Physio Psych Unit 1

CHAPTER 1
ORIGINS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

Consciousness (book)
ability to communicate our thoughts and feelings to others

Which of the following is most consistent with the proposition that consciousness is a physio function?
Our awareness levels change with our emotional states

Epileptic seizures can be controlled by
cutting the corpus callosum.

________ is a type of explanation used by scientists
Generalization

What philosophers/scientists attributed thought and emotion to the brain?
Hippocrates

Galvani’s experiment showed that ________ of a frog nerve caused ________ of the attached muscle.
electrical stimulation; contraction

Darwin proposed the principle of
natural selection.

________ is the original name for the field which involves the study of the physiology of behavior.
Physiological psychology

________ are physicians trained to diagnose and to treat diseases of the central nervous system.
Neurologists

Recent models of the nervous system have tried to understand the brain in terms of
the functions of computer programs.

Split Brain Operation
Cutting the corpus callosum; greatly reduces frequency of epileptic seizures

Forms of Scientific Explanation
Generalization and Reduction

Generalization
– Particular instances of behavior as examples of general laws
– deduce from their experiments explained

Reduction
Complex phenomena explained in terms of simpler ones

René Descartes
– first to suggest link between mind & brain
– Sense organ inform mind and the mind informs movement
– Recognized pineal gland but w/ wrong function

Luigi Galvani
Electrical Stimulation of frog nerve caused muscle contraction
– disproved Descartes (electricity not mechanics)

Johannes Mueller
– Doctrine of specific nerve energies
– all nerves carry same basic message—an electrical impulse—we perceive messages of different nerves in different ways

Pierre Flourens
– used experimental ablation to remove parts of brains and observe animal behavior
– claimed to found what controlled heart rate & breathing, purposeful movements, & visual & auditory reflexes

Paul Broca
– Found portion of cerebral cortex on front part of left side of brain performs funct. necessary for speech (Broca’s Area)
– Apply principle of experimental ablation to human brain
– Observe the behavior of people whose brains had been damaged by strokes

Gustav Fritsch & Eduard Hitzig
– applied weak electrical current to the exposed surface of a dog’s brain
– muscles contract on opposite side of body
– region = primary motor cortex

Helmholtz
Measured speed of nerve impulses = 90ft./sec.
– neural conduction was more than a simple electrical message

Darwin
– Formulated the principles of natural selection & evolution
– organism’s characteristics have funct. significance

Functionalism
Characteristics of living organisms perform useful funct.
Physio.mechs. of living organisms have funct. but not purpose

natural selection
– Species not all identical
– offspring will inherit favorable characteristics

Evolve
to develop gradually (“to unroll”)

Mutations
Accidental changes in chromosomes of sperm/egg

Selective advantage
mutations are harmful, offspring fails to survive or survives with some sort of defect=> dies off before reproduction of mutation

Neoteny
Prolongation of maturation of brain/head
disproportionate size relative to rest of body

CHAPTER 2
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Soma
Cell Body of a neuron, contains the nucleus
Shape varies

Dendrite
Branched structure attached to soma; receives info from the terminal buttons of other neurons

Synapse
Junction between the terminal button of an axon and the membrane of another neuron

Axon
Long, thin, cylindrical structure
carries info from soma to its terminal buttons

Action potential
basic message the axon carries

Multipolar Neuron
one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma

Bipolar Neuron
one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma

Unipolar Neuron
one axon attached to its soma
Axon divides: 1st branch receives sensory info & 2nd sending info into CNS

Terminal Button
Bud at end of a branch of axon
Forms synapses w/ another neuron
Sends info to that neuron

Neurotransmitter
Chemical released by terminal button; excitatory or inhibitory effect on another neuron

Cytoskeleton
Formed of microtubules & other protein fibers, linked to each other = forming cohesive mass, giving a cell its shape

Enzyme
Molecule that controls a chemical reaction, combining two substances or breaking a substance into two parts

Microtubule
Long strand of bundles of protein filaments arrange around a hollow core;
involved in transporting substances from place to place within cell

Axoplasmic transport
Active process by which substances are propelled along microtubules that run length of the axon

Supporting Cells
Store nutrients, support & protect neurons

Glia
(Hall monitor) Cells also surround and isolate synapses limiting dispersion of neurotransmitters that are released by terminal buttons

Astrocyte
(Glial cell) provides support for neurons of the CNS, provides nutrients and other substances, and regulates chemical composition of extracellular fluid

Phagocytosis
(Glial cell- Pacman) cells engulf & digest other cells or debris caused by cellular degeneration

Oligodendrocyte
(Glial cell) forms myelin sheaths (possibly on multiple axons)

Myelin sheath
insulation surrounds axons; prevents messages from spreading between adjacent axons

Node of Ranvier
Naked portion of a myelinatedaxon

Microglia
Smallest of glial cells
Act as phagocytes & protect brain from invading microorganisms

Schwann Cells
In PNS that is wrapped around a myelinatedaxon, (only 1 segment of myelin sheath)

Blood-brain barrier
Semipermeable barrier between blood & brain produced by cells in walls of brain’s capillaries

Area postrema
Region of medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak= detects poisons and initiates vomiting

Membrane potential
Electrical charge across a cell membrane; difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell

Resting potential
Membrane potential of neuron when it isnt being altered by excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic potentials; (-70 mV)

Depolarization
Reduction (toward zero) of membrane potential of cell from its normal resting potential

Hyperpolarization
Increase in membrane potential of cell, relative to normal resting potential

Action potential
Brief electrical impulse that provides basis for conduction of info along axon

Threshold of excitation
Value of membrane potential that must be reached to produce action potential

Diffusion
Movement of molecules high -> low concentration (When there are no forces or barriers to prevent them from doing so)

ion
Charged molecule
-Cations are positively charged
-Anions are negatively charged

Sodium-potassium transporters
Protein found in membrane of all cells that extrudes sodium ions from & transports potassium ions into cell

Ion channels
Specialized protein molecule that permits specific ions to enter or leave cells

All-or-none law
Principle that once an action potential is triggered in axon, it is fired, without decreasing power, to end of fiber

Rate law
how fast/the rate the neuron fires varies with the intensity of a stimulus/info being transmitted

Saltatory conduction
Conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons
Action potential appears to jump from one node of Ranvier to next

Postsynaptic potential
Alterations in the membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron, produced by liberation of neurotransmitter at the synapse

Binding site
Location on a receptor protein to which a ligand binds

Ligand
Chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor

Dendritic spine
Small bud on the surface of a dendrite, with which a terminal button of another neuron forms a synapse

Presynaptic membrane
Membrane of a terminal button that lies adjacent to postsynaptic membrane & through which neurotransmitter is released

Postsynaptic membrane
Cell membrane opposite terminal button in a synapse; membrane of cell that receives message

Synaptic cleft
Space between presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane

Postsynaptic potentials can be:
depolarizing (excitatory) or hyperpolarizing (inhibitory)

What determines nature of postsynaptic potential at a particular synapse?
characteristics of postsynaptic receptors– by particular type of ion channel they open

Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
Excitatory (depolarize) postsynaptic potential

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
Inhibitory (hyperpolarize) of postsynaptic potential

postsynaptic potential (PSP)
synapses inhibitory neurotransmitters open chloride channels instead of (or in addition to) potassium channels
– Effect of opening chloride channels depends on membrane potential of neuron

Reuptake
Reentry of a neurotransmitter just liberated by a terminal button back through its membrane, thus terminating postsynaptic potential

Enzymatic deactivation
Destruction of a neurotransmitter by enzyme after its release

Example of Enzymatic deactivation
destruction of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter found in brain, spinal cord, and parts of PNS; responsible for muscular contraction

Acetylcholinesterase
Enzyme that destroys acetylcholine soon after it is liberated by terminal buttons, thus terminating postsynaptic potential

Neural integration
Process by which inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials summate and control rate of firing of neuron

Autoreceptor
Receptor molecule located on neuron that responds to neurotransmitter released by that neuron

Presynaptic inhibition
– Action of presynaptic terminal button in axoaxonic synapse
– Reduces amount of neurotransmitter released by postsynaptic terminal button

Presynaptic facilitation
– Action of presynaptic terminal button in axoaxonic synapse
– Increases amount of neurotransmitter released by postsynaptic terminal button

The process which terminates the postsynaptic potentials induced by most neurotransmitters is
reuptake of the molecule into the axon terminal

The “all-or-none law” refers to the observation that an action potential
Is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches threshold

The process by which molecules are evenly distributed throughout a medium is
Diffusion

The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at …
more than 100 billion

The _____ carries information from the cell body out to the terminal buttons
Axon

The process of phagocytosis involves
he removal of neuronal debris

Which of the following represents the normal order of activation in neuronal transmission
dendrite -> cell body -> axon -> terminal button

The membranes that most commonly form synapses are the ________ and the ________
Axon terminal; dendrites

Activation of cells within the area postrema would be predicted to produce:
feelings of nausea and vomiting

The ________ system is comprised of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous

CHAPTER 3
Structure of the Nervous System

Neuraxis
Imaginary line drawn through center of length of central nervous system, from the bottom of spinal cord to front of forebrain

Anterior
Located near or toward the head in the CNS

Posterior
Located near or toward the tail in the CNS

Rostral
“Toward the beak”; with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction along neuraxis toward front of face
Toward side of body, away from middle

Medial
toward the middle of the body, away from side

ipsilateral
refers to structures on same side of the body

Contralateral
Refers to structures on opposite sides of body

Cross Section
With respect to CNS, a slice taken at right angles to neuraxis

Frontal section
slice through brain parallel to forehead

Horizontal section
Slice through brain parallel to ground

Caudal
Toward the tail; ; with respect to the CNS, in a direction along neuraxis away from front of face

Dorsal
“Toward the back”; with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction perpendicular to neuraxis toward top of head or back

Ventral
“Toward the belly”; with respect to central nervous system, in a direction perpendicular to neuraxis toward the bottom of skull or front surface of body

Sagittal section
Slice through brain parallel to neuraxis and perpendicular to ground

Midsagittal plane
Plane through neuraxis perpendicular to ground; divides brain into two symmetrical halves

Meninges
Three layers of tissue that encase central nervous system: dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater

Dura mater
Outermost of the meninges; tough and flexible

Arachnoid
Middle layer of meninges, located between outer dura mater and inner pia mater

Pia mater
Layer of meninges that clings to surface of brain; thin and delicate

Subarachnoid space
Fluid-filled space that cushions brain; located between arachnoid membrane and pia mater

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Clear fluid, similar to blood plasma, that fills ventricular system of brain and subarachnoid space surrounding brain and spinal cord

Ventricle
One of hollow spaces within brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebral aqueduct
Narrow tube interconnecting third and fourth ventricles of the brain

Choroid plexus
Highly vascular tissue that protrudes into ventricles and produces cerebrospinal fluid

Neural tube
Hollow tube, closed at rostral end, that forms from ectodermal tissue early in embryonic development;
Serves as origin of CNS

Major brain division
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

Cerebral cortex
(Forebrain) Primary visual cortex
(visual system); 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

Basal Ganglia
(Forebrain) concerned with motor control
amygala, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, putamen

limbic system
(forebrain) concerned with emotion and motivation; interconnecting fiber bundles, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, anterior, thalamus, mammillary bodies

thalamus
(forebrain) relay nuclei to cerebral cortex

Hypothalamus
(forebrain) Control of automatic nervous system &endocrine system & organizes behaviors related to survival of species
4 F’s: fighting, feeding, fleeing, and mating

tectum (“roof”)
(midbrain) superior colliculus (visual tectum)
inferior colliculus (auditory tectum)

tegmentum (“covering”)
(midbrain) reticular formation- sleep and arousal
red nucleus- part of a motor system
substantia nigra- part of motor system
occulomotor nucleu- control eye movement

cerebellum
(Hindbrain) motor coordination, learning

pons
(Hindbrain) sleep and arousal, contains part of reticular formation, and some nuclei of the cranial nerves

Medulla Oblongata
control of vital functions: respiration, heart, muscle tonus

Neurogenesis
Production of new neurons
– Adult brain contains some stem cells that can divide and produce neurons

Forebrain
Surrounds rostral end of the neural tube
Has two major components: telencephalon and diencephalon

Cerebral hemisphere
One of two major portions of forebrain, covered by cerebral cortex

Subcortical region
Region located within brain, beneath cortical surface

Fissure
Major groove in surface of the brain, larger than sulcus

Gyrus
Convolution of cortex of cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures

Calcarine fissure
Fissure located in occipital lobe on medial surface of brain
primary visual cortex is located along its upper and lower banks

Sensory Association Cortex
cerebral cortex sends info here
analyze info received from the primary sensory cortex
Perception takes place here & memories are stored here

Although two cerebral hemispheres perform somewhat different functions, ________ & __________ are unified
perceptions; memories

Neocortex
Phylogenetically newest cortex, including primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex, and association cortex

Limbic cortex
Phylogenetically old cortex, located at medial edge (“limbus”) of cerebral hemispheres
Part of limbic system

Hippocampus
(Forebrain temporal lobe) constitutes important part of limbic system; includes hippocampus proper (Ammon’s horn), dentate gyrus, and subiculum

Fornix
Fiber bundle that connects hippocampus w/ other parts of brain: mammillary bodies of hypothalamus; part of limbic system

Nuclei
Groups of neurons of similar shape

Parkinson’s disease is caused by
Neurological disease characterized by tremors, rigidity of limbs, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements; caused by degeneration of nigrostriatal system

Projection fiber
Axon of a neuron in one region of the brain whose terminals form synapses with neurons in another region

Much of endocrine system is controlled by hormones produced by cells in…
the hypothalamus

Posterior pituitary gland
extension of hypothalamus

superior & Inferior colliculi
four bumps on dorsal surface of brain stem

Cerebellar peduncle
One of three bundles of axons that attach each cerebellar hemisphere to the dorsal pons

Damage to cerebellum impairs
standing, walking, or performance of coordinated movements

Spinal cord
– thick as an adult’s little finger
– distribute motor fibers to the effector organs of the body
– collect somatosensory information to be passed on to the brain

Spinal root
Bundle of axons surrounded by connective tissue that occurs in pairs, which fuse & form spinal nerve

Cauda equina
Bundle of spinal roots located caudal to end of spinal cord

Caudal block
Anesthesia and paralysis of lower part of body produced by injection of local anesthetic into cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the cauda equina

Dorsal root
Spinal root that contains incoming (afferent) sensory fibers

Ventral root
Spinal root that contains outgoing (efferent) motor fibers

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
brain and spinal cord communicate with the rest of the body via the cranial nerves and spinal nerves

Spinal nerve
Peripheral nerve attached to the spinal cord

Afferent axon
Axon directed toward central nervous system, conveying sensory information

Dorsal root ganglion
Nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of afferent spinal nerve neurons

Efferent axon
Axon directed away from central nervous system, conveying motor commands to muscles and glands

cranial nerves
12 pairs attached to ventral surface of brain

Olfactory bulbs
Complex structures containing considerable amount of neural circuitry

Vagus nerve
(“wandering”)
Tenth cranial nerve that regulates functions of organs in the thoracic & abdominal cavities

Somatic nervous system
Part of PNS which receives sensory info from the sensory organs & controls movements of skeletal muscles

Autonomic nervous system
branch of PNS concerned with regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

Sympathetic division
expend energy

Parasympathetic division
store energy

The term “dorsum” means ________, while the term “ventrum” means
Back; Belly

_______ refers to structures that are found on opposite sides of the body
Contralateral

key function of the ______ is to provide physical protection for the brain.
skull

What is true of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle

Recent studies indicate that neurogenesis in the ________ is suppressed by ________
hippocampus; stress

The human cerebral cortex has a grayish-brown appearance because
the cortex contains many neuron cell bodies

What would be expected as a result of damage to the somatosensory association cortex?
difficulty in naming an object the person can touch (but not see)

What would be expected as a result of damage to the visual association cortex?
problems in recognizing an object by sight

Damage to portions of the limbic cortex would be expected to alter
Emotion

CHAPTER 4
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

PsychopharmacologY
Study of effects of drugs on nervous system and on behavior

Drug effect
Changes drug produces in animal’s physiological processes and behavior

Site of action
Location at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located on or in cells of body, affecting some biochemical processes of these cells

Pharmacokinetics
Process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed w/in the body, metabolized, & excreted

Intravenous (IV) injection
Injection of a substance directly into a vein

Intraperitoneal (IP) injectionl
Injection of a substance into the peritoneal cavity—the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver, and other abdominal organs

Intramuscular (IM) injection
Injection of substance into a muscle

Subcutaneous (SC) injection
Injection of a substance into the space beneath the skin

Oral administration
Administration of a substance into the mouth, so that it is swallowed

Sublingual administration
Administration of a substance by placing it beneath the tongue

Intrarectal administration
Administration of substance into rectum n

Inhalation
Administration of vaporous substance into lungs

Topical administration
Administration of substance directly onto skin or mucous membrane

Intracerebral administration
Administration of substance directly into brain

Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration
Administration of substance into one of cerebral ventricles

active role in enzymatic deactivation of drugs
liver

Dose-response curve
Graph of magnitude of an effect of drug as function of amount of drug administered

Tolerance
Decrease in effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly

Sensitization
Increase in effectiveness of drug that is administered repeatedly

Withdrawal Symptoms
Appearance of symptoms opposite to those produced by drug when drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken

Antagonist
Drug that opposes or inhibits effects of particular neurotransmitter on postsynaptic cell

Agonist
Drug that facilitates effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell

Receptor blocker
Drug that binds with receptor but does not activate it; prevents natural ligand from binding with receptor

General effects of neurotransmitters on postsynaptic membranes
Depolarization (EPSP) Hyperpolarization (IPSP)

Acetylcholine
Excretion of acetylcholine activates cerebral cortex and facilitates learning

Norepinephrine
Secretion of norepinephrine increases vigilance and enhances readiness to act when signal is detected

Three systems have received the most attention from neuroscientists:
basal forebrain
dorsolateral pons
medial septum

Medial Septum
electrical rhythms of hippocampus and modulate its functions

basal forebrain
activating cerebral cortex and facilitating learning, especially perceptual learning

dorsolateral pons
play role in REM sleep

monoamine
Dopamine
norepinephrine
epinephrine
serotonin

Dopamine (DA)
Neurotransmitter; one of catecholamines; very important neurotransmitter involved in learning, movement, attention, and reinforcement (pleasure)

L-DOPA
Often used to treat Parkinson’s disease because of its effect as dopamine agonist

Norepinephrine (NE)
Neurotransmitter found in brain and in sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system -Secretion of norepinephrine increases vigilance and enhances readiness to act when signal is detected

Epinephrine
Hormone secreted by adrenal medulla; serves as neurotransmitter in brain

Serotonin (5-HT)
Third monoamine neurotransmitter

Amino Acids
– Some neurons secrete simple amino acids as neurotransmitters
– at least eight amino acids may serve as neurotransmitters
– difficult to prove that a particular amino acid is a neurotransmitter

Glutamate
Amino acid; most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain

NMDA receptor
Specialized ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls calcium channel

PCP
Drug that binds with PCP binding site of NMDA receptor and serves as indirect antagonist

GABA
Anxiolytic; anxiety-reducing effect

Glycine
inhibitory neurotransmitter in spinal cord and lower portions of brain
– Removal of inhibitory effect of these synapses causes muscles to contract continuously

Strychnine
Direct antagonist for glycine receptor

Nucleosides
a compound that consists of a sugar molecule bound with a purine or pyrimidine base

Adenosine (
Nucleoside; a combination of ribose and adenine; serves as neuromodulator in brain

Caffeine
Drug that blocks adenosine receptors

Nitric oxide
Gas produced by cells in nervous system; used as means of communication between cells