POL SCI: American Government Flashcards

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1.1. According to Benjamin Franklin, popular governments are extremely difficult to \”keep\” because?
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People have to be vigilant and active if they are to maintain control.
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1.2. Occupy Wall Street demonstrations essentially?
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Warned that the people were losing control.
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1.3. Which of the following is NOT true about the system of checks and balances?
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a. Presidents can veto legislation. c. Congress can impeach the president. d. The Supreme Court can declare acts of Congress or the president to be unconstitutional are all true. B. The Presidents can force Congress to adjourn is NOT true.
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1.4. Pluralism, elite theory, and social movement theory essentially answer the question of?
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Where power really lies in American politics.
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1.5. According to elite theory, what is the source of influence?
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Status based on leading positions in society.
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1.6. Under pluralism, what is the source of influence?
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A group’s organization, resources & connections.
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1.7. Social movement theory emphasizes the power of?
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Popular uprisings/movements.
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1.8. The text describes all of the following as powerful ideas that shape American politics EXCEPT
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a. democracy. b. individualism. c. American dream are all true. D. Catholicism is NOT true.
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1.9. Ultimately, the struggle for power between the elite few and the democratic many goes back to which of our questions?
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Who governs?
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1.10. Congress, the president, the Supreme Court, and the Department of Homeland Security are all institutions that shape?
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a. power. b. ideas. c. politics. D. all of the above are true.
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1.11. In the story of Marla Ruzicka, one of the first American civilians to arrive in Iraq after the United States toppled Saddam Hussein in 2003, we learned that?
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a. individuals with a passion for political change can make a difference in politics. And c. she established a public service organization in Iraq that she called the Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict, or CIVIC are both true. b. Marla’s efforts in Iraq went unnoticed is NOT true. D. both a and c are true is the correct answer.
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1.12. Compared to previous generations, millennials?
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Page 21 Compared to previous generations, millennials show less interest in government service, trust national leaders less and follow political news at a lower rate.
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1.13. Mastering how the four I’s; ideas, institutions, interests, and individuals are what shape politics which also requires an understanding of?
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History
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1.14. Which of the following is NOT one of the four central questions the authors use throughout this book to help make sense of American politics and government?
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a. page 5 Who governs? b. page 8 How does American politics work? c. page 13 What does government do? D. What controls the society? is NOT a reoccurring theme.
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1.15. The principle that each branch of government has the authority to block the others, making it more difficult for any 1 branch to exercise too much power, is known as?
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Checks and balances
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1.16. The framers of the Constitution created the ________ as an intermediate body to elect the president.
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Electoral College
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1.17. The organizations, norms, and rules that structure political action are known as?
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Institutions
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1.18. The role of citizens is limited to choosing among competing leaders in the __________ theory of democracy.
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elite
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1.19. The key concept of the pluralist theory of democracy is?
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groups
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1.20. What is the term for a network of influence and money flowing between defense contractors, military figures in the Pentagon, and defense policy officials in Congress and the White House?
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Military-industrial complex
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1.21. What is Occupy Wall Street?
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a. the name given to a protest movement that began on September 17, 2011 b. a movement maintaining that the very wealthy—the top 1%—have stripped the people of money and influence c. a movement that addresses the growing income inequality and uneven wealth distribution in the United States D. all of the above
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1.22. What is the informal name for president-appointed positions, usually to lead a special project like the White House \”war on drugs\”?
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Presidential czars
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1.23. What is the name for a corrupt party that often ran a city or state government in the nineteenth-century United States?
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Political machine
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1.24. What is the term for an approach to political behavior that views individuals as rational, decisive actors who know their political interests and seek to act on them?
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Rational-choice theory
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1.25. Public-private partnerships have?
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a. improved many aspects of society. b. joined private actors like business firms with government officials. c. made different sectors come together to undertake projects. D. all of the above
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1.26. The system of government that rests ultimate governing power in its people, who may rule directly or via representatives, is called?
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Republic
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1.27. The theory that says that mass popular uprisings have the potential to introduce great changes regardless of who is in control of ordinary, day-to-day politics is known as?
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Social movement theory
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1.28. What is the name for the national social movement, primarily attracting fiscal and social conservatives, that sought to limit government spending and cut taxes?
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Tea Party
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2.1. The politics of American exceptionalism is guided, in large part, by seven key ideas. They include all of the following EXCEPT:
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a. self-rule b. individualism c. limited government D. agreement on what they mean7: freedom, self-rule, limited government, individualism, the American dream, equality and religion.
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2.2. Negative liberty is?
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Freedom from constraints or the interference of others.
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2.3. In 1944 President Roosevelt proclaimed the four freedoms. Of these, the first two: freedom of speech and religion—are types of?
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Negative liberty
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2.4. Liberty?
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a. has grown with time. b. reflects the American ideal. c. is a constant battle that can always go either way. D. all of the above
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2.5. Countries in which the public makes decisions without relying on elected officials, through referendums and petitions, are examples of?
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Democratic ideas
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2.6. What is the main difference between a republic and a democracy?
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In a democracy, people vote directly, and in a republic, people rule indirectly through their elected representatives.
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2.7. What is the paradox lying at the heart of the limited-government idea?
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People across the political spectrum demand government action.
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2.8. What idea is exemplified by the statement \”Since the Democrats won the election in 2008, they should put their policies into place?\”
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Self rule
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2.9. Individualism includes all of the following EXCEPT?
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a. opposes government controls and believes that private companies should be able to expand B. the belief that social democracies that are based on solidarity c. the belief that people and their families are responsible for their own welfare d. the belief that low taxes and a green light for private entrepreneurs
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2.10. Challenges to the American dream include debates on?
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a. whether the system is tilted toward the wealthy. c. promoting the wrong values. D. both a and c are true. b. whether the two political parties agree on America’s political culture is not true.
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2.11. All of the following are true EXCEPT?
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a. In 1965, the median American chief executive officer (CEO) made 26 times more than a typical worker. b. In contemporary United States, the CEO makes between 300 and 500 times the average employee. c. In western Europe, high taxes make it more difficult to grow very wealthy (or very poor). D. American society has become far more equal than nations like Japan, Sweden, or even Pakistan is not true.
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2.12. The United States aims for equal?
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Opportunity
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2.13. In contrast to the United States, citizens in advanced countries, from Britain and France to Japan and South Korea, tell pollsters that?
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God is not very important in their lives.
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2.14. Why did the framers add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
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a. because of their abiding faith in individualism b. because of the old American fear of too much government c. because of the American dream’s gospel of success D. all of the above
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2.15. The belief that the rules and organizations built into the government would shape popular behavior was held by?
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James Madison
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2.16. The view that the United States is unique, marked by a distinct set of ideas such as equality, self-rule, and limited government, is known as?
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American exceptionalism
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2.17. Which term means \”the ability to pursue one’s own desires without interference from others\”?
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Freedom
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2.18. Which term means \”the freedom and ability to pursue one’s goals\”?
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Positive Liberty
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2.19. Which term refers to a government in which citizens rule indirectly and make government decisions through their elected representatives?
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Republic
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2.20. What is a process in which citizens propose new laws or amendments to the state constitution?
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Initiative
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2.21. What are laws that permit the public to watch policy makers in action or access the records of the proceedings?
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Sunshine laws
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2.22. What is the name for Americans who believe in reduced government spending, personal responsibility, traditional moral values, and a strong national defense?
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Also known as \”right\” or \”right wing.\” Conservatives
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2.23. What is the name for Americans who value cultural diversity, government programs for the needy, public intervention in the economy, and individuals’ right to a lifestyle based on their own social and moral positions?
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Also known as \”left\” or \”left wing.\” Liberals
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2.24. What is the name for Americans who believe in minimal government—small army, no social programs, no social or moral legislation?
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Libertarians
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2.25. The idea that individuals, not the society, are responsible for their own well-being is called?
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Individualism
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2.26. Which term refers to a government whose citizens are responsible for one another’s well-being and use government policy to assure that all are comfortably cared for?
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Social democracy
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2.27. Political equality is a situation in which?
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Every citizen has the same political rights and opportunities.
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2.28. What is a statistical term for the number in the middle or the case that has an equal number of examples above or below it?
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Median
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2.29. What is the idea that every American has an equal chance to win economic success?
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Equal opportunity
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2.30. The orientation of citizens of a state toward politics is?
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Political culture
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3.1. Why did the Americans suddenly revolt against England?
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The English had run up a crushing debt during the ten years of war and decided the colonists should help pay it.
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3.2. The British did not agree with the colonial view of delegate representation because
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The English did not change their election districts every time the population shifted.
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3.3. All of the following contributed to the conflict between the British and the Americans? EXCEPT
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a. the Proclamation of 1763. b. the Quartering Act (1765). c. the mercantile trade policies of Britain. D. Native American’s rights to the land as denied by the British.
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3.4. The Boston Tea Party is a reference to?
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The colonists denying Parliament’s right to tax or regulate them without the approval of their elected legislatures.
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3.5. The Declaration of Independence derives its ideas from which Scottish political theorist, who wrote Two Treatises on Government?
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John Locke
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3.6. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could do all of the following EXCEPT
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a. resolve disputes between states. b. handle foreign affairs and negotiate treaties. c. coin money. D. collect taxes.
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3.7. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
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a. established a process through which individuals could buy western lands. b. established a mechanism for eastern expansion and political development. c. stopped the squabbling among states claiming western land. D. both a and c
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3.8. Which of the following was NOT one of the four major problems with the new American government?
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a. Congress could not raise taxes and had no money of its own. b. Requiring unanimity was easy and made it possible to amend the Articles. c. The state governments were dominated by their legislatures without any checks and balances. D. The strong national government had a difficult time standing up to foreign powers.
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3.9. Shays’s Rebellion demonstrated?
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The frustration of debtors in the wake of the Revolutionary War.
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3.10. Which of the following is NOT true about filtration, or indirect elections?
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A. Delegates made the public more involved in government, not true \”less\” page 79. b. The public voted for men (and later women) who would, in turn, vote for public officials page 79. c. Citizens won more control over electing presidents page 80. d. The debate over direct democracy and indirect representation continues to this day page 80.
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3.11. The most intense debate at the Constitutional Convention revolved around?
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How to apportion power in the national government.
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3.12. A person contracted to work for a fixed period (usually 3-7 years) in exchange for food, shelter, and transportation to the New World is called?
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Indentured servant
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3.13. What term do political theorists use when people elect their own representatives and expect them to respond to their desires and demands?
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Delegate representation
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3.14. What is the economic theory in which government controls foreign trade in order to maintain prosperity and security?
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Mercantilism
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3.15. The First Continental Congress was held in?
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1774
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3.16. What was the name of the convention of delegates from 13 colonies that became the acting national government for the duration of the Revolutionary War?
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Second Continental Congress
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3.17. What is the term for an amount higher than a simple majority, required in some cases for a proposal to win?
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Supermajority
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3.18. The big states’ plan intended to make the national government dominant over state governments was known as the?
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Virginia plan
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3.19. Power divided between national and state government is called?
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Federalism
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3.20. What is the principle that each branch of government has the authority to block and to influence the other branches?
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Checks and balances
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3.21. Classical republicanism?
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a. is the democratic ideal rooted in ancient Greece. b. requires citizens to participate directly in public affairs. c. seeks the public interest and shuns private gains. D. all of the above
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3.22. The first ten amendments to the Constitution, listing the rights guaranteed to every citizen, are known as?
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The Bill of Rights
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3.23. The process by which the Supreme Court declares that a right in the Bill of Rights also applies to state governments is known as?
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Incorporation
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3.24. What does originalism refer to?
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A principle of interpretation that always tries to discern the original meaning of those who wrote the Constitution.
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3.25. What is the term for a principle of interpretation based on the idea that the Constitution evolves and that it must be put in the context of contemporary realities?
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Pragmatism
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3.26. On July 4, 1776, the Congress voted to adopt a Declaration of Independence that includes all of the following ideals EXCEPT which one?
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a. People are endowed with rights that cannot be taken away. b. Rights include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. c. People form governments to protect those rights. D. Governments derive their just powers from God.
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4.1. Immigration enforcement is a_________responsibility.
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national
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4.2. Most nations in the 1780s had?
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Unitary governments
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4.3. Some states grant local governments broad powers, known as?
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Home rule
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4.4. Federalism’s advantages include all of the following EXCEPT
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B. coordination among federal, state, and local agencies. The following were the advantages. a. protection of individual rights. c. protection against dangerous leaders. d. multiple sources of innovation.
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4.5. Critics of federalism fear that competition between states and localities leads to a?
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Race to the bottom
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4.6. Article 1, section 8, lists nineteen powers of the federal government which aka express, enumerated or granted powers, including all EXCEPT
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A. regulating commerce within states. b. raising an army. c. punishing pirates. d. establishing a post office.
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4.7. Which of the following does the Obama administration’s legal challenge to the Arizona immigration law demonstrate?
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Supremacy clause
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4.8. The states’ reserved powers include all EXCEPT
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a. public education. b. public health. C. interstate commerce. d. organizing state elections.
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4.9. The part of the Constitution that directs each state to give full faith and credit to the actions of other states is controversial because?
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States disagree with policies enacted by others.
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4.10. Cooperative federalism, characterized by blurred lines of authority and a much more active national government, took place under which president?
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Franklin Roosevelt
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4.11. Ronald Reagan’s presidency (1981-1989) ushered in another significant change in American federalism, termed as?
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New Federalism; conservatives tipped the power away from national officials to give the states more decision making authority.
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4.12. Officials at different levels of government often?
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Strongly disagree about what counts as an unfunded mandate.
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4.13. McCulloch v. Maryland, decided in 1819?
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Marks a victory for national power
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4.14. A national polity governed as a single unit, with the central government exercising all or most political authority, is known as a?
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Unitary government
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4.15. A group of independent states or nations that yield some of their powers to a national government, although each state retains a degree of sovereign authority, is known as?
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Confederation
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4.16. Governmental arrangement where power is shared among different levels—nation, states, counties, and local city/town governments—is found in?
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The United States
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4.17. Spreading of policy ideas from one city or state to others, a process typical of US federalism, is called?
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Diffusion
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4.18. National government powers set out explicitly in the Constitution are known as?
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Granted powers
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4.19. The necessary and proper clause?
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a. defines Congress constitutional authority in article 1, section 8. b. authorizes Congress to exercise the necessary and proper powers to carry out its designated functions. c. is also called the elastic clause. D. all of the above
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4.20. The constitutional declaration in article 6, section 2 that the national government’s authority prevails over any conflicting state or local government’s claims is called?
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The supremacy clause
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4.21. What is the name for the constitutional guarantee in the 10th Amendment that the states retain government authority not explicitly granted to the national government?
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Reserved powers
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4.22. What is the name for the constitutional requirement (in article 4, section 1) that each state recognize and uphold laws passed by any other state?
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Full faith and credit clause
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4.23. What is the name for governmental authority shared jointly by national and state governments, such as the power to tax residents?
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Concurrent powers
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4.24. Dual or layer cake federalism refers to?
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A clear division of governing authority between national and state governments.
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4.25. National government funding provided to state/local governments, along with specific instructions about how the funds may be used, are?
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Grant-in-aids
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4.26. Transferring authority from national to state or local government levels is called?
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Devolution
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4.27. What is the term for obligation imposed on state or local government officials by federal legislation, without sufficient federal funding support to cover the costs?
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Unfunded mandate
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4.28. What is the critical term applied to government’s inability to advance policy solutions because of clashes among different branches or between national and state officials?
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Gridlock
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13.1. The first woman Speaker in American history is?
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Nancy Pelosi
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13.2. Differences in the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA), popularly known as \”Obamacare,\” were ironed out in the?
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Conference committee
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13.3. Each woman and man in the Senate possesses a remarkable degree of autonomy, especially compared to the average House member, because?
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Anyone in the Senate can place a legislative hold on a bill.
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13.4. Congressional powers, as granted under the Constitution?
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Are extensive and very clearly defined.
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13.5. What does substantive representation of the Congress refer to?
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Sharing the same views about the political issues as the constituent.
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13.6. Today, when the 113th Congress is made up of different genders, ethnicities, religions, and professions, we say the representation is?
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Descriptive
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13.7. The United States appears around the middle with respect to the proportion of women in legislative bodies around the world because?
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a. some nations require a certain percentage of women in their legislature. b. there is little respect for women in America. c. it is easier for women to be in legislature in the parliamentary system of government. D. both a and c
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13.8. When the representatives use their best judgment as they sit in the House or Senate, with considerably more information than their constituents, it is known as the __________ view of representation.
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trustee
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13.9. The highest priority for members of the Congress is?
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Focusing intensely on re-election
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13.10. As of 2012, the current rate of pay for congressional members is?
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$174,000
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13.11. Which of the following is NOT a Capitol Hill buzzword?
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a. Christmas tree-Bill packed with benefits for constituents b. medagogue-Loud member spotlighter: medicare, insurance 65> C. King of the Hill d. school-lunch-embarrass majority party by denouncing budget cuts
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13.12. \”Whales\” in the Congress is a reference to?
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a. those who could enact landmark legislation. b. chairs of important committees. c. dutiful followers of others in the House. D. both a and b
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13.13. Pick the INCORRECT statement:
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a. The framers built rough equality of power across House and Senate into their original constitutional design. b. The equality of House and Senate can lead to competition and conflict across the two chambers. c. The equality of House and Senate makes the path to legislation more difficult. D. Advocates of stability appreciate the responsive House; populists embrace the more deliberate Senate.
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13.14. The inability of Congress to advance major items in a timely fashion (or at all)—also termed \”policy stalemate\” —is known as?
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Gridlock
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13.15. What is a group of House or Senate members that convenes regularly to discuss common interests?
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Congressional caucus
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13.16. What rule, unique to the US Senate, allows any senator to hold the floor—and thereby delay an unwanted bill or other measure?
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Filibuster
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13.17. A temporary collection of House and Senate members, appointed to work out a compromise, is known as a?
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Conference committee
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13.18. The only legislative branch of a state government that is unicameral is in?
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Nebraska
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13.19. Constitutional powers of Congress include all of the following EXCEPT
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a. raising revenue through taxes and international borrowing. b. regulating trade and commerce among the American states and with other countries. c. declaring war. D. preparing the budget of the United States.
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13.20. What is an informal way a senator objects to a bill or measure reaching the Senate floor?
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Legislative hold
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13.21. America’s Congress is bicameral; the House has _____ members, while the Senate has ______ members.
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House of Representatives 435; Senat 100 (1D/1R per state)
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13.22. House members are elected for _____ years; Senate members are elected for ____ years.
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House of Representatives are elected every 2 years. Senate members are elected every 6 years
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13.23. What is the term for a House district with electoral lines drawn to maximize the proportion of black or Latino voters, who tend to elect members of similar backgrounds?
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Majority-minority district
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13.24. What is the term for a reorganization of the boundaries of House districts, a process that follows the results of the US census, taken every 10 years?
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Reapportionment
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13.25. The president pro tempore is?
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The majority-party senator with the longest Senate service
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13.26. The primary means by which committees collect and analyze information as legislative policy making gets under way is?
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The committee hearing
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13.27. Gathering of a full committee to draft the final version of a bill before the committee votes on it is called?
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The committee markup session
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13.28. The Senate’s only approved method for halting a filibuster or lifting a legislative hold is?
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The Cloture
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13.29. What is the name of the congressional vote in which the presiding officer asks those for and against to say \”Yea\” or \”Nay,\” respectively, and announces the result?
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Voice vote
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14.1. The longest presidency was held by?
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Franklin Roosevelt
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14.2. What is one reason the presidency is so fluid?
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Article 2 says very little about who the president is and what the president does
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14.3. Which of the following is NOT one of the president’s expressed powers?
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a. the power to make treaties b. the power to act as commander in chief of the army, navy, and state militias C. the power to declare war d. the power to grant pardons and reprieves for offenses against the United States
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14.4. What power have US presidents never been denied?
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The power to select Supreme Court justices and other officers.
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14.5. All of the following presidents displayed imperial traits EXCEPT
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a. Lyndon Johnson. b. Richard Nixon. c. George W. Bush. D. Bill Clinton.
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14.6. A president trying to broker peace in the Middle East is acting in the role of?
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Top diplomat
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14.7. In an effort to regain some of its authority, Congress?
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Passed the War Powers Act in 1973
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14.8. In the role of first legislator, presidents?
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Define the legislative agenda long before they arrive in office
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14.9. A presidential \”batting average\” refers to?
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A president’s legislative success
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14.10. Which president used \”signing statements\” to challenge, limit, or reject an estimated 1,200 sections of congressional bills—roughly twice as many challenges as all previous presidents combined?
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George W. Bush
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14.11. Ronald Reagan’s presidency (1981-1989) ushered in another significant change in American federalism, termed?
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New Federalism
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14.12. Today, presidents \”go public\”?
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Primarily through the media
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14.13. Which of the following is NOT true with respect to approval ratings?
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a. Presidents start with high approval scores, usually above 60%. b. A slow decline typically bottoms out midway through the second year. c. There is typically a gradual ascent and peak toward the end of the fourth year. D. They always rise above 50% in time for reelection.
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14.14. According to the best-known model of the personal presidency, those who have high self-esteem and adapt well to changing circumstances are?
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Active-Positives
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14.15. Active-Negatives seek power and ambition and have a troubled presidency because they find it psychologically difficult to admit failure and instead keep pursuing ill-fated policies. Which of the following is an example?
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Richard Nixon
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14.16. What is the name for the system in which Americans elect a president by voting for electors who then choose the president?
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Electoral College
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14.17. Today, the electors of each state cast their votes for?
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The candidate who won the state
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14.18. The presidency was created by article ________ of the US Constitution.
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Article 2
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14.19. Powers the Constitution explicitly grants to the president are?
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Expressed powers
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14.20. What are the powers assumed by the presidents,often during crises, on the basis of the constitutional phrase \”the executive power shall be vested in the president\”?
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Inherent powers
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14.21. The idea that the Constitution puts the president in charge of executing the laws, and therefore no other branch should limit presidential discretion over executive matters, is known as?
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Unitary executive theory
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14.22. When signing bills into law, presidents often make statements that offer the administration’s interpretation of the law; these are known as?
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Signing statements
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14.23. Some critics refer to an American presidency that has begun to demonstrate imperial traits—indicating that the republic is slowly morphing into an empire—as a(n) ___________ presidency.
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imperial
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14.24. Presidential roles include all of the following EXCEPT
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A. head of the Senate.. b. commander in chief. c. first legislator. d. head bureaucrat.
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14.25. A unified government is a?
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Government in which one party controls the White House and Congress
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14.26. The presidential power to block an act of Congress by refusing to sign it is called?
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Veto power
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14.27. Top officials in the executive agencies appointed by the president are?
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Political appointees
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14.28. The agencies that help the president manage his daily activities are in the?
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Executive Office of the President (EOP)
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14.29. The OMB’s authority to review and \”clear\” (or okay) anything a member of the administration says or does in public is called?
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Central clearance
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14.30. Which First Lady became a one-woman campaign for liberal social policy and a popular symbol of the New Deal?
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Eleanor Roosevelt
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15.1. Which of the following is NOT listed in the chapter as one of the national issues that pushed the US to develop the large bureaucracy we have today?
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a. morality. b. economics. c. race. D. income.
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15.2. Well-specified codes of conduct called Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) fall under which category of the bureaucratic model?
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Fixed Routines Hierarchy (chain of command), Divisions of Labor (split the work), Equal Rules for All (opposite of the Spoils System-who you knew), Technical Qualifications (Bureaucracies operate on basis of expertise-job goes to the best qualified)
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15.3. When an agency sometimes develops routines (SOPs) that favor some constituents over others, it is known as?
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Clientelism (ex. Dept of Agriculture send out multiple forms to qualify for loans, they will favor Agr-Corp with book-keepers/secretaries over small family farms where there is little time for 50 page forms.
question

15.4. Democratic dilemma refers to?
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a. the generality of the citizens and the expertise of bureaucrats. b. the expertise of the citizens and the generality of bureaucrats. c. because they rely on specialized expertise and information, bureaucracies pose a dilemma for democratic governance. D. all of the above
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15.5. Who reads the Federal Register?
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Any citizen can read it. (Implementation is the last step: the president proposed the law, congress passed it, the courts upheld it and the bureaucratic agency published draft rules, gathered comments and published final rules in the Federal Register)
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15.6. Today, the concern about iron triangles is fading because?
answer

It is difficult for a small group to quietly dominate the process. (bureaucrats develop close alliances with members of Congress as well as interest group lobbyists. EPA work with green members of Congress and environmental groups/industries affected by regulations; ATF-E work closely with gun makers and members of Congress who care about guns: connections among bureaucrats, members of Congress and the industry become too cozy)
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15.7. Today, civil servants number approximately?
answer

7 million
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15.8. The Department of Homeland Security was created in?
answer

2002
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15.9. Why did President Obama ask the Bush administration’s secretary of defense, Robert Gates, to stay on?
answer

He could not afford a slow transition at Defense because he planned to take immediate action
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15.10. Every president (from both parties) since the _______ has appointed a diverse cabinet that reflects the nation.
answer

1970
question

15.11. The cabinet and other appointed executives provide political ______; the civil servants provide _______.
answer

direction; expertise
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15.12. The Federal Trade Commission is one of the?
answer

Independent regulatory commissions
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15.13. In theory, who controls the bureaucracy?
answer

The President
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15.14. Which of the following is NOT one of the powers through which Congress shapes the bureaucracy?
answer

a. oversight b. authorization c. reorganization D. budgeting
question

15.15. Government jobs given out as political favors are known as?
answer

The Spoils System
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15.16. The Pendleton Civil Service Act shifted American government toward a(n)?
answer

Merit-based public service
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15.17. Government by universal rules, impartially applied, is?
answer

Universalistic politics
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15.18. Bureaucratic pathologies are______________ that tend to develop in bureaucratic systems.
answer

problems
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15.19. The bureaucratic model has all of the following EXCEPT
answer

a. hierarchy. b. division of labor. c. fixed routines. D. different rules for different people.
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15.20. What is it called when the agency publishes a draft of the legal rules in the Federal Register and gathers comments from interested parties?
answer

Proposed rule
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15.21. What is the rule that specifies how a program will actually operate?
answer

Final rule
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15.22. Who are the top bureaucratic officials appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate?
answer

Political appointees
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15.23. What is the theory that industries dominate the agencies that regulate them?
answer

Regulatory capture
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15.24. Private companies that contract to provide goods and services for the government are called?
answer

Private contractors
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15.25. What is the term for analyses of how policy makers (principals) can control actors who work for them (agents) but have far more information?
answer

Principal agent theory
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15.26. Street-level bureaucrats are?
answer

Public officials who deal directly with the public
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15.27. A federal worker who reports corruption or fraud is called a?
answer

Whistleblower
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15.28. Sunshine laws?
answer

a. require public hearings and citizen input. b. make the executive bureaucracy more transparent. c. open up bureaucratic debates to public view. D. all of the above
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15.29. What 1966 law facilitates full or partial disclosure of government information and documents?
answer

Freedom of Information Act
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16.1. The Schiavo case demonstrated that?
answer

a. judicial power is divided across state and federal courts. b. the president gave the final ruling. c. the Supreme Court refused to intervene one last time. D. both a and c
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16.2. The annual US criminal caseload includes how many cases filed in state courts?
answer

35-40 million
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16.3. Which country outpaces any other country, with roughly 1.1 million lawyers?
answer

The United States (1 lawyer per 275 citizens) Brazil (1: 326) UK (1:401) Canada (1:450) Germany (1:593) India (1: 1,200) France (1: 1,403) Japan (1: 5,772)
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16.4. Pick the INCORRECT statement:
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a. Traditionally, lawyers and courts enjoyed high prestige. b. The Supreme Court recently received its lowest approval ratings in at least 25 years. C. Law, lawyers, and the legal system all enjoy glowing reputations. d. The judiciary still generally ranks just above the president and towers over Congress.
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16.5. ____________ constitute something of a \”third judiciary\” alongside state and federal courts.
answer

Specialized courts
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16.6. The Supreme Court justice appointed by President Obama is?
answer

Sonia Sotomayor
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16.7. Eleven percent of federal judges are?
answer

African Americans
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16.8. The breakthrough with judicial review came in the landmark case?
answer

Marbury v. Madison (1803)
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16.9. When the justices agree to hear a case, the Supreme Court issues a(n)?
answer

Court will issue a \”writ of certiorari\” (opt to hear the case) Amicus curiae (Latin: Friend of the court) is an un-involved party endorsing one side or the other to the Supreme Court (see link) http://www.scotusblog.com/reference/educational-resources/supreme-court-procedure/
question

16.10. In Roe v. Wade, a federal district court dismissed the case because it?
answer

Was moot (irrelevant)
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16.11. Which of the following is NOT true about Supreme Court clerks?
answer

a. They assist the justices. b. They are recent law school graduates. C. They do not exercise influence on justices. d. They help the justices write opinions and reach decisions.
question

16.12. Four different perspectives that help explain how justices make their decisions include all of the following EXCEPT
answer

a. following precedent. b. ideology. c. institutional protection. D. public opinion.
question

16.13. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) is a landmark case because?
answer

It cemented the infamous doctrine of \”separate but equal\” for nearly 60 years
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16.14. Roe v. Wade (1973) is a landmark case because?
answer

It struck down a Texas statute outlawing abortion
question

16.15. The courts face four popular criticisms that include all of the following EXCEPT
answer

a. cost. b. bias. c. power. D. term length.
question

16.16. What is the system of federal justices, organized into district courts and circuit courts, who hear appeals from lower courts, culminating in the Supreme Court?
answer

Appellate courts
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16.17. What is the term for the first level of federal courts, which actually try the cases?
answer

District courts
question

16.18. What is the term for the second stage of federal courts, which review the trial record of cases decided in district court to insure they were settled properly?
answer

Circuit courts
question

16.19. The Court’s authority to strike down acts that violate the Constitution is called?
answer

Judicial review
question

16.20. What is the constitutional provision that declares the federal Constitution and statutes the supreme law of the land?
answer

Supremacy clause
question

16.21. What is a vigorous or active approach to reviewing the other branches of government?
answer

Judicial activism
question

16.22. What is the view that the Constitution is an evolving document that changes with the times?
answer

Pragmatism vs Originalist (who believe we must interpret the document’s text literally)
question

16.23. What is the system of law developed by judges in deciding cases over the centuries?
answer

Common law Precedent (Judicial decisions that offer a guide to similar cases in the future) Stare decisis (deciding cases on the bases of previous rulings or precedents)
question

16.24. What term applies to cases that involve disputes between two parties?
answer

Civil law Criminal law (cases in which someone is charged with breaking the law)
question

16.25. The plaintiff is?
answer

The party that brings the action Defendant (The party that is sued in a court case)
question

16.26. What is the term for a brief submitted by a person or group that is not a direct party to the case?
answer

Amicus curiae: Before the hearing, the parties submit written briefs spelling out the details of their argument. Other interested parties may submit their own briefs, endorsing the side they favor. The outside contributions are known as (friends of the court)
question

16.27. The official statement of the Court is called the?
answer

Majority Opinion Concurrent opinion (explanation why they voted in favor of the majority outcome)
question

16.28. A statement on behalf of the justices who voted in the minority is called the?
answer

Dissent (Justices who disagree about the outcome, give bases for future rethinking of the issues by the Court)
question

16.29. Clear and present danger is?
answer

Court doctrine that free speech could be curtailed, because the speech may lead to prohibited action like violence or terrorism. The clear and present danger test guided the court for fifty years, it was rewritten in 1969. Recall that a test is a general principle designed to guide future court decisions on a topic.

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