Philosophy: Chapter 7, The study of ethics

Ethics
Moral philosophy and moral value. A branch of axiology.
Connected to religion and a belief in a God.
Existentialism
20th century philosophy by Jean Paul Sartre, supported by Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Existence precedes essence, no human nature precedes our presence.
Feminism
Sociopolitical theory defending women’s dignity and rights.
Egoism
A belief that the right thing to do is whatever is in your best interest.
Ayn Rand
Moral egoist, believed that every act is out of self interest. Pleasure is the guide to behavior.
Hedonism
Motivational belief that all acts are pleasure or ought to be pleasure.
Held a strict nonconsequentionalist view of ethics
Immanuel Kant
Categorial imperative
Act only as if your actions were universal law, no exception.
Contractualism
Morality by agreement.
Virtue Ethics
Pursue positive virtues, such as kindness-and shun vices, such as greed.
Utillitariasm
Moral and social philosophy of Jerry Bentham and John Mill. The greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.
Metaethics
an analysis of the meaning and logic of ethics, and moral argumentation.
Psychological egoism
Every act is motivated by self.
Moral Egoism
Every act ‘ought’ to be motivated by self.
T. M. Scanlon
contemporary contractualist philosopher, believed actions were motivated by reason.
Principle of Falsifiability
Refutation of scientific theories.
Foundation for Metaphysics of Morals
title of book by Immmanuael Kant presenting duty oriented morality.
Moral realism
Moral judgements are based on moral facts, with no room for subjective, preference or projections of the mind.
Philosophy of Aristotle
Virtue ethics.
Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher associated with the theory of psychological egoism.
What ethical philosophy is tied to Plato?
Egoism, being moral is doing what is in your best interest.
What are the 1st and 3rd formulations of categorial imperative.
1st-Act as if your action were to become a universal law.
3rd-Treat others as you would want to be treated.
Altruism
selflessness, the unselfish concern for the welfare of others.
Ethics must be logical, motivated by reason and good will.
Kant’s philosophical ethics.
Consequentialism
A concept in Kant’s philosophy, the moral worth of an act depends on it’s consequences.