POL 151 test 2

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ideology
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spells out what is valued and what is not, what must be maintained and what must be changed
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liberalism
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ideology that regards the individual as rational being capable of overcoming obstacles to a better world and supports changes in the political and economic status quo
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contract theory
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state gains legitimacy from the consent of the governed and is formed primarily to protect the rights of individuals to life, liberty, and property
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classical liberalism
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minimal government; protection of property rights
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populism
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democratization of government; economic reforms
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progressivism
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social programs to cope with problems caused by industrialization; public limits on private corporate power
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contemporary liberalism
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the positive state; faith in solving problems collectively through government; programs to provide for the economic well-being of the nation, including the basic material needs of each individual; tolerance of various lifestyles
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neoliberalism
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creation, not redistribution, of wealth; free trade; reform of entitlement programs; a strong but economical defense
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conservatism
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defense of the political and economic status quo against forces of change, holding that established customs, laws, and traditions should govern society
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early American conservatism
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sanctity of private property; distrust of unchecked popular rule; duty of government to promote a healthy economic environment and a virtuous citizenry
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Industrial Age conservatism
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laissez-faire economics; individualism; social Darwinism
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contemporary conservatism
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reduced spending on social programs; revamping tax policies to encourage economic growth; strong military defense; little positive action to redress racial and gender discrimination; duty of government to promote a virtuous citizenry
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neoconservatism
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skepticism of government’s ability to solve social and economic problems; acceptance of a modest welfare state; opposition to racial and gender quotas to redress discrimination; creation, not redistribution, of wealth; assertive foreign policy
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Democratic Socialism
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public ownership of basic industries, banks, agricultural enterprises, and communications systems; wage and price controls; redistribution of wealth to achieve true economic equality; expanded welfare programs
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industrial policy
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proposals for partnership in economic decision making among government officials, corporate leaders, union officials, and public interest groups
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Americans for Democratic Action
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(ADA) best-known pressure group for contemporary liberalism
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laissez-faire economics
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French for \”leave things alone\”: the view in economics that government should not interfere in the workings of the economy
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social Darwinism
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applies Darwin’s theory of biological evolution to society and holds that social relationships occur within a struggle for survival in which only the fittest survive
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libertarianism
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state should regulate neither the economic nor the moral life of its citizens (revival of Classical Liberalism)
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public opinion
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array of beliefs and attitudes that people hold about political and related affairs
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constant facets of public opinion
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love of country and pride in the nation’s accomplishments
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dynamic facets of public opinion
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fluctuate considerably in response to social, political, and economic events

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