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PHIL 284 (Exam 2) Abortion, Genetic Choices, Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)

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c. Viability
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The development stage at approximately 23 to 24 weeks of pregnancy when the fetus may survive outside the uterus is known as a. Quickening b. Gestation c. Viability d. Implantation
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d. The Fourteenth Amendment
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In Roe v. Wade, the Court saw a guaranteed right of personal privacy in a. Ancient Law b. The Bible c. Current Statutes d. The Fourteenth Amendment
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b. The unborn is an innocent person form the moment of conception
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A key premise in many arguments against abortion is that a. The unborn is not present b. The unborn is an innocent person from the moment of conception c. Having DNA does not automatically make one a person d. The unborn becomes a person at birth
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c. Has none of these traits
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Mary Anne Warren identifies five traits that are “most central” to personhood and declares that a fetus a. Must be a person b. Must be a potential person c. Has none of these traits d. Has most of these traits
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c. Rarely permissible
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Abortion liberals contend that even if infants are not persons, infanticide is a. Always permissible b. Unthinkable c. Rarely permissible d. Encouraged
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a. True
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Almost half of all pregnancies are unintended. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Judith Jarvis Thomson argues that even if the unborn is a person from the moment of conception, abortion may still be morally justified. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Some reject Thomson’s argument by contending that it holds only if the woman bears no responsibility for her predicament. a. True b. False
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b. False
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The natural law position on abortion as articulated in Roman Catholicism is that the fetus is an innocent person from the moment of viability. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Some people opposed to abortion argue that the fetus is a potential person and thus has the same right to life as any existing person. a. True b. False
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b. False
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The Hebrew and Christian scriptures denounce abortion. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Almost everyone believes that therapeutic abortion is impermissible. a. True b. False
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a. True
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In Roe v. Wade, the Court balanced the woman’s right and state interests according to trimester of pregnancy. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Both liberals and conservatives on the abortion issue agree that murder is wrong and that persons have a right to life. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Most Western industrialized countries have lower abortion rates than the United States does. a. True b. False
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c. One death per 1 million abortions
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The risk of death associated with abortion performed at eight weeks or earlier is _______. a. One death in 100 abortions b. One death per 11,000 abortions c. One death per 1 million abortions d. One death in 3,000 abortions
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d. Cognitively impaired individuals are not persons
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Conservatives on the abortion issue charge that liberals’ standards for personhood imply that a. Cognitively impaired individuals are persons b. Infanticide is never morally permissible c. Some infants are persons d. Cognitively impaired individuals are not persons
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c. Unjustly killing a fetus is always wrong
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Judith Jarvis Thomson argues that a. Killing a fetus is always wrong b. The unborn’s right to life is absolute c. Unjustly killing a fetus is always wrong d. Killing a fetus is always permissible
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b. The doctrine of double effect
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The Roman Catholic position on abortion incorporates a. A prohibition against indirect killing of the unborn b. The doctrine of double effect c. The doctrine of practical utility d. An endorsement of therapeutic abortion
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a. Rare
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Late-term abortions are a. Rare b. Commonplace c. Uncontroversial d. Impossible
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c. People with disabilities
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A common charge against genetic testing to prevent birth impairments is that it amounts to disrespect or discrimination against a. People without genetic impairments b. Older people c. People with disabilities d. Minorities
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d. Genetic discrimination
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The use of genetic information by employers, insurance companies, and others to discriminate against or stigmatize people is known as a. Genetic testing b. Genetic control c. Unauthorized testing d. Genetic discrimination
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b. Not feasible
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Gene therapy in germ-line cells is currently a. Routine b. Not feasible c. Low risk d. Widely accepted
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c. Eugenics
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The deliberate attempt to improve the genetic makeup of humans by manipulating reproduction is known as a. Germ-line therapy b. Somatic cell therapy c. Eugenics d. Gene activation
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c. Blastocysts
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Most of the moral controversy over embryonic stem cells has focused on their source, which is mainly a. Adult stem cells b. Umbilical cords c. Blastocysts d. Bone marrow
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b. False
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Many gene therapies have been approved for routine use. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Physicians have debated whether they should reveal to a patient the results of a genetic test showing that he or she is at high risk for an unpreventable, untreatable disease. a. True b. False
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a. True
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The core question in public disputes about embryonic stem cells is whether it is morally permissible to destroy human embryos in a search for cures. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Genetic testing is now available for over 1,000 diseases. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Genetic tests almost always yield definitive answers. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Even when genetic tests correctly predict a genetic disorder, they usually cannot foretell how severe its symptoms will be or when they will appear. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Direct-to-consumer genetic tests are reliable, useful, and safe. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Many symptomless people at risk for Huntington’s disease decide not to be tested. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Genetic discrimination is prohibited by law. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Some bioethicists have insisted that discrimination or disrespect for persons is not entailed by genetic testing. a. True b. False
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b. Eugenics
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Some argue that gene therapy should not be permitted because it amounts to a. Abortion b. Eugenics c. Genetic repair d. Treatment of disease
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a. Permissible or obligatory
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Negative eugenics is widely regarded as a. Permissible or obligatory b. Impermissible c. Impossible d. Prohibited
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c. Immoral
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Those who believe that embryos have the moral status of persons are likely to view embryonic stem cell research as a. Moral b. Morally ambiguous c. Immoral d. Amoral
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b. Morally acceptable
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Those who believe that early embryos have less than full moral status but are still deserving of some respect usually regard embryonic stem cell research as a. Morally impermissible b. Morally acceptable c. Harmful d. Permissible without limits
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c. Common
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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a. Inexpensive b. Dangerous c. Common d. Not yet feasible
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c. Active
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Performing an action that directly causes someone to die—what most people think of as “mercy killing”—is called a. Passive euthanasia b. Voluntary euthanasia c. Active euthanasia d. Involuntary euthanasia
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d. Legal
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Passive euthanasia (both voluntary and nonvoluntary) is a. Unlawful b. Denounced by the medical profession c. Legally equivalent to physician-assisted suicide d. Legal
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b. The whole brain view
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The definition of death that has become the standard in legal and medical matters is called a. The higher brain theory b. The whole brain view c. The traditional view d. The mind-body theory
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c. The principle of autonomy
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The strongest argument offered to support active voluntary euthanasia is derived from a. The principle of justice b. Theological considerations c. The principle of autonomy d. Paternalism
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c. Killing and letting die
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Those who oppose euthanasia often draw a sharp distinction between a. Autonomy and paternalism b. Beneficence and nonmaleficence c. Killing and letting die d. Mercy and negligence
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a. True
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The American Medical Association has denounced physician-assisted suicide as unethical and inconsistent with physicians’ duty to promote healing and preserve life. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Some argue against active voluntary euthanasia by advancing a distinction between intending someone’s death and not intending but foreseeing it. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Slippery slope arguments are seldom used in debates about euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. a. True b. False
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a. True
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Some argue that there is no morally significant difference between mercifully killing a patient and mercifully letting the patient die. a. True b. False
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a. True
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There is considerable agreement about the moral rightness of allowing a patient to die. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Doctors are unanimous in their rejection of physician-assisted suicide. a. True b. False
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a. True
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James Rachels argues that there is no morally significant difference between killing and letting die. a. True b. False
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b. False
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Most agree that the distinction between intending someone’s death and not intending but foreseeing can always be clearly drawn. a. True b. False
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d. May not be a harm
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Some argue that directly intending a patient’s death may be permissible because, to the patient, death a. May be a great harm b. May be what the family wishes c. May release physicians from responsibility d. May not be a harm
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a. Scant
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Scientific research on whether policies permitting euthanasia or assisted suicide lead to unjustified killing is a. Scant b. Definitive c. Sufficient d. Abundant
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d. A preference utilitarian
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Peter Singer views the issue of euthanasia as a. A classic utilitarian b. A natural law theorist c. A Kantian d. A preference utilitarian
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b. Does not compel others
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Proponents of active voluntary euthanasia believe that the right to die a. Compels others to help someone die b. Does not compel others c. Justifies involuntary euthanasia d. Applies only to the nonreligious
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c. The right of patients to refuse treatment
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In the Cruzan case, the Supreme Court recognized a. The right of patients to commit suicide with assistance b. The constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide c. The right of patients to refuse treatment d. The right of active euthanasia