of a particular org
However, usually ghostwritten by PR pro
Benefits: carries prestige in certain pubs; allows spokesperson to express views without being subject to reinterpretation by pub
Major advantage: establishes exec as expert on the issues; more expert than competitors
Can also be used as reprints, online, direct mail piece
Again, more third-party endorsement due to publication masthead on piece
The Op-Ed
On a page opposite editorial pages in pub for opinions, thus “op ed”
Similar to byliner; an editorial written by org exec and submitted for publication in leading newspaper or magazine
Prestigious to be included (due to so much competition)
The Standby Statement
Org must be prepared to respond if there is media inquiry or public disclosure
Price increases; Extraordinary losses; Employee layoffs; Age, sex, or other discrimination
Should be brief and unambiguous so doesn’t raise more questions
PR person drives this as part of Issues Management; to be prepared for Crisis Communications
The White Paper aka Position Paper
Concern dilemmas or issues faced by an org or industry
Rigorously documents the facts and assumptions that lead to a particular position that the org takes
An informational (non-sales) way to promote an organization
Can post online as free/use as call to action; distribute to opinion leaders (press and analysts), customers, prospects
Writing for the Ear
Obviously different from reading
Whether watching video, listening to audio, or at a presentation, audience needs to be persuaded, motivated, stimulated
Write like you speak
Primary examples:
Integrated Marketing Communications (Marcom)
Creating a differentiable identity or position for a company or product
Used to take years to build a brand
Today, with the Internet, companies can become household words in a nanosecond (go viral)

To establish a unique brand, adhere to following principles:
Be early: we remember the first in a category/market
Be memorable: cut through the clutter; distinguish in some way through uniqueness or adtvg slogan or social responsibility, etc.
Be aggressive: a consistent, constant publicity campaign to keep name before the public
Use heritage: cite the traditions and history of a product or org as part of building the brand
Create a personality: should be reflected in all communications materials org produces

What is the difference between PR, Mktg, and Advtg?
Mktg = selling of a service or product through pricing, distribution, and promo;
4 Ps: product, price, place, and promo
Advtg = a subset of mktg that involves paying to place your message in more traditional media format, from newspapers and magazines to radio and TV to the Internet and outdoor billboards
PR = the mktg of an org and the use of unbiased, objective, third-party endorsement to relay info about that org’s products and practices
The potential of PR as part of the mktg mix has become an imperative
PR has been added as the 5th”P” in Marketing
PR Advertising
Traditional advtg sells products
PR Advtg =
the marketing of an image
non-product advtg
AKA institutional, image, public service, or issues advtg
PR and the Internet
In the 21st century, PR is changing — largely due to the Internet and SM
SM is a powerful communications medium!
As companies work on cost savings — especially well timed with the (not so) Great Recession, inexpensive SM provides the next marketing and PR media frontier

Internet so broad and global that people were seeking “communities”
To be in touch or bond with those with commonalities; advent of SM/Social Networking
New Internet explosion has taken new forms due to enabling tech plus above trend: blogs, social networks, podcasts, wikis, RSS feeds, etc.
Internet transformed the way people communicate and contact each other
For PR practitioners: familiarity and mastery
of Internet and its effective use have become
frontline requisites

Use of the Internet will grow mainly because consumers
want to be educated rather than sold: promotion should be education-based vs. blatant self promo; people want info and if you don’t provide it, they will find it elsewhere
on quest for conversation: anyone can be a publisher; net result is a two-way dialogue between the supplier and the consumer; the more conversational and communications-savvy the org, the more likely it will be able to persuade
need real-time performance: instantly and real time; PR Pros can use this to their advantage to structure info to respond instantly to emerging issues and market changes
want customization: consumers today expect more focused, targeted, one-on-one communications; segmented markets that are ever narrower; personalization; Internet offers “narrowcasting” to reporters, shareholders, analysts, opinion leaders, consumers, and other publics
Almost all orgs from largest to smallest have website
provide ability to offer info to public in organized, consolidated manner
First face to the public; viewers can browse for info, conduct business, create profiles, manage accounts, etc.
Allow org to get messages out without editing by intermediaries
Website content development part of job for PR Pros
Communications tool; navigable and user-friendly, dynamic delivery of content vs. static
Also need to be media friendly — news releases, video clips, reports, brochures, e-newsletters
Other Internet/On-line Tools
Email – 90% of adults use email; teenagers use texting; allows inclusion of images, audio, video; needs to be mobile friendly; pervasive internal comm vehicle
Email Newsletters – replaced traditional employee print newsletter; timely; easily updated and delivered; inexpensive; immediate feedback; need to be short (1 page); link content to other materials (inverted pyramid style for online); disseminate regularly so recipients expect them
Instant Messaging (IM) – an online, real-time form of communications that allows two or more users to exchange quickly via text and to send small pictures anywhere; like conversation – can talk back and forth; popular with your peers: Generation Next (18 to 25)
Texting – sending short messages – 160 characters or less – from cell phones using Short Message Service (SMS); most widely used cell phone service

Blogs: 115 million and counting; Internet reporters and bloggers from every political bias and ulterior motive turning out stories – some true, some not – about everything
Offer 2-way communication
Let you communicate with target publics in real time
Active blogging can help put your org at the top of the search engines
CEO Blogs: where CEOS share their thoughts on a variety of subjects
A good PR tactic to make your CEO an industry expert, provide relevant content to targets to strengthen the brand

Social Networks/Social Media Tools
Allows communities of participants, who share common interests, opinions, and activities, to interact with others to manage messaging, email, video, file sharing, blogging, discussion groups, etc.; began with young people reaching out to one another; now, all age groups
Dynamic information sharing technology
NetScape (1990s) MySpace (2004), Facebook (2004), LinkedIn (professional networking), YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Yelp, Bebo (UK based; expanding throughout Europe)
AKA Social Software, Social Computing, Web 2.0
Expanding opps for PR practitioners; a number of PR areas, including marketing and issues management lend themselves to SM
Must decipher is appropriate vehicle for designated audiences
microblogging service that allows short messages (140 characters each) to alert friends and followers
a multi-person text message service
Can be used by PR Pros to follow journalists who tweet what they’ll be covering (like an editorial calendar to get inside track)
or as a direct integrated marketing vehicle to direct fellow Twitterers to websites and even products
Popular with celebrities, sports stars, politicians (show link)
Photo/Video Sharing
As Internet has evolved, importance of graphics and video increased — esp. sharing through social networks
Leading photo sites include Instagram, Tumblr, Zoomr, Picasa, Flickr; all free; allow users to org, edit, and share photos; create PR materials
Video sharing is dominant comm. form on the Internet; Google Video, Vimeo, Revver, YouTube(now owned by Google), Vines (owned by Twitter)
become important for corp and political messages
internal comm vehicle that integrates comm with workflow, process mgmt, infrastructure, HR forms, blogs, social networking
internal Internet
allow org to comm to targeted external groups i.e., media, investors, vendors, resellers, customers, etc;
collaborative websites that combine work of many authors; similar to blog in structure, differs from a blog in that it allows anyone to edit, delete, or modify content on the website inc. the work of previous authors; e.g., Wikipedia (anyone can contribute; don’t always believe it)
came from iPod in 2001; audio programs for download to any MP3 player; PR Pros can use to promote products and more
RSS Feeds
really simple syndication: easy way to distribute content on the Internet; used by blog community to share headlines or full text; major news orgs inc Reuters, CNN, PR Newswire, BBC, use RSS feeds to allow other sites to incorporate their syndicated news services; companies use for delivery of news instead of email;
Second Life
online universe launched in 2003 by Linden Lab, which is a 3-D world created entirely by its members or”residents”; gives members a place to congregate, chat, explore, and even fly around; used by IBM, Reebok to spread their messages; — “a 3D world where everyone you see is a real person and every place you visit is built by people just like you”
Downsides to On-line Communications
Google Walmart and you’ll see the official site but also message boards, blogs, wikis, and on-line communities attacking
Internet sabotage; no org is immune from on-line attack
Unhappy customers, disgruntled investors, rogue websites all posting their views
Free, global, anonymous forum that can ruin an org’s reputation
Monitoring Internet is frontline PR duty: imperative to monitor
Discussion groups/chat rooms: “threads” or continuous commentary
can hire outside firm to monitor
Google Alerts
Rogue Websites: unofficial sites with negative info; disgruntled shareholders, employees

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member