pr exam 1
Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
In economic terms, the public relations field is most extensively developed in
program assessment and adjustment
Public relations elements, such as feedback, research, and communication, are part of a cyclical process that eventually leads into
The changing focus of public relations includes the long-standing (and becoming outdated) notion that practitioners should primarily be trained as
The majority of public relations professionals are employed in
provide managerial experience for undergraduates
internships do not
According to a 2009 report, the median annual salary for recent graduates in public relations was
The notion of a “fifth P” of marketing strategy, public relations, was introduced by
the highest job in pr is
edward bernays coined the word “spin” in pr
public info is mthe most widely used term by social service agencies to describe public relations
a flack is an endearing term for a public relations practitioner that describes a hard-working, entrepreneurial type
Journalism is almost exclusively addressed to external audiences
All organizations should serve society as a whole
European universities primarily teach public relations as a “journalistic” function
The business leader reported to have created the first corporate public relations department is
) it should replace marketing and advertising as financial liaisons for the company
Grunig’s IABC Foundation research study on “Excellence” notes all of the following about public relations EXCEPT
Autonomy and authority refer to a practitioner’s role in the
This term best describes the notion of high authority and power associated with the dominant coalition.
One study of medium-sized U.S. corporations by the Conference Board found that the number of professionals in a typical public relations department is
According to your text, public relations and __________ departments often collide because they compete for funds to communication with external audiences
The practice of “purchasing” expert communication services from outside the organization is referred to as
Today’s full-fledged public relations firms offer all of the following services EXCEPT
at least three times a person’s salary
The standard industry practice is to bill clients
Public relations has a generally lukewarm return on investment (ROI) of about 120 percent, but the rate is considered acceptable because PR is not considered a “bottom line” function
The “dominant coalition” refers to a situation where public relations practitioners are subservient to marketing and related functions
The Tylenol case study is a prime example of a business where public relations was in a technical or an advisory function.
An outside firm does not need a prolonged briefing period regarding the client because of their expertise in diverse areas.
standard “markup” in public relations firms is 4050 percent.
In general, public relations spend about what percentage of their budget on research
Which is NOT a popular, “acceptable” online database for a literature review?
The most expensive form of research is
A scale (oftentimes with five points) that probes depth of feeling among respondents is called a
A typical “margin of error” for a sample of 1500 people is
In basic terms, research is a form of speaking to audiences
Most organizational crises come from unexpected natural or uncontrollable disasters.
Qualitative data is often called “soft” data
Telephone surveys generally have high response rates
Gallup and Harris are popular government-based organizations
An e-mail survey is less expensive than conducting personal interviews
Which is NOT a significant aspect for establishing a calendar and timetable for a program
Approximately how much of a public relations budget should be allocated toward contingencies or unexpected costs
Which is NOT a likely example of “nonverbal support” in the MBO perspective
two-sided calendar matrix
A Gantt chart is essentially a
how objectives are met/achieved
A strategy statement refers to
Timing a public relations program to when a crop comes to market, or around a specific holiday, would indicate a
Which is NOT considered an out-of-pocket budget expense
Systematic planning cannot prevent haphazard, ineffective communication
Planning should be the first step in any public relations process
Objectives aren’t the end result of a campaign, but the means to achieve a result
Informational objectives are bottom-line oriented, and based on clearly measurable results
The Tyson “Fight Against Hunger” primarily targeted media outlets
A Gantt chart is often used in compiling timetables for campaigns
new house purchase
Which would NOT likely be considered as a “triggering” event?
semantic and cognitive competence
Which is NOT one of Grunig’s five objectives for a communicator
media uses and gratification
The concept where an audience actively pursues messages that can fulfill individual needs is known as
The “diffusion” reference which emphasizes the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it replaces is known as
Diffusion of Innovation
Everett Rogers’ famous work is
Which is NOT an aspect of the Decision-Making Unit
Wilbur Schramm’s communication model was later adapted to include the concept of “shared experience.”
The “media uses and gratification” theory of communication has a premise of a passive audience who depend heavily on persuasion devices
Audience attention is generally highest at the beginning of a message
A cliché is an inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents reality
The decreased tendency over time to reject material presented by an untrustworthy source is known as cognitive dissonance
Picking up a pamphlet or reading an in-depth newspaper article is an example of the “interest stage” of the adoption process
the practitioners have to prove their value to the bottom line
In a 2010 study, experts optimistically projected that evaluation measures should be at least 10 percent of overall budgets because
more research expertise by public relations personnel
Which is a reason given for the trend toward more systematic evaluation in public relations
Using databases and computer software to analyze content of media placement is quite common with this technique
market penetration of information
Which can be accomplished by systematic tracking?
Pretesting an audience is usually involved with a(n)
Direct mail campaigns often use this approach, in which several different appeals or options are prepared.
input from key gatekeepers
Which is NOT a method used to evaluate a company newsletter or magazine
content analysis of a publication
A readership-interest survey becomes more valuable when it is compared with the
The split-message technique is often used in
day-after recall of speech pattern and text
Which is NOT a common method to measure reasons behind event attendance
Message comprehension is NOT an advanced form of measurement (according to the “Ketchum Yardstick”).
In systematic tracking, some practitioners take the approach of calculating the cost of advertising for the same amount of space, and then multiplying that total three to six times to reflect that a news story has higher credibility than an ad.
Generally, the first round of surveys in the benchmarking process measures the status quo.
The split-message evaluation approach revolves around multiple appeals and audiences.
Quantitative analysis should be avoided in evaluating the success of a meeting
The best readership surveys involve trained interviewers
Which stage in the life cycle of public opinion is represented by a “building of public consensus”?
Katz and Lazarsfeld.
The “architects” of the two-step flow theory are
Media alert the public what subjects to think about, but not necessarily what to think is known as
The selection of certain facts, themes, and treatments to shape a story is known as
persuasive communication actions performed on behalf of clients
The dominant view of public relations is one of
A trade press is most likely to use a(n)
favorable statements by celebrities.
Third-party endorsements usually involve
An opinion leader will deliberate and undergo significant research before adopting a new idea.
Aristotle’s concept of “ethos” deals with notion of credibility
Psychographics are the attempt to classify people by lifestyle, attitudes, and beliefs.
Perception is a key element with regard to source credibility
According to the Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey, recommendations from personal friends or opinions posted by consumers online are the most trusted form of source credibility.