# Physical Geography – Exam 1: Chapters 1-6 – Flashcards

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Holistic
all forms of geography
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Spatial
anything that can be mapped
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Equilibrium
balance, the Earth's ultimate goal
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Oblate Spheroid
the true shape of the Earth = poles are flattened and it bulges in the center
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Plane of the Ecliptic
orbital plane the Earth is on while revolving around the sun (an imaginary line)
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Axial tilt
23.5 degrees from the perpendicular line relative to the Plane of the Ecliptic
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Polarity
North Pole points toward the North Star
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Rotational Axis
line from North to South pole
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Latitude
measures the distance to the North and South of the equator (marks bulge)
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Longitude
measures the distance to the East and West of the Prime Meridian
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important grid properties
1) they converge at the poles 2) the distance between the lines becomes greater in latitude and smaller in longitude, the higher and lower you go on the globe.
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Projection
process for transferring the Earth's 3D date to a 2D surface.
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Developable Surface
surface that the data is projected onto
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Standard Parallel
line of latitude where the developable surface touches the globe
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Projection Distortion
Impossible to make an undistorted image, shape or area will always be distorted.
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Conformal Projection
land area is distorted but shape of coastline is preserved
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Equal Area Projection
shape of coastlines is distorted, but area is preserved.
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Compromise Projection
both shape and area are distorted, but the purpose is to minimize the distortion of the other two maps.
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What are the 2 types of maps and what are they?
1) reference maps = exact replica of what is on the Earth's surface. 2) thematic maps = snow data or a phenomenon: land use, rainfall, etc.
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SHORT ANSWER QUESTION #1: What are the essential components of a map and what are they used for?
Title = what am i looking at and what is it's purpose Date = when was it made, how current is the information Legend = tells me what the symbols/colors mean Direction = north arrow or compass rose helps me orient myself Location = absolute: where I am on the geographic grid relative: where I am relative to other physical and cultural features. Date Source: tells me where the data from the map came from so I can decide if it's credible Projection: I need to know this so that I can correctly use this map Scale: How I can calculate distance using this map
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Fraction / Graph / Verbal
What types of map scales are there?
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What types of maps are there and what are they typically?
Large scale maps show a small geographical area with more detail (city, mall, school maps) Small scale maps show a large geographical area with little details (wall maps for homes/classrooms; rainfall maps, etc)
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Insolation
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short rays = energy
What kind of rays does the Earth receive?
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long waves = temperature
What kind of waves does the Earth emit?
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Earth's rotation
every 24 hours and 15 degrees of longitude per hour
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Earth's revolution
revolves in an elliptical shape. The further away the Earth is from the Sun.
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Circle of Illumination
line that divides the dark and light hemispheres of the Earth
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Arctic Circle
66.5 degrees N
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Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees N
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Equator
0 degrees latitude
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Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees S
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Antarctic Circle
66.5 degrees S
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North Pole
90 degrees N
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What is the significance of the Earth's tilt and rotation?
The Earth's tilt and rotation determines what season it is in different parts of the world at any given time. It determines the time of day and whether or not there will be daylight at all.
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Spring or autumn Equinox
The time of year when direct rays are striking the Equator and the Circle of Illumination passes thru the poles giving equal days and equal nights.
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Summer Solstice (June Solstice)
The time of year when direct rays are striking the Tropic of Cancer The area north of the Arctic Circle does not cross the Circle of Illumination and the North Pole is tilted toward the Sun therefore they get 24 hours of Sun. In the area south of the Antarctic Circle, they will not cross the Circle of Illumination because the South Pole is tilted away from the Sun, therefore having 24 hours of darkness.
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Winter Solstice (December Solstice)
The time of year when direct rays are striking the Tropic of Capricorn The area north of the Arctic Circle does not cross the Circle of Illumination and the North Pole is tilted away from the Sun therefore they get 24 hours of darkness. In the area south of the Antarctic Circle, they will not cross the Circle of Illumination because the South Pole is tilted toward the Sun, therefore having 24 hours of Sun.
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types of sun rays that hit the Earth
Direct Rays: strike the Earth's surface at a 90 degree angle. Energy is concentrated over a small geographical area. Oblique Rays: strike at less than 90 degrees so the energy is spread over a larger surface area.
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difference between Aphelion and Perihelion
Aphelion is the farthest distance the Earth is from the Sun. Perihelion is the shortest distance the Earth is from the Sun.
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role of albedo variation in Earth's energy budget
albedo helps the Earth try to maintain equilibrium. Our albedo is about 30%, our atmosphere reflects 30% of the suns rays. About 50% of the energy absorption happens in the atmosphere and 50% from the surface of the Earth to the beginning of the atmosphere. About 5% of the energy is conducted back into the atmosphere from the Earth's surface.
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significance of latent heat energy
latent heat is any phase change that involves an exchange of energy. In evaporation, latent energy is stored, a cooling process, and condensation latent heat is released, a warming process.
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relationship between pressure, altitude & temperature
The lower the pressure & the lower the altitude and generally, warmer air. Since air flows from high to low down the pressure gradient, when you get to a higher altitude the pressure is higher and the temperature is lower.
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relationship between shortwave and longwave radiation and what is their relation to energy
the sun is our only significant source of energy to supply our atmospheric processes. shortwave or solar radiation is visible light coming into the earth. longwave is thermal radiation emitted by the earth causing our temperature. they are both ultimately derived from the sun's radiation.
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troposphere
the lowest layer of the atmosphere: the one in contact with the Earth's surface and turbulent.
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stratosphere
roughly 10 miles above sea level to 30 miles and stagnant.
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conduction
transfer of heat from one molecule to another without changes in their relative positions
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convection
energy is transferred from one point to another by the predominantly vertical circulation of fluid such as air or water.
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scattering