Physio Midterm 1

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1) During an EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)
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A. SODIUM ENTERS THE CELL B. potassium enters the cell C. potassium leaves the cell D. chloride enters the cell
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2) During an IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
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A. sodium enters the cell B. potassium enters the cell C. POTASSIUM LEAVES THE CELL D. chloride enters the cell
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3) What ion plays the most essential role in releasing a transmitter into the synapse?
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A. chloride B. sodium C. glutamate D. CALCIUM
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4) Stimulating a receptor in the membrane that opens potassium channels
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A. CAUSES HYPERPOLARIZATION B. releases transmitter C. causes an action potential D. open calcium channels
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5) Large synaptic vesicles are produced in the ____ and are transported to the _____
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A. cytoplasm; dendrites B. SOMA; TERMINAL BUTTONS C. dendrites; synapse D. Nucleus; vesicles
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6) The first demonstration of neurotransmitter
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A) was shown by Sir Charles Sherrington in 1915 B) WAS SHOWN BY OTTO LOEWI USING FROG HEARTS C) was shown by electron microscopy D) was done using molecular biology techniques
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7) The contents of a synaptic vesicle include:
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A. NEUROTRANSMITTERS. B. structural proteins. C. DNA. D. all of the above.
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8) How is a neurotransmitter removed from the synaptic cleft?
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A. diffusion B. enzymatic degradation C. uptake by surrounding glial cells D. all of the above ? E. A AND B
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9) The catecholamines (NE,DA, and E) are synthesized from which amino acid?
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A. Leucine B. Valine C. Trypothan D. TYROSINE
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10) The cell bodies of neurons that release serotonin are located in the
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A. RAPHE B. Locus Coeruleus C. Nucleus of Meynert D. Ventral tegmental area
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11) Drugs of reward generally act to release ____ in the ____
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A. serotonin; cortex B. DOPAMINE;NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS C. norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex D. none of the above
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12) Cell bodies of neurons that release acetylcholine in the cortex are located in the
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A. Raphe B. Locus Coeruleus C. NUCLEUS BASALIS D. Ventral tegental area
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13) A neuron’s own transmitters, detected by its presynaptic autoreceptors,
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A. initiates changes in the local membrane potential B. open the gates of neurotransmitter dependent ion channels C. facilitates the synthesis of other transmitters D. INHIBITS THE RELEASE OR SYNTHESIS OF THAT TRANSMITTER
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14) Serotonin has been related to:
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A. DEPRESSION B. schizophrenia. C. Alzheimer’s disease. D. mania.
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15) A second messenger system can:
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A) alter ion flow through the membrane channels. B) cause a series of reactions that result in the formation of new membrane ion channels. C) initiate the production of new proteins. D) all of the above. E) A AND C.
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16) What is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord?
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GABA is the brain, Glycine is the spinal cord A) GABA B) glutamate C) GLYCINE D) histamine
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17) Repeated stimulation of neuron may cause:
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A. SENSITIZATION B. habituation. C. associative behaviors. D. both b and c. E. all of the above.
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18) The first demonstration that neurons communicated via chemical means was by
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A. Ramon Y Cajal B. Sir Charles Sherrington C. Francis Crick D. OTTO LOEWI E. None of the above
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19) Morphine inhibits pain awareness by
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A. inhibiting chloride release B. inhibiting calcium influx C. BLOCKING MAO ACTIONS d. causing depolarization
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20) Nitric oxide is involved in which drug action?
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C. VIAGRA
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21) Which of the following neurotransmitters are synthesized from the amino acid, tyrosine?
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A. Norepinephrine B. Dopamine C. Epinephrine D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
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22) _____ is the transmitter that slows heart rate and activates skeletal muscles.
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D. ACETYLCHOLINE
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23) ____ is a neurotransmitter is involved in memory.
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A. Norepinephrine B. GABA C. Dopamine D. ACETYLCHOLINE, PTT E. Serotonin
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** 24) Opioid peptides include which of the following?
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A. Enkephalins (not all of the above)
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25) Which mechanism related to the stimulation of an action potential doesn’t belong?
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A. Chloride channels open
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26) Which of the following drugs would likely cause the most damage with chronic, high use over many years?
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C. Alcohol (lecture)
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27) Cholinergic refers to which transmitter?
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A. Acetylcholine
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28) ________ refers to a reduced behavioral effect of a drug with repeated administration.
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C) Tolerance
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29) Which of the following is true of drug sensitization?
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C) Drug sensitization is less common than is drug tolerance D) Repeated drug administration may produce tolerance in one system and sensitization in another system. E) C AND D ARE CORRECT
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30) Serotonin is synthesized from ________ which is derived from ________.
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A.tyrosine; cheese or milk B.glutamate; oat brain C.tyramine; Guinness beer D.TRYPTOPHAN;INGESTED NUTRIENTS E.MAO; blood platelets
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31) Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced from
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A.butyric acid. B.glycine. C.GLUTAMIC ACID. D.polyamines. E.Lysergic acid.
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32) Administering a molecule that is a precursor for the synthesis of a synaptic neurotransmitter would be expected to
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A) alter the number of postsynaptic receptors. B) reduce the availability of that neurotransmitter. C) act as an antagonist at autoreceptors. D) INCREASE THE RATE OF SYNTHESIS AND RELEASE OF THAT NEUROTRANSMITTER. E) A and C are correct.
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33) Which of the following is true of opioid neurons?
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A) Naloxone is an example of an opioid receptor antagonist. B) Heroin is an example of an opioid receptor agonist. C) Opioids act to reduce pain. D) Opioids can induce euphoria and reward. E) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT.
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34) Nitric oxide
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A) is produced from the amino acid arginine. B) dilates blood vessels in metabolically active brain regions. C) acts as a messenger between neurons. D) stimulates changes in blood vessels that produce penile erections. E) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT. (pg 126)
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35) Anandamide…
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A. is a transmitter produced in the brain B. is the ligand for CB1 receptors C. was discovered in the early 1990s D. ALL OF THE ABOVE.
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36) Which of the following would be expected of CB1 receptors?
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A.These receptors are found in high levels within the brain stem. B.CB1 receptors control a chloride channel. C.CB1 receptors are postsynaptic. D.MEMORY IMPAIRMENT RESULTS FROM THE EFFECTS OF THC ON HIPPOCAMPAL CB1 RECEPTORS. E.The reinforcing action of opiates is blocked by a targeted mutation of CB1 receptors.
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37) Activation of cannabinoid receptors
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A) by THC reduces nausea and vomiting. B) results in analgesia. C) can be induced by ingestion of THC. D) stimulates appetite. E) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT.
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38) Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or that cause the release of serotonin are used therapeutically to treat
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A) anxiety. B) obsessive-compulsive disorder. C) depression. D) obesity E) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT.
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39) Which of the following is true of GABA in the brain?
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A) Drugs that antagonize GABA function reduce anxiety B) GABA has a general excitatory effect C) GABA is involved in Parkinson’s disease. D) The inhibitory effects of GABA act to stabilize the brain. E) AN EXCESS OF GABA MAY RESULT IN EPILEPSY.
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40) Dopamine release in the ____ occurs when a stimulus is rewarding.
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c) nucleus accumbens
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41) Cell bodies that synthesize serotonin are located in the ___, whereas those that synthesize norepinephrine are located in the ___.
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d) raphe, locus coeruleus
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42) Morphine actions at the opioid receptor cause which of the following
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b) inhibition of calcium influx
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43) Match the following
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a) alcohol – disrupts the organization the cell membrane b) amphetamine – releases D A into the synapse c) LSD – a serotonin agonist d) valium – increases influx of chloride e) ritalin – Inhibits D A reuptake (dopamine)
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44) Based on the discussion in class, which of the following drugs poses the largest health threat following chronic use for many years.
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b) alcohol
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45) Peak blood levels of cocaine were found to 100 nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml). Thirty minutes later, they were 75 ng/ml, 60 minutes later they were 62.5 ng/ml. and 120 minutes later they were 50 ng/ml. The half-life ___
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e) is 120 minutes
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46) The GABA-A receptor has separate and distinct sites on the receptor molecule that can bind which of the following
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c) valium and alcohol
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47) Excitotoxicity is mediated by overstimulation exerted by which neurotransmitter
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e) glutamate
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48) Chronic marijuana use in adolescents
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c) can cause long-term with attention and memory after drug use stops
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49) Which of the following is/are monoamines?
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A. Serotonin B. Dopamine C. Norepinephrine D. ALL OF THE ABOVE.
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50) which of the following never changes with regard to action potential.
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a) hyperpolarization b) THRESHOLD p.44 c) resting potential d) depolarization e) none of the above p.49
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51) ___ refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior
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e) Psychopharmacology I believe that this is is NEUROPHARMACOLOGY…(neuro mean nerves, that will affect nervous system) yes Neuropharmacology is the correct answer
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52) A key characteristic of a drug as defined in the text, is that it
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e) is an exogenous chemical
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53) ___ refers to the process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and the excreted from the body
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b) pharmacokinetics
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54) the _____ route is the fastest way for a drug to reach the brain
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c) intravenous
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55) the ___ route of drug administration is commonly used for small laboratory animals such as the rat.
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a) intraperitoneal
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56) The ____ route of drug administration has the advantage of bypassing the blood-brain barrier
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e) intracerebroventricular
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57) an altercation of the physical properties of a drug that ___ would be expected to slow the onset of action of that drug.
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a) increased lipid solubility b) decreased water solubility c) decreased metabolism of the drug via the liver d) increased depot binding of the drug in blood, bone, and fat e) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT.
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58) the ___ is a measure of the safety of a drug.
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c) therapeutic index
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59) ___ refers to the capacity of a drug molecule to bind to a key site of action
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d) affinity
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60) which of the following is true of the therapeutic index?
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b) more caution is required for a drug with a low therapeutic index
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61) one mechanism for the tolerance produced by repeated drug administration is
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d) a reduced number of receptors for the drug
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62) A(n) ____ is a drug that blocks or inhibits postsynaptic receptor effects
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d) antagonist
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63) activation of a presynaptic autoreceptor on dendrites can produce a hyperpolarization that
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a) releases more transmitter
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64) a drug that blocks a presynaptic autoreceptor will most likely
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d) increases the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal
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65) the two most commonly used synaptic neurotransmitters in the brain are
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c) glutamate; GABA
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66) Which of the following is true of acetylcholine (ACh)?
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a) ACh was the first transmitter to be identified within the body b) ACh controls muscle movements c) ACh is released at the neuromuscular junction d) ACh is involved in the autonomic nervous system e) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT.
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67) a drug that blocks acetylcholinesterase in brain would be expected to
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c) increase the synaptic levels of acetylcholine
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68) an ionotropic receptor produces a postsynaptic potential that is
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d) rapid and short in duration
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69) the amino acid ___ is the synthesis precursor for dopamine and norepinephrine
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a) tyrosine
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70) degeneration of neurons within the ___ dopamine system leads to Parkinson’s disease
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a) nigrostriatal
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71) abnormal brain levels of dopamine are associated with
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b) schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease
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72) Which of the pairs belong together?
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a) epinephrine and adrenaline c) noradrenaline and norepinephrine e) A and C are correct
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73) one of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
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d) experimental ablation
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74) Which of the following represents a problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior?
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b) the lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure, which in turn alters behavior
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75) infusion of ___ into brain will destroy cell bodies through the process of overstimulation.
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e) kainic acid
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76) imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio-frequency lesion was used to damage the lateral hypothalamus of a rat, which suggested that cells within this region initiate feeding. If a subsequent study failed to observe a change in feeding after injection of kainic acid into the lateral hypothalamus, what conclusions would be appropriate?
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b) the changes in eating noted in the first study are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus
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77) molecular biologists have tagged toxins to specific ____ that is turn will kill specific types of neurons.
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d) antibodies
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78) A(n) ____ allows an experimenter to determine whether a lesion in a rat brain produced a specific behavioral effect
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a) sham-lesion control group
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79) ____ is a common landmark or reference point used for stereotaxic surgery
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c) Bregma
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80) which of the following is an advantage of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique?
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e) the fMRI scan has a higher resolution to the PET scan
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81) the surgical instrument used to implant an electrode or cannula into the brain is termed a
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a) stereotaxic apparatus
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82) the three numbers listen on a page of a stereotaxic atlas describe
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a) anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medal-lateral coordinates
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83) ____ is considered to be a histological method
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a) fixing the brain b) visual examination of a stained section c) cutting the brain d) staining the brain e) ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
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84) the _____ instrument is used to slice the brain into thin pieces for later examination
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a) microtome
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85) of the structures in the following list, cresyl violet stains ____ most intensely
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d) cell bodies
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86) the RNA, DNA, and associated proteins in cell bodies are collectively referred to as
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c) nissl substance wrong-thats the dye that detects them
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87) which of the following structures can be visualized with the light microscope
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a) nucleus
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88) the functional magnetic resonance imagine (fMRI) technique measures change in ___ to image brain metabolic activity
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c) blood oxygen level
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89) which term below means \”moving forward\”?
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d) anterograde
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90) the ____ technique would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region
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d) anterograde labeling method
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91) the key use of PHA-L, a lectin made by kidney beans in neuroscience is to
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d) label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport
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92) which of these does not rely on destruction of brain tissue to be effective?
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c) aspiration d) COOLING
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93) the ____ labeling method uses chemical that are taken up by dendrites and then transported through axons toward terminal buttons
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c) anterograde
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94) imagine that prior research has suggested that neurons form the pareventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to control eating behavior. To confirm this suggestion, your next step might be inject PHA-L into the ____ and confirm its transport to the _____.
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a) PVN, vagal neurons that control chewing e) PVN; PFC* THIS ONE
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95) the chemical ___ can be used to trace the paths of afferent axons
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d) fluorogold
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96) the usefulness of pseudorabies virus for histological analyses is
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a) for the tracing of serial synaptic connections
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97) of these techniques for visualizing living human brain, the first developed was
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a) computerized tomography
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98) the technique of ___ takes advantage of the fact that ___ can alter voltage gated channels in neurons
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c) photostimulation; light
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99) the _____ technique is used to visualize axon bundles in living human brain
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b) diffusor tension imaging
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100) the ___ procedure used magnetic waves to alter brain neural activity
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e) transcranial magnetic stimulation
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101) peptides or proteins can be localized in the brain using
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a) immunocytochemistry
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102) microdialysis is not done in humans for research purposed owing to
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d) ethical problems because the procedure is invasive
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103) the ____ method uses a radioactive DNA probe bound to complementary RNA to localize neurochemicals in brain
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b) autoradiography
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104) Which of the following techniques are not used to detect receptors in brain?
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a) insituhybridization
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105) twins that share a particular trait are ______ for the trait
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a) concordant
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106) which of the following is strong evidence for an environmental contribution to a behavior?
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d) adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait
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107) in the ____ technique, a modified strand of RNA and DNA binds with the specific molecules of mRNA, therby preventing the protein encoded by the mRNA form being produced
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d) antisense oligonucleotide

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