Photographic Process

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Announced in 1839 by inventor Louis Daguerre. Sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, often kept in protective cases. Although early photos required exposures of several minutes to an hour, advances in the process quickly reduced exposure times. Popular during the 1840s and the 1850s, especially for portrait photography. They were replaced by less-expensive and more easily viewed ambrotypes and tintypes, as well as by the improved negative-positive techniques of collodion on glass negatives and albumen prints.
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Daguerreotypes
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The earliest photographic prints on paper. They are often distinguished by their lack of precise image details and matte surface. Embedded in the fibers of the paper, instead of being suspended on the surface of the paper, as in the later albumen prints and gelatin silver prints. \”Printed-out\” in contact with paper negatives; the image was formed solely by the action of light on metal salts, without chemical developers. The printing-out process required long exposure times for producing a positive print. The process for making these photos was developed by William Henry Fox Talbot in the 1830s, and these photos were common until the mid-1850s, when they were eclipsed in popularity by albumen prints.
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Salted Paper Prints
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Created in 1941by William Henry Fox Talbot. Process is the prototype for modern photography. A paper negative exposed in the camera while still damp following the application of solutions using salt and silver nitrate to form a light sensitive emulsion. After exposure, the negative, with its latent image, is developed fixed and washed. It is used to produce multiple prints. these negatives were largely replaced by collodion on glass negatives in the mid-1850s.
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Calotype (Talbottype)
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Created in 1951 by Frederick Scott Archer. A collodion negative is made by coating glass plates with collodion, a sticky substance to which light-sensitive silver salts can adhere. The sensitized plates are exposed in a camera while still damp, then developed shortly afterward in chemical baths. This process required photographers to carry all of their chemicals and equipment with them in the field. Collodion on glass negatives, the dominant type of negative for much of the 19th century, are noted for greater image detail and shorter exposure times than calotype negatives.
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Collodion and Wet Collodion
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sharply detailed, one-of-a-kind photographs on glass, packaged in protective cases similar to those used for daguerreotypes. It is a collodion on glass negative that is intentionally underexposed so that the negative image appears as a positive image when viewed against a dark background. The popularity of ambrotypes was short-lived after its introduction in 1854 and the process was soon displaced by the growing popularity of the negative-positive process of collodion on glass negatives and albumen prints.
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Ambrotype
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a non-reflective, one-of-a-kind photograph on a sheet of iron coated with a dark enamel. Its most common use was for portrait photography. Like ambrotypes, it relies on the principle that underexposed collodion negatives appear as positive images when viewed against a dark background. Less expensive and more durable than ambrotypes or daguerreotypes , it did not require protective cases and were often kept in simple paper frames or folders. These photos first appeared in the United States in 1856, and remained popular well into the 20th century.
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Tintype
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became popular in the early 1860s, and remained the most common form of photograph until the turn of the century. They are usually brown or sepia in color, with a shiny surface. The process involves coating a sheet of paper with albumen (egg white) and sensitizing the paper with a solution of silver nitrate then exposing it in contact with a negative, generally a collodion on glass negative. these prints replaced salted paper prints as the dominant type of photograph. They were replaced by gelatin silver prints in the 1890s.
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Albumen print
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CC’s are larger (approximately 6 ¼ x 2 ½ inches) and later version of the C-D-V (about 4 ½ x 2 ½) inches. Both are photographic portraits mounted on simply or ornately decorated cardstock. The majority of the millions produced are albumen prints. CC’s are usually studio portraits, and CC’s of celebrities, a favorite subject, were widely collected in the last quarter of the 19th century
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Carte-De-Visite and Cabinet Card
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Process most widely used in the darkroom today. Silver salts suspended in gelatin form the light sensitive element of the paper. We made these photos when we did photograms and pinholes. Gelatin silver printing was the dominant photographic process from introduction in the 1880s until the 1960s when it was eclipsed by consumer color photography. The gelatin silver or black-and-white print was the primary form of visual documentation in the 20th century.
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Silver Prints
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Created in 1939 by William Henry Fox Talbot. created by setting objects on light sensitive paper that is exposed to controlled light. Produces a dark background with white silhouettes of the objects placed on the paper.
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Photogram

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